Over its history, the Congolese Higher and University Education has gone through several phases of reform. Despite this, the crisis in which the higher and university education sector is stuck continues to threaten dangerously the future of the nation because of a new fact and little known to the general public, the politicization of public universities of countryside and the instrumentalization of justice in an attempt to prevent the heads of establishments from fully playing their police role of the institution. Ultimately, excellence gave way to mediocrity, the ESU becoming a real place of the upper mafia, with as a consequence the distortion of the Congolese youth by so called professors without any doctoral degree of which the thesis was defended publicly and obtained legally. Faced with these “new plagues”, the challenges to be met are tremendous. Thus, the current study poses the diagnosis and retraces the path to be followed by a member of the scientific and academic staff respectively, within a normative and regulatory framework of Higher and University Education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On the other side, we show how some politicians got involved in the academic management of the University of Gbado-Lite (considered here as a model system) to make it a private asset at the expense of quality assurance. Thus, the use of the "Congolese diaspora" in order to strengthen research and teaching capacities of our universities has given rise to organized and maintained cheating on a large scale.
The artemisin based-therapeutic combinations (ATC) are an approach developed to solve the malaria parasite chemo-resistance problem in endemic area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors associated to the weak proportion of children under the age of 5 years treated with the ATC against malaria. The data collected on a sampling of 9177 treated children in 13 health centers in Gbado-Lite city in 2014 have been analyzed with the help of Epi-info software package (version 3.5.4). The number of children treated with the ATC is weak (58.9%) in spite of the availability in ATC (87.7%). The socio-demographic factors and the life styles of the ATC prescribers are not associated to the weak proportion of the children treated with ATC (p>0.5). Nevertheless, a strong non-significant association is observed with alcohol consumption by the prescribers of ATC (p>0.72). A weak non-significant association is noted in male (p=0.52) and with the seniority of the prescribers (p=0.71). The factors like age, marital status, monthly income, study level, lodging and consumption of tobacco are not associated with the weak proportion of children treated with ATC. The influence of the number of staffs working in the health centers on the proportion of children treated with ATC is variable according to the considered structures of health. It is therefore desirable to develop advantage of the strategies for a rational prescription in order to guarantee a better malaria treatment in children at Gbado-Lite city.
The extradition is an international procedure, instituted on basis of a convention or an international agreement, by which a sovereign State called required State, accepts to deliver an individual being on its territory to another State or to an international repressive jurisdiction, applicant, to the ends of judiciary pursuits (judgment or execution of the pain). The extradition is a judiciary collaborative mechanism between the States to fight the cross-border criminality. It is demonstrated through the present study that the Congolese right doesn't ignore this mechanism because there are international or national legal rules on this matter exists. Of the exam of the legal instruments, it is demonstrated that the extradition in Congolese right obeys, like in other modern States, to the conditions of bottom and shape of which the non-observance would drive to the dismissal of the extradition demand. It was shown in this study that the extradition is of the Government's expertise that has the last decision, which decision escapes completely the jurisdictional control even the administrative one. However, none would ignore the intervention of the Congolese judge on the subject, which intervention appears by the exequatur of the judicial pieces that comes with the demand of extradition and possibly by the arrest of the person needed. Besides, the politicization of the Congolese judicial system does not permit other States to extradite toward the DRC in spite of demands formulated in good and due procedure. To allow the institution Extradition to assure its role fully, it is clear that the DR Congo proceeds to the reform of its extradition related to right while straightening its political and judiciary system on the one hand and while concluding conventions of extradition on the other hand in the under sub-regional and regional settings.
The Convention of the United Nations relative to the child's rights is the international legal Setting of reference for all question of the childhood. The Democratic Republic of Congo as having left taking since a lot of years, had to get in order taking its content in this legislation. This obligation has been executed with the advent of the law no 09/001 of January 10, 2009 carrying protection of the child. This legal setting had foreseen to put on foot of the judicial and administrative structures to attend this category of no one once it puts the act that the law qualifies default because its vulnerability imposes to reserve him a particular treatment. But practically, the applicability comes up against an unspeakable cacophony. On the one hand, in other cities and territories of the country, one simply notes the absence of these structures and on the other hand, it is a heterogeneous mixture between the jurisdictions of common right and jurisdiction for miners, procedure of common right and special procedure for miners. All these difficulties make that these miners don't benefit from an aid that the international and national texts reserve to them.
In order to better constrain the utility of multispectral datasets in the characterization of surface materials, Landsat 8 data were evaluated in the discrimination of geological classes in KISANTU and its vicinity. Ground-based measurements collected from the study area highlight the importance of limestone in that area. The spatial distribution of exposed lithologies in the study area was determined through an image resulting from a band ratio (band 7/band 6) that shows the distribution of clays coming from the alteration of the rocks below; and another image using a band ratio transform (band 6/band 7) to identify limestone. Despite some shortcomings coming from the unsupervised classification, the merging of band ratio and the principal component analyze gives an overall representation of the spatial distribution of exposed geological materials in the study area.
The bioaccumulation of four heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803), Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus, 1758) and Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger, 1897) fluently fished and sold in Kingabwa district (Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo). At first, the results of physico-chemical analysis of water of inspected sites (2) revealed that the values of pH and temperature are in the standards as recommended by WHO and FAO, while the conductivity as well as the dissolved total solids in inspected sites are very weak.. Yet, the two sites are polluted by heavy metals. Secondly, the dosage of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that all tested fish are polluted. However, the Cadmium has not been detected in the muscles of three fish: Clarias gariepinus, Coptodon rendalli and Mormyrops anguloides. Meanwhile, Coptodon rendalli species didn't reveal any presence of Lead in its muscles. The results obtained show that the consumption of these fish can represent a health risk for the exposed populations notably fishers and their family who consume these fish at least once per day. Thus, by formulating the hypothesis that the fisher or his family is the more exposed and while increasing the quantity of fish for example from 0.025 kg/j to 0.5 kg/j, we can note that the coefficient of danger is superior to 1 for the cadmium and then the danger becomes apparent. It is therefore desirable that the Democratic Republic of the Congo authorities can develop a better policy for the management of the interior waters in order to avoid possible health problems linked to the pollutions of these waters.
