This article analyzes the fertility and food biology of H. fasciatus Peters, 1857 from the lower zone of the Tshopo river in Kisangani (DR Congo) so as to highlight, on the one hand, the fertility rate of this species, the length-weight relationship and the growth of gonads during the reproductive cycle at all the sites considered; on the other hand, determine the quality and quantity of the diet of this species according to size and sex. Sampling took place in November 2016, and from March 2017 to May 2018 In total, 100 specimens (85 upstream and 15 downstream of the hydroelectric dam) of size varying between 55.7-188.8 cm were captured at using two batteries of eight monofilament gillnets of 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30 and mm between nodes. Analysis of the results obtained leads to the conclusion that the H. fasciatus species from the Tshopo River is invertivorous (intestinal coefficient = 0.46) with an opportunistic tendency, feeding mainly on animal and plant debris. This diet varied according to the sampling sites, the season, the sex and the stage of development of the individuals examined. The evolution of the gonado-somatic ratio upstream of the hydroelectric dam of the Tshopo river showed a peak for females 3.45 (n = 46) and for males 0.66 (n = 39); and downstream a peak is observed in females 5.86 (n = 8) and for males 0.52 (n = 7). The estimated absolute fertility ranged from 506 to 1,430 oocytes with an average of 817.18 oocytes and the relative fertility ranged from 20,440.95 to 131,433.82 kg-1 oocytes with an average of 48,932.30 kg-1.
Introduction: The aging of the society goes together with the rising of the number of the edentulous people and so with the wearing of removable prosthesis Our study is an epidemiologic descriptive type having collected 1313 patients, carried out over a period going from December 2nd, 2012 to June 28th, 2014 at the university hospital center of odontostomatology of Bamako.The aim of our study, is to analyze the increasing number of edentulous people observed and its link to sociodemographic factors and life quality, among a population consulting for a removable prosthesis.Methods: we conducted an epidemiologic descriptive study from December 2nd 2012 to October 28 2014. We enrolled 1313 patients Using questionnaires and the variables studied were gender, age, occupation, level of education, reason for consultation, causes of edentulism, types of edentulousness, wearing of prosthesis.The statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the software SPSS N ° 12 French version. Statistical calculations were performed with Pearson's Chi2 with a risk α ≤ 0.05%.Results: In the population involved, the female gender accounted for 60.6% with a sex ratio of 0.65. Removable prosthetic rehabilitation mainly concerned young adults aged 25-34 (20.2%). Dental pain was the main reason for consulting patients with 52.9% of cases.Dental caries and its complications were the main cause of toothlessness with 69.8% of cases.There was a significant statistical link between the reason for consultation (dental pain or aesthetics) and the occupation of housewives (P≤ 0.05 Chi2 validated). Restoration of function concerned the retired people.There was a significant statistical relationship between age groups 25-34 years and partial edentulousness (P≤0.05 Chi2 validated) as well as between total edentulism and age group 75 years and over (P ≤ 0.05 Chi2 validated).Edentulous patients who never had a denture accounted for 89.0% of cases.Conclusion: A large part of the population had incomplete dentition. Our study showed descriptively a predominance of female sex with 60.6%. The most represented age group was 25-34 years old with 20.2%. Dental pain was the main reason of consultation with 52.9%.Edentation is still a real problem in our society.
The dental prosthesis is defined as an artificial device intended to replace the missing tooth or teeth and the related tissues. Clinical reality places us in front of an infinite dental edentation situation. For the rehabilitation of missing teeth, it is often necessary to manage simultaneously the use of all prosthetic techniques: partial and total prosthesis, fixed prosthesis and implantology.The aim of this investigation is to evaluate dental prosthesis needs in the University Hospital of Odonto-Stomatology of Bamako (CHUOS).A survey was conducted at Bamako University Hospital over a period of one month. The study included 400 patients who consulted for making dental prosthesis. Patients with 1-4 teeth to replace in the maxillar represented 30, 1% of cases and 30,7% in the mandible. The results showed the highest rate concerning partial removable denture prosthesis preference (83%) in comparison with fixed prosthesis which represented only 8, 75% of cases. Also, the partial removable prosthesis was diagnosed in 52,25% of cases.Edentation can be the cause of several problems in the oral cavity, hence the need to sensitize the population of the importance of oral health and the importance of wearing the prosthesis in case of losing teeth.
Despite their socio-economic and environmental importance, agroforestry parks undergo various pressures which threaten their existence. The study objective is to study the sustainability of agroforestry parks in the municipalities of Gothèye, Tagazar and Torodi in order to find out which of the anthropogenic or climatic factors impacts them most. For this purpose, two types of data were collected, namely dendrometric data through a floristic inventory and rainfall data acquired from the National Directorate of Meteorology. Our results on climate characterization from SPI and their trend have shown the return of favorable (wetter) conditions to vegetation development. Thus, a year of rupture was highlighted by the Pettitt test in 1991 for the municipality of Tagazar, confirming the positive evolution of rainfall. The eight (8) identified parks types are heavely anthropized with an anthropization rate of at least 64% varying from one park to another. The anthropizing factors that weigh the most on these parks are logging (energy and pastoