Introduction: In a national context of increasing urban populations and commitment to universal health coverage, this study aims to analyze the household income and health care expenditure in the city of Goma, Eastern DRC.Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was based on a 2017 survey of a sample of 1,000 households in the urban and suburban areas of the City of Goma on household income and health care expenditures during the last episode of illness. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 23.Results: The median monthly household income was 140 Usd, with 89.9% of households living on less than 1.9 Usd per day. Only 9.1% of households were covered by a health insurance system and 91.6% of households experienced at least one illness episode in the past three months. The use of care were dominated by self-medication by purchasing drugs from the pharmacy (50.7%), with non-care cases (6.8%), and varied by income quartile and gender (p <0.001). The median direct care expenditure was 10.7 Usd (0-2272.5 Usd), with catastrophic expenditures in 42.9% of cases and loss of working days and income, not varying according to income quartile (p> 0.05).Discussion and conclusion: This level of income and catastrophic healthcare expenditure requires progress towards a better thought-out compulsory health insurance system that capitalizes on innovative financing.
Using functionalist theory, this article examines the contribution of digital social networks to the promotion of citizenship education in Côte d'Ivoire. It examines a corpus of ten videos from the Facebook pages of Prefect Vincent Toh Bi Irié, in the section « Allo ! Côte d'Ivoire », and of Maître N'Dri Claver, in « Le droit dit quoi ? ». The results of the content analysis show that the themes dealt with in these videos concern legal issues and moral values. The initiators of these broadcasts wish to participate, on the one hand, in the awakening of the population's conscience and, on the other hand, to give rise to a new generation of citizens who are aware of and subject to the values that underpin the rule of law.
Introduction: The study was about the mapping of health care Organization in urban areas. It aims is to show the apportionment, appurtenance, and profile of the pharmaceutical pharmacies in the Goma city, in eastern DRC. Goma city is served in medicine by the public and private sector. Methodology: The study is cross-sectional and descriptive. It was carried out by an exhaustive census of pharmacies. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 23 software. Results: The inventory of pharmacies is 723 in the city of Goma, whether one pharmaceutical office for 1.314 habitants. Almost 70% of them have set up in the last 5 years, with 31% in 2017 alone. One third of pharmacies have official authorization minutes from the Ministry of Health. All of the pharmacies are private for profit and are supplied by the private sector. More than 90% of pharmacies operate in non-standard premises and are run in 92.1% of cases by healthcare providers. Conclusion: Private pharmaceutical pharmacies play a major role in the supply of medicines in urban areas of Goma. Their functioning far from the standards, seems to indicate a lack of regulation, which exposes the population to the consumption of drugs of a potentially non-optimal quality.