Oil blocks have been delimited by parallels and meridians squares since years up to now in DRC. This technics is not suitable and common, that is why in order to better limit the different oil blocks in the West-Congolian sedimentary basin, we used the Lansat 8 data to bring out lineaments which help to set geological structural model. Lineaments probably coming from tectonic movements have been identified throughout the surface of lithological units in the West-Congolian basin. The principal component analysis, the band ratio and some filterings helped to get more details about that. Data coming from existing maps combined with groundtruth data have been compared to teleanalytic data.
Study of diameter structure of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub species has been undertaken in Yoko Forest Reserve and Biaro Forest into two permanent dispositive of 400 ha each one. This work has objectives based on density distribution by diameter class and pedological parameters in the two selected sites. All stems of dbh ≥ 10 cm of the studied species have been inventoried, measured through 40 bands of 10 ha each one and soil samples were also collected in the two sites. 1051 trees were indexed with 663 inventoried in Biaro forest. This one present a good reconstitution of stems species for having many individuals into inferior diameters classes. The results of the pedological analyses showed that the two sites have an acid soil.
This study conducted as part of the reforestation mechanism aimed to determine deforestation engines and social and environmental impacts in the vicinity of the city of Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo, while proposing solution strategies. The method of purposive sampling surveys and participatory research method action (PRMA) and the documentary method were applied to the data collection. The ranking technique in the focus group, observation and interviewing techniques have helped us get the required information in this fact. For data analysis, we used the Excel program to statistical inference for other quantitative analyzes. In this investigation, we selected the following : - Population growth and deforestation resulting impact on the activities and available resources ; - Each village has its realities on alternative activities, but the burning up system of field in agriculture remains the peasant activity and the main driver of deforestation in the hinterland of the city of Kisangani. Perceptions of different problems from one area to another; - Options (strategies) for the development should be developed in a participatory manner. The framing of the farmers in other income generating activities like breeding, small trade, etc., according to the site but also on the agricultural techniques with reduced environmental impact such as the rotation of crops with leguminous plants, the use of the improved varieties and the agro-forestry would permit to decrease the human pressure on the environment.
The present study is based on the structural analysis of the diameters of the three species: Musanga cecropioides R.BR, (Parasolier), Prioria balsamifera (Vermoesen) Breteler (Tola) and Prioria oxyphylla (Harms) Breteler (Tchitola) Illegal settlements by people living on the Yoko Forest Reserve. P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla do not have a good regeneration, M. secropioides to a trend towards a good generation but does not have individuals from class 9. The results show that M. cecropioides is declared non-vulnerable (94.5%) in Yoko while P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla are said to be vulnerable. This is explained by the low vulnerability index obtained for these two species, ie 30.9% and 26.7%.
A study on the adaptation of improved varieties of rice was carried out in ISEA Bokonzi experimental site in Kungu territory, Sud Ubangi province (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The main objective of the study was to evaluate the adaptation of these three improved varieties (IRAT 112, NERICA 7 and NERICA 4) in the territory of diffusing. The results showed no significant differences between them and all varieties were well adapted in the ecological conditions of the experimental site. However, in the harvest, NERICA 7 revealed a great yield of rice in husk.
Onchocerciasis affects 20 to 30 million people worldwide, 95% of them in live Africa. An estimated one million blind people are affected by onchocerciasis. It is transmitted by the bite of females of the genus Simulium, of which more than 1300 species have been described in the world. The 15 health areas of the Kinshasa city under ivermectin, do not cover all the meeting points between blackfly and man in the simulidian foci of Kinshasa. The best way to protect against exophilic vectors (exophagous), which in addition have a biology little known like all the species of black flies known until then, is the use of the repellents of which the most used currently is the DEET. But these products are not very accessible to the African populations (due to cost and availability). It was then necessary to propose a solution adapted to our societies. Thus, the repelling efficiency of Cocos nucifera oil was tested against DEET against Simulium squamosum. Selected technicians were treated by anointing their legs and forearms, each with a particular repellent and placed on the ground to capture the black flies according to the traditional method of catching on human bait. Blackflies captured by repellent treatments were counted and their numbers compared using statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the number of blackflies caught by treatment revealed no significant differences between DEET and Cocos nucifera. In dermal application, the oil of Coconut has real repulsive properties against Simulium squamosum compared to DEET.
The influence of combination of agricultural product (rice bran)/fertilizer (goat dropping and manner NPK-17-17-17) was tested within 9 months in growing performances of Nile tilapia, bred in semi-drained pond. The mean results showed that the parameters of aquatic environment, in particularly temperature (29°C - 36°C) and pH (5.5 – 6.5), fluctuate in the tolerance limits of Nile tilapia. Growing performances are interesting: Rice bran combined with mineral or organic fertilization profit well to Nile tilapia growing with 0.42g/day of weight advantage against 0.29g/day for the witness. It is the same for yield which is 1.8 times and 1.7 times more the witness, about an increasing of 80.5 and 67.6% of natural productivity, respectively for NPK-17-17-17 and organic fertilizer goat dropping-based.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the cuttings site and the age/state of the branch on the cuttings of the cola tree in the optics of its domestication (ex situ conservation). To this end, plageotropic and orthotropic branches having each one three nodes, equipped well were divided like cuttings and were placed in polyethylene bags containing a substrate based on a mixture of black cotton soil, chicken dejection and sawdusts broken up well. The results of this study indicate that 70 days after cuttings, on average 73% of the cuttings began again. However, after 90 days, the rate of survival recorded was 58.4%. Compared to the site of the cuttings, the best results were obtained with the cuttings taken on the orthotropic branches compared to the plageotropic branches. Compared to the state of the branch, the best results were obtained with the cuttings taken on the semi-ripened branches. Thus, the site of the cuttings and the age/state of the branch are parameters which condition the success of the cuttings of wild fruit trees such as the cola tree. It would be thus desirable that a study is carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the phyto-hormones on the cuttings of semi-ripened orthotropic branches.
A study on the nutritional and toxicological analyses of three wild plants, fruits of: Capsicum frutescens, Passiflora foetida and the leaves of Piper umbellatum were analyzed. In this study, it appears that these wild plants may be of value as a food supplement in regard to their content in crude proteins, lipids, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The fruits of Capsicum frutesceus are richer in crude ash (14.42%), protein (3.18%), vitamin B2 (1.46 g / 100 g), and iron (4,108 g/100 g). The fruits of Passiflora foetida are richer in water (75.49%); citric acid equivalent (17.732%), lipid (14g / 100g), vitamin B1 (4,98 g /100 g), vitamin C (17.6 g/100 g), calcium (2.28 g/100 g) and leaves of Piper umbellatum are richer in vitamin A (0.933 g/100 g), magnesium (1.787 g/100 g), phosphorus (0.016 g/100 g). However, these plants also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids and terpenes and sterols, trace toxic substance such as nitrate, nitrite and cyanide. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population of the city of Kisangani and its surroundings for the diversification of the diet to fight against the lack of certain nutrients.
The present study was undertaken with the aim of to characterize, according to physiognomic point of view, the vegetation communities in the UMA forest and to evaluate the influence of physico-chemical and pedo-morphological parameters in the spatial organization of floristic diversity in the UMA forest. Five vegetation communities were identified in the UMA forest which sharing many common species. The restriction of certain species of plots belonging to the diameter class ≥ 50 cm show a variation even on the level of arborescent layers in this forest. The floristic variability is mainly explained by the soil humidity in the Limbali mono-dominant vegetation communities in the western part. In the easten part, it is explained by the pH, the conductivity and the soil depth in the heterogeneous vegetation communities. However, in the transition forest, it is explained by the retention of the soil phosphorus. The UMA forest is classified among the semi-deciduous dense heterogeneous forests. The identified vegetation communities are inserted in the alliances Gilbertiodendrion Devred 1958 and Oxystigmo-Scorodophleion Lebrun & Gilbert 1954 in the class of Strombosio-Parinarietea Lebrun & Gilbert 1954. The Guinean-Congolese element represents more than 82% of listed species, of which the endemic species of the center of Guinean-Congolese endemism accounts for at least 90% of species. The presence of Afro-American elements (2%) shows stochastic transgression. The sedentary species are abundant in the plant communities of the Western part, while the pioneers and cicatricial species are abundant in the plant communities of the Eastern part.
The present study was carried out from 346 skulls of Praomys jacksoni (Muridae) captured in some forest areas of the surroundings of Kisangani city (island, right and left banks of Congo River) from 1994 to 1999). The results obtained from twenty-five skulls measurements revealed the diversity existing inside each population studied. The sexual dimorphism is favorable to males for seven measurements (GRLE, HEBA, DIA1, DIA2, INT, LNAS, and LOTE) whereas eighteen remain stable. The skulls of insular populations (Tundulu and Mbiye) are bigger than those of the forest reserves ( Masako and Yoko) for twenty measurements: GRLE, PRCO, HEBA, HEPA, DIA1, DIA2, INT, ZYPL, PAL, UPTE, UPDE, M1, BNAS, LNAS, BUL, DIN, HRZ, ROH, ROB and PCPA The skulls of Mbiye island populations are bigger than those of Tundulu island for eighteen measurements (GRLE, PRCO, HEBA, HEPA, PAF, DIA1, DIA2, ZYG, UPTE, UPDE, M1, ZYPL, BNAS, LNAS, LOTE, CHOA, DIN, PCPA). The skulls of populations from the left bank (Yoko forest reserve) are bigger than those of the right bank for six measures (GRLE, HEBA, DIA1, INT, CHOA and PAF). These results indicate that craniometrical measurements of the adult animals are stable and constitute a complementary means for identifying the species in the Praomys genus. The variations observed with certain examined characters would be the consequence of the biological phenomenon of speciation. It is thus desirable that molecular studies are carried out on these muridae in order to validate this hypothesis.
A study on the toxic and nutritional values of four wild vegetables (Ipomoea aquatica, Dewevrea bilabiata, Vitex welwitschii and Vernonia hochstetteri) was performed before and after cooking. In this study, it appears that these wild vegetables can be dietary supplements of values in those for crude protein, fat, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The leaves of Ipomoea aquatica are particularly rich in lipids (21 gr/100 gr), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg %), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). The Dewevrea bilabiata leaves are rich in crude protein (0.04 mg/100g r), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg%), vitamin B6 (0.8 mg%), vitamin C (0.2 mg%) and leaves of Vitex welwitschii rich in vitamin A (0.75 mg/100 gr), vitamin B1 (1.33 mg/100 gr), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). However, these vegetables also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes, traces of toxic substances such as cyanide and nitrites before cooking. After cooking, these substances and toxic components disappear. Similarly, cooking significantly reduced the levels of different nutrients. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population living around Kisangani city. A cooking these vegetables at moderate temperatures is recommended.
The effluents from the water treatment station of REGIDESO located in Kingabwa (Kinshasa city) are accused of reducing aquatic biodiversity of Matete and N'djili rivers and are responsible of some human diseases. The effects of these effluents on the physico-chemical and biological quality of water of Matete and N’djili rivers were evaluated. The benthic macro-invertebrates and Gambusia affinis were used as biodiversity richness indicator and model system for toxicity assays. The analyses of physicochemical parameters revealed a constant temperature in the stations studied (± 25 °C) and a high value of conductivity in the sites near the effluents discharge location. On the whole of the sites, the bacterial load was reduced to the neighboring sites of the effluents discharge. The pH is slightly acidic depending on the period and the sampling sites. Dissolved oxygen decreases as sampling seasons. 1405 specimens of benthic macro-invertebrates including 499 in the rainy season and 906 in dry season were harvested. The Shannon index value ranges from 0.4 to 2.9 during rainy season and 1.7 to 2.9 during dry season, reflecting the passage of polluted water to moderately pollute in rain season and moderately polluted to slightly pollute in the dry season. The toxicity bioassay revealed that these effluents are toxic (LC50= 0.109%). It is thus desirable to install a monitoring system near of the station of water purification of the REGIDESO N’djili in order to regularly control the dangerosity of the effluents poured in the surrounding watery ecosystems.
A floristic inventory of grass and undergrowth was carried out in the southern block of the Yoko Forest Reserve in the Eastern Province. This study aimed to identify grasses and undergrowth, and evaluate the wealth of this areal florula. Transect methods and phytosociological survey was the approach used. A total of 116 plant species have been inventoried and are belonging to 92 genera and 44 families. Note that the dominant families and features are: Commelinaceae (7.76%) and Rubiaceae (6.90%). The relative densities of species and the highest are those of family Marantochloa congensis (174.0 feet/ha) and Marantaceae (360.0 feet/ha). The relative frequencies of the most observed species are those of Palisota barteri (3.21%) and Cola congolana (3.39%), while those of family are Arecaceae, Commelinaceae, Connaraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lomariopsidaceae, Malvaceae, Marantaceae and Menispermaceae (6.25%). Simpson's diversity index (0.957), Shannon’s diversity index (3.619) and equitability (0.798) revealed that this florula is diversified and its species are well distributed. It is thus desirable that this study is extended to other forest reserves and forest groupings of Kisangani city and its surroundings in order to establish a better database necessary for the sustainable management of the classified forests and other sites of high value for the conservation.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei in the Botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, University of Kisangani/DR Congo. 1.439 individuals were listed and gathered in various classes of size, diameter of stem and distribution around the carrying foot. 33 years after the establishment of this botanical garden, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei was transformed into a forest species. Indeed, it found ecological conditions similar to those of its medium of origin and which favor its optimal ex situ development. The individuals having the size ≤ 50 cm, are the most represented with 1055 individuals (73,3%) and numbers it individuals having a diameter ≤ 10 cm are higher with 1358 individuals (94,3%). The data on the carrying foot showed a good regeneration of the species. The number of individuals falls when classes progress in the ascending order. It is thus desirable that studies are regularly carried out on the species headlights of the botanical garden for a permanent follow-up of the evolution of their florula.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo alone possess about 181 species of ophidians belonging to 59 genera and 7 families. Kisangani city and surrounding area are a "hot spot" of several zoological groups already studied; while the biology and ecology of ophidians remain unknown in this ecoregion. From the perspective of dominance we got 0.1136 for all species with a high value in the species Boaedon olivaceus followed by the species such as Dipsadoboa viridis and Hapsidophrys lineatus while other remaining species: Atractaspis irregularis, Causus sp, Grayia ornata, Boulengerina annulata, Telothornis kirtlandii, Bitis nasicornis and Naja melanoleuca are less represented in our sample. The representativeness in the total number of individuals collected, the taxa, genera and families were respectively 25; 14; 13 and 4. The family of Colubridae is best represented with 65% of species followed by the family of Viperidae and Elapidae each respectively with 14% of species while that the family of Atractaspididae is less represented 7% of species. The Simpson index gives us 0.8864; the probability that two individuals from the sample are randomly of different species; Shannon Wiener index is 3.4831, which stipulates that the drill Basukwambula is very diversified in species; the equitability value is 0.2328. This index shows a statistically insignificant value; because some species of Ophidians captured in Basukwambula forest are represented by only one specimen in our collection.
The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the physiognomy and structure of major forest types found at UMA. To achieve this study, 40 floristic inventories plots (of 0.25 ha each) were considered and all individuals with dbh ≥10 cm were identified. A total of 3882 trees were identified: 696 (348 trees/ha) for trees stand at Limbali on white sand, 657 (325.5 trees/ha) for trees stand at Limbali on ground hydromorphe, 731(365.5 trees/ha) for monodominant settlement of transition on sandy soil, 887 (443.5 trees/ha) for the heterogeneous population disturbed on clay soil and 991 (455.5 trees/ha) for the heterogeneous population on soil shallow and rocky. They represent a basal area of 32.85 m²/ha, 25.08 m²/ha, 25.56 m²/ha, 30.86 m²/ha and 31.67 m²/ha respectively. The difference in density and basal area was significant between tree stands in all compartments. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference between populations for species diversity, and Shannon index (stratum A2), Simpson index, Fisher index (Alpha) and equitability (strata E+A1 and A2) but there was not any difference in (E + A1) stratum according to these biodiversity indices. There was floristic similarity between monodominant and heterogeneous stands transitions but no floristic similarity between heterogeneous tree stands and disturbed stands monodominant trees. So these two stands of trees are different. The heterogeneous transition stands is therefore only monodominant forest Julbernardia seretii the interior of what Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae) came to replace Julbernardia seretii (Fabaceae) in the stratum (E + A1).
Une enquête ethnobotanique a été menée dans la cité de Kenge et ses environs (Province du Kwango), auprès de tradipraticiens, femmes et hommes ayant des connaissances approfondies sur les plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Elle nous a permis de recenser 22 espèces de plantes médicinales différentes utilisées tantôt dans le traitement de nombreuses pathologies comme les troubles sexuels, la stérilité, etc. et tantôt comme fortifiant par les habitants de cette entité. Ces 22 taxons sont distribués dans 18 familles et 21 genres. Les familles les plus représentées en espèces sont : Zingiberaceae (13,63% d’espèces), Euphorbiaceae et Fabaceae (9,09% d’espèces chacune). Toutes ces plantes sont aphrodisiaques; cependant, les plus prisées sont : Mondia withei (16,4% de citation), Landolphia lanceolata (9,2% de citation), Pentadiplandra brazzeana (8,0% de citation), Canarium Schweinfurthui, Hymenocardia acida, Jatropha curcas, Quassia africana et Zingiber officinale (5,48% de citation chacune). Les feuilles (25,3%) constituent la partie la plus utilisée tandis que la décoction est le mode de préparation médicamenteuse le plus utilisé (54,7%). La voie orale est la voie d’administration la plus utilisée (82,7%). Milletia drastica, Mondia witheii, Pentadiplandra brazzeana, Landolphia lanceolata, Hymenocardia acida and Zingiber officinale displayed high value of usage value agreements (VUAs).
According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the population in Africa resort to traditional medicine to solve the primary problem of health. In the present study, an ethno-botanical survey was carried out in six markets of the district of Lukunga according to principles' included in the declaration of Helsinki. The ethno-botanical data collected were then supplemented by information concerning the plant ecological types. The results from this study revealed that 39 species belonging 37 genera and 25 families were inventoried in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga in Kinshasa city. These plant species treat 31 diseases; however the best consensus emerges between inquired only for the treatment of malaria and diabetes mellitus (ICF ≥ 50%). While according to the value of use agreement, only two plant species: Annona senegalensis and Quassia africana displayed interesting result (VAUs ≥ 0.15). Our study revealed that the use of the medicinal plant species is a current practice among the age ranging from 22 to 67 years with prevalence at the old people of 43-49 years. The majority (66%) of the medicinal plants users have a level of secondary studies. The maceration (32%) is the most use mode of preparation while the root is the most used plant part. According to ecological studies, the phanerophytes as well as the Guinean species are prevalent in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga. Lastly, the chemical screening revealed the presence in the two selected plant species of the secondary metabolites of biopharmaceutical relevance such as total polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins. It is thus desirable that advanced phytochemical and pharmacological studies are carried out on the two plant species for the scientific validation of their bioactivity (conversion of the traditional knowledge into scientific culture) on the one hand, but also with an aim of both revalorizing and preserving/using them for sustainable development according to the convention on biological diversity on the other hand.
The study of the plants hosts of the edible caterpillars of medicinal use used in the treatment of the diseases in the sector of Bakumu-Mangongo led to the inventory list of 18 species belonging to 12 different families to Fabaceae prevalence. These plants generally come from the forests secondary (12 species) and dominated especially by the trees (17 species), the phanerophytes in particular the mesophanerophytes (11espèces), the sarcochores (14 species) and with distribution Guineo-congolese (16 species) among which 9 species are Omni-guineo-congolese. The drugs are often prepared by decoction or aqueous maceration at basis of the fresh leaves, the roots, the barks of stem or trunk, the bark of root, latexes and are managed by oral route, anal way and bath of the body. Accessibility to the edible caterpillars and the plant species of medicinal value are the positive assets of these resources for the populations. On the other hand, the no-ecological exploitation of these resources could lead to deforestation, disappearance if not rarefaction of the biocenoses and the disturbance of the ecosystems.
The study is a contribution to the knowledge of Rodents and Shrews diversity in Yasikia forest, located at 31 Km from Kisangani, on the road towards Opala. On transects, Rodents and Shrews were sampled using the protocol with [xPF, ySH]. A total of 13 sampling lines were observed during 15 days (from March 26 to 11 April 2015). As results, we collected 74 shrews, belonging to two genera at least 9 species; 68 rodents which represent 9 genera and 12 species. In total, we collected 145 small mammals, with a trapping effort of 6478 trap-nights. The specific biodiversity and trappingsuccess showed that Pitfall traps are the most efficient to capture Shrews. It also catches small Rodents and adult such as N.cf.grata, and other adults’ rodents as Praomys genera, but with reduced number. Sherman traps are more effective to catch Rodents. They also catch shrews in reduced number. The trappings were conducted in three habitats. In the primary forest G. dewevrei (EC = 1060 night-traps, 50 specimens, 14 species, and TS = 4.72%), mixed primary forest (EC = 1500 night-traps, 69 specimens, 15 species, and TS = 4.6%) and fallow land (EC = 440 night-traps, 23 specimens, 9 species, and TS = 5.23%). No new species was announced but rather the presence of three endemic species of which two (C. Goliath and L. huttereri) are rare.
Bush meat constitutes one of the available animal proteins source for many rural people. Pressure on big species is growing because of urban request consumption. Small mammals become topical resource interested for hunting to support family and for sale. This study proposes to estimate hunt fullness on sengis Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi, one case among other small mammals appreciated at Yoko. We have initiated a follow-up of capture beside villagers during eighteen months.278 specimens come from 107 trap makers divided up 73 young men, 30 adult and 4 old people. The young man input is majority and estimated about 68%. Prospecting habit, seasonality capture has been examined also.
Preliminary inventory of wild edible no-timber forest products (NTFP) used for their tubers, fruits, seeds, roots, leaves buds, barks, by the Ambuila population, in the north-east of Angola, revealed the existence of 59 species of plants distributed in 43 genera and 31 botanical families among them Apocynaceae , Zingiberaceae and Arecaceae are the most represented, respectively with 5, 5 and 4 species. The inventoried edible wild plants are found in both forest and savanna but with predominance in the forest. Furthermore, the analysis of biological type performed on all harvested plant revealed the presence of trees, shrubs, herbaceous and lianas (66.09%), but we noticed that woody species predominate on herbaceous with 33, 30%. According to their importance, the most demanded organs of plants are: fruits, almonds and seeds (45.00%), leaves (32.50%), stems, bark and buds (16.25%) and roots and tubers with 6.25%. By descending the classification, the wild NTFP consumed by the Ambuila rural population are: fruits, almonds and seeds (34.67%), vegetables-leaves (22.7%), stimulants (21.33%), spices (10.67%), beverages (6.67%) and tubers represent 4.00%. Most of wild edible forest products at Ambuila are destined to self-consumption, only seven species of the 59 are sold locally, the average unit price is estimated at U$ 0.713. Most of the products are consumed after processed (cooked, grids or boiled), the rest are consumed raw.
The Marantaceae family constitutes a bio-indicator of natural forest perturbation. The present study was undertaken with the aim of elucidating the origin of these inhabited herb kinds in the mature Yoko forest stack. The pedoanthracological approach was used to search for the under soil Marantaceae perturbation indicators, to determin their age by the 14C dating and lastly, evaluate the perturbations, incidences on the vegetation of the current forest of the region. Four soil pit excavation established in the Marantacea forests permitted to identify two indocators: the Charcoals and pieces of the ceramic. The analysis of these indicators coupled to the story of the region of the last centuries: (i) the fossil charcoals result either from the burn intinerant agriculture or from the household fire; (ii) the pottery comes from the kitchen ustensils that the human kind used for his survival needs. The Charcoals from de pits which have 14C dating indicate the ancient fire dated 1125 ± 30 years BP and the contemponary fire of 350 ± 30 to 145 ± 30 years BP. These perturbations have got an impact on the actual floristic riches. For some identified taxa like Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (De Wild.) J. Léonard, Monodora sp, Tetraberlinia bifoliata J. Léonard, Pouteria sp, Homalium longistylum Mast, Turraeanthus africanus Welw ex C.DC.) Pellegr), their fossil charcoals were not found in the actual Marantaceae forests.
The purpose of this work lies within the scope of the valorization of traditional food of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the province of Tshopo in particular and aims the inventory and evaluation of the nutritive value of the edible caterpillars of Kisangani city and its surroundings. The determination of moisture, the total lipids, total ashes, total proteins, the total sugars and the energy value was carried out according to usual techniques. 12 species of edible caterpillars were identified and gathered in three families: Attacidae (8 species, 67%), Notodontidae (3 species, 25%) and Nymphalidae (1 species, 8%). The average values of various calculated parameters are: water (60.92%), dry weight (39.08%), ashes (4.20 g), proteins (52.13 g), lipids (19.81%), sugars (1.19 g), and energy (392.33 kCal). The production of edible caterpillars must constitute an objective to be preached through agro-forestry programs for a sustainable management of the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and those of the Tshopo Province in particular.
A floristic and structural composition studies of Kponyo forest, a forest close to the hunting field of Bili Uélé, was carried out with the aim of knowing the variability of the forest types through the evaluation of the parameters such as abundance, taxa predominance, basal area, biodiversity indices and the mode of space distribution of the dominant species in each inspected site. The method of subplot made it possible to sample two hectares (8 pieces of 50 m X 50 m). On the whole, 636 individuals belonging to 173 species and 66 families were inventoried. The species Gilbertiodendron dewevrei abounds the hydromorph land forest while the species Garcinia epunctata abounds the firm land forest. The Fabaceae family dominates this florule. Basal area average is 28,14m2/ha. The analysis according to the K repley® function of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and Garcinia epunctata shows a random distribution within the settlement.
Democratic Republic of the Congo is among the countries who attach great importance to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this floristic study was to evaluate the plant diversity of the Rubi-télé hunting area for a good sustainable management. This area is located in the Bas Uele province, Territory of Buta and the Community of Monganzulu village Sukisa (N: 02 ° 19 '072 "E: 024 ° 58' 368'; altitude: 471m). This reserve has an area of 9080 km2.
All individuals with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were inventoried and measured 1.30 m above the grade. We opted for a targeted sampling of delineating the 50 m X 50 m plots (mixed forest) and where the Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (mono forest dominant) was abundant. The study conducted in the field hunting Rubi-Télé an area of 2ha led us census 452 individuals in the mixed forest divided into 79 species, 28 families; 267 individuals in the forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei divided into 30 species, 14 families.
Basal area for forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei is 32,3m2/ha and mixed forest as basal area 23m2/ha. Julbernadia seretii is more abundant with a rate of 11.95%, in the mixed forest. Family Fabaceae leads with 30.87%.
For Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest species abounds its habitat, first with 46.44% of the family Fabaceae is leading with 64.12%, it appears that the mixed forest shows the scattering of the forest wealth specific Gilbertiodendron dewevrei because its diversity index values are low.
An ecological study based on the natural regeneration of the undergrowth was carried out in the S. Lisowski botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, Kisangani University. A floristic inventory was conducted taking into account the height and diameter of all individuals. From this inventory, 3901 individuals have been recorded and grouped into 6 species, 6 genera, and 5 families; for the species assessed according to the scale of abundance – dominance of BRAUN BLANQUET, 8 species grouped into 8 genre and 7 families were counted. The obtained result show the dominance of the Leptonychia tokana (1232 feet or 31.58%) species, followed by Costus lucanusianus (881 individuals or 22.58%) and finally Tricalysia bequaertii (741 feet or 18, 29%). Among the Spectra evaluated according to the scale of abundance-dominance of BRAUN BLANQUET, Trachyphrynium braunianum and Anthurium ferrierense are the most abundant. The most represented families in the undergrowth of the garden are the Rubiaceae, Marantaceae, Malvaceae and Costaceae.
The access to safe water remains a serious major concern in Africa particularly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of pond water treatment consumed by plateau de Batéké population in Bita village using Moringa oleifera seed powder and Vetivera zizanoides root powder. Pond water samples were treated with different concentrations of M. oleifera seeds and V. zizanoides roots as a bio-coagulant. The measurement of physico-chemical parameters in the course of time has permitted to determine the optimum conditions and to evaluate the treatment efficacy. Results revealed that Moringa oleifera seeds are more efficient than Vetivera zizanoides roots. This activity is dose dependent. After one day post-treatment, the rate of turbidity reduction is 93.53% at the concentration of 1.818 g/l. Also, the treatments allowed the reduction of nitrates and nitrites in treated pond water. These results indicate that M. oleifera improve considerably physic-chemical quality of treated pond water. Thus, this approach is ecological and respectful of the environment. It is inexpensive, simple and beneficial for the populations of the rural zones. Moreover, M. oleifera is a plant species particularly easy to cultivate in an intensive way and is adapted to the tropical climate of Africa.
The price of the crude is continuing to scaling down, but one wonders what would be the consequence of that crude price drop off on the bitumen produced at the refineries. Madagascar would have a solution to use either the Bemolanga tar sands naturally (as it is) or to use extracted bitumen to replace the imported bitumen for tarring its roads. In fact, Madagascar is importing bitumen since 1960 and needsmuch foreign currency to pay out the bitumen product bills; nevertheless it has the possibility to use these petroleum materials to tar its roads. Using only imported bitumen for tarring roads would certainly not well develop the road construction in Madagascar. On 1962 (when Madagascar became independent country)the streets of Bemolanga village and all the streets in Morafenobe, the main town situated in Western part of Madagascar, located at 30 km away from Bemolanga deposit were tarred with Bemolanga bituminous tar sands by the “Societé des Pétroles de Madagascar). The tar sands were dropped into a metal barrel and then, heated up with wood fire while mixing from time to time to produce viscous liquid, which is poured on the top of the prepared road and compacted manually afterwards. These tarred streets lasted more than twenty years life, thus, on 1980, almost of the tarred streets stay unbroken. In many countries who own tar sands, bituminous shale, natural bitumen and heavy oil, such materials were used in road construction to tar their roads since longtime ago. Thus our study consists in evaluating the possibility to use the Bemolanga tar sands to tar the maximum length of roads in Madagascar. The conclusion of the study is that it is technically possible to tar Madagascar roads with the Bemolanga tar sands. The decision to go further to the project would just be political decision.
Madagascar has not come up to petroleum discovery till now, nevertheless many petroleum companies have acquired licenses for petroleum exploration in the western sedimentary basin of Madagascar, since the new promotional petroleum exploration undertaken on 1980. The existence of the two non conventional fossil deposits discovered since longtime ago have boosted the invertors to come to Madagascar to try to find out the geological model of the eventual petroleum discovery within the huge sedimentary basin of different ages. The two deposits which are The Bemolanga tar sands deposit and the Tsimiroro heavy oil deposit were located in the Morondava sedimentary basin, in the central part of the western sedimentary basin of Madagascar. The two deposits stand besides and are about only 60 km away from each other. To support the petroleum exploration works, it was worth to know the physico-chemical and the geochemical characteristics of the oils and the minerals containing the oils. Thus the main focus of this paper is to develop the analysis for the characterization of oils and minerals which we have been undertaken since thirty years ago. The result of the analysis have stated the Permo-Triassic age of the Bemolanga and Tsimiroro deposits. To complete the useful data for the exploration issue, geochemical and chemical analysis were undertaken to evaluate the Source rock evaluation and the behavior of the Bemolanga and Tsimiroro oils. The results of the study showed that: The Bemolanga bitumen and Tsimiroro oils have high basic compounds content; not any kind of clays which may inhibit the oil recovery process was found; vapor injection process and combustion process would fit to recover these oils.
The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the diversity, the size and the vertical, horizontal and monthly distributions of the soil spiders in a field of cassava. Two methods were used, the" distance sampling" and the “Barber” trap. The identification of spiders was carried out using a binocular magnifying glass and identification key books of the Africa spiders. Each spiders sample was measured at the cephalothorax region with the help of graduated micrometer. The obtained results were analyzed by the mean of khi-square statistic test. 306 specimens of spiders belonging to 7 families, 10 genus and 12 species were harvested and identified. By the mean of "distance sampling" technique, 135 specimens belonging to 2 families and 7 species were captured. Lycosidae family was the most abundant (227 specimens) and the more diversified (4 species out of 7 harvested), following by the Ctenidae family (3 species out of 8 specimens). By the mean of “Barber” trap, 171 specimens belonging to 6 families were captured among which Lycosidae family was also the most abundant with 167 specimens and the more diversified (4 species out of 9 harvested) that the other (Salticidae, Gnaphosidae and Lycosidae). The ecological approach revealed that the spiders in this biotope circulate at the soil level (±0.96 cm) and that they have small sizes (2.07 mm to the level of the cephalothorax). Weeding and/or the ploughing could simplify the agro-systems and thus would involve their colonization by spiders of small sizes essential for the regulation of the population of the devastating insects of the cassava.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the nutritional value and cyanhydric acid content of eight plant species (Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Cola acuminata, Ficus vallis-choudae, Musanga cecropioïdes, Macaranga spinosa, Pycnanthus angolensis and Trilepisium madagascariensis) currently consumed by Okapia johnstoni in captivity at Epulu Fauna Reserve of Okapi in Democratic Republic of Congo. After two weeks of experimentation, the preference of Okapia johnstoni in consuming these plant species is in decreasing order as follow: Musanga cecropioïdes, Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Ficus vallis-choudae, Pycnanthus angolensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Macaranga spinosa and Cola acuminata. The biochemical analyses revealed that A. Boonei and C. acuminata are more rich in crude protein( 19.27% per 100 g of dry mater) and F. vallis-choudae is the richest species in the lipids (11.61%) and the poorest is A. cordifolia; M. cecropioïdes is the richest in calcium (6. 01%) against, P. angolensis which is the poorest (3.0 %); In the all plant species, magnesium is presented under the form of the trace; T. madagascariens and A. Boonei are the richest in cyanhydric acid (1, 60 mg) that P. angolensis (0, 40 mg). These results indicate that the selective choice of certain fodder to the detriment of others is a self medicative behaviour (zoopharmacognosy) in Okapi. Starting from these results, it is thus desirable that research works are carried out for the ex situ conservation of Okapi in the province of “Nord Ubangi”.
The study concerns the reproduction and structure of the populations of Sciuridae from the forest reserve of Yoko and has for objectives to identify the dominant species present in this reserve, to determine and to analyze the structure of the populations of squirrels and their reproduction phonology in order to estimate the stability of this group facing the local and global changes. The animals were harvested with the help of traditional traps from May 2014 to April 2015. From the six species captured, Funisciurus anerythrus was the most abundant, followed by the Funisciuruses bayonii, Funisciurus congicus, Paraxerus boehmi, Heliosciurus rufobrachium and Protoxerus stangeri. Their activities seem to achieve themselves in the fallows except the last two species that prefer the primary forest. The reproductive activities increase toward the middle of the rainy season (September-November) with a great proportion of the gravid females from December to February, which accompanies of a massive entry of the young during the active period from June to November. The sex-ratio is in favor of the males but the difference is not significative (p>0.05). The middle range is of two for Funisciurus anerythrus, and one for the other. The adults are abundant; the continuous presence of the young adult and juvenile reveals a continuous reproduction and the stability of the population.
This study wore on the diversity and distribution of ophidians in a few protected areas in the Oriental Province (DR. Congo). The harvest data were performed at Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2), in the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and in the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The collections come from the missions of Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2), the Yoko Forest Reserve (FRY) and Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The Ophidians specimens were captured in actively prospecting night with a snake cane; some specimens of Ophidians were purchased from villagers. In total 91 biopsies were taken from the specimens examined belonging to 7 families 25 genera and 28 species. Using a unique method of catching sight in the three protected areas we find that the dominant species was the horned viper Bitis nasicornis (12.09%), followed by the species Boaedon olivaceus (10.99%) while Grayia smithii, Lycophidion laterale, Dendroaspis jamesoni, Causus maculatus, Natriciteres olivacea, Dasypeltis fasciata, Thrasops jacksonii, Rhamnophis aethiopissa, Thelotornis kirtlandii, Toxicodryas pulverulenta et Hapsidophrys lineatus were less represented with 1.10% for each of them. The index of Shannon - Weiner (H) show that the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) (H = 3,898) present a higher diversity of Ophidians than that other protected areas. The Simpson index was 0.81 for Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba park (TL2), 0.918 for Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and 0.907 for the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The equitability is 0.97; 0.917 and 0.944 respectively for the Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2) for the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY) and the Rubitele hunting area (RBTL). The Species richness (RS) is 19 for the Yoko Forest Reserve (RFY), 15 for Rubitele hunting area (RBTL) and 6 for Tshuapa Lomami Lualaba Park (TL2).
Food and feeding habits of Hippopotamyrus psittacus (Boulenger, 1897; Pisces: Mormyridae) of Congo river has been undertaken from February to July 2007 by the stomach contents analysis. 44 H. psittacus ranging from 55 to 320 mm of length were captured in the Congo River (Wagenia Falls and Kikongo beach). The total length, the standard length and height of the body were measured with a ribbon meter and weighed using both bood scales of 0- 3000gr. Afterward, stomach contents were taken and conserved in the Laboratory for future analysis. Stomachs contents were examined using a binocular magnifying glass LEICA WILDHEERBRUGG Mg model with a magnification of 10 to x50. The stomachs contents analysis showed that H. psittacus is a carnivorous with an insectivorous tendency by feeding mainly on aquatic insects and other animals remnants. On the other side, the food regime of H. psittacus appeared more diversified during the relatively dry season periods. On the same way, the average stomach contents weight indicates that the feeding activity is more or less different during different season periods with an increasing feeding activity during the relatively dry season periods.
A study was conducted on the food ecology of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis of Biaro River and its Yoko tributary in the Yoko Forest Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It took place over a period of one year: from September 2008 to August 2009. The size and weight of 98 specimens of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis Giltay, 1930 sampled varies from 3.6 to 31.5 cm, with an average of 21.5 cm for the first parameter and of 14-364.4 g, that is, an average of 77.4 g for the second measurement. The analysis of 68 full stomachs of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis Giltay, 1930 under a dissecting microscope shows the dominance of animal origin preys with more or less 6 taxa against some traces of plant fragments. The composition of the diet according to seasonal periods, showed that during relatively dry seasonal period, males appeared to be fish (OCC = 9.6), Heteroptera (OCC = 3.2), Ephemeroptera (OCC = 3.2) and plant fragment eaters (OCC = 3.2), while the trace of molluscs is observed only in females (OCC = 33.3). Shrimps, fins and scales were found in both sexes, but in different proportions, because the large proportion of shrimps was observed in males (OCC = 83.9) while those of fins and scales were dominant in females. More, the emptiness rate was significant only in males. On the other hand, during the rainy season period, females become more opportunist in fish (OCC = 50), shrimps (OCC = 100), fins (OCC = 25) and scales (OCC = 50) than males with respectively 16.6 %, 76.6%, 6.6% and 36.6% of occurrence, and the rate of emptiness is higher in females. The food index (FI) and index of relative importance (IRI) of the main categories of preys; preys with high percentages are respectively fish (44%), shrimps (29%), animals fragments (26%). All the other categories of associated preys represent only 1%. It is the rainy period which offers many favorable opportunities for a good growth of fish species.
The Mbiye Island is a forest reserve managed by the University of Kisangani. It is currently undergoing an unprecedented anthropization related to the manufacture of charcoal. This practice leads to forest loss peril. This study has the following specific objectives: To assess the impact of charring on the ecosystems of the island Mbiye. Assess profitability or profits from charring wood in the household coal. To collect data, a sample of 40 peoples was drawn from randomized in five villages of the island Mbiye. These villages are: Akoka, Kolema, lilo, Makululu and Mongaliema. Respondents were questioned individually on the basis of a survey sheet. It observes five major activities that carbonization ranks first (50%). The Mongaliema town ranks first in the production of wood or 23.7 %, followed Makululu with 22.2%, with 20.7% Akoko and finally Kolema,Lilo have a low percentage (14.8% and 18, 5% respectively). The most used in the manufacture of charcoal from trees bordering the forest reserve of the island are: Gilbertiodendron dewevrei 95%, Cynometras essili and Irvingia gabonensis 75% and finally Fagara macrophylla and Xylopia aethiopica 45%. Revenues or 62.5% from the carbonization for coal are affected more in the education of children and health care. The dependence of the latter charcoal depends on deforestation and degradation of forest ecosystems of the planet in general and the forest reserve of the island especially Mbiye. Following these questions, we issued the assumptions that the deforestation, depletion of forest species used in the production of charcoal, degradation of forest ecosystems and climate change would be the major impacts of this activity.
The present work carried out in Masako forest reserve, updates the data on regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei through its youthful (1 ≤ dbh < 10 cm). To carry out our study, twelve 50 m × 50 m plots were established on a 2100 m transect in G. dewevrei based mono-dominant forest. The aim in view was to see how is held the regeneration of this last through its youthful in the Masako forest reserve. We hypothesized that the youthful ones would develop under canopée in a uniform way in all the pieces. To this end, 1652 individuals grouped in five diameter classes : class 1 with 1364 individuals (83%), followed by class 2 with 241 individuals (15%), class 3 with 34 individuals (2%), class 4 with 9 individuals (1%) and then class 5 with 4 individuals (0.2%). This result shows that regeneration of G. dewevrei at youthful stage is not uniform, according to their heterogeneous distribution (Coefficient of variation: 63.5%). Individuals in classes 4 and 5 are less represented because they are exploited much by the local community for the building work.
This work aims to characterize the structure and diversity of the heterogeneous population of Yoko Forest Reserve. First, we considered (i) the floristic variability (specific richness and diversity), and (ii) the structural variability (in terms of density, ground surface and diametric structure) evaluated at the scale of a hectare. The second step consisted on the analysis of the spatial structure (i) generally and its comparison to the whole plot, and (ii) specific structure of the whole plot (only the spatial structure of the important species was analyzed). So, a systematic inventory of all trees of 10 cm dbh was conducted over five hectares. It should be also noted that the position of each foot has been taken according to the coordinate system (x, y). In total, 1,919 trees of 10 cm dbh were inventoried in five hectares. These individuals were distributed into 98 genera, 141 species and 31 families; with average density of 19.6 genera per hectare, 28.2 species per hectare, and 6.2 families per hectare. The resemblance or similarity degree among the plots (Hectares) showed clearly two coherent plant communities, with a low coefficient of similarity, and each consisting of more or less close plots. Although the density is dominated by Microdesmis yafungana species J. Léonard J. but Pericopsis elata Harms species and Fabaceae family dominated other quantitative parameters. As for the structural analysis, the individuals presented a shape with a significant decrease as we moved to the next class and the most significant densities were observed in classes of diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4. Therefore, a study on the structure and diversity of heterogeneous forest populations is very important because it gives information about the natural processes of trees (growth, regeneration, demographics) as well the anthropogenic action on the forest ecosystem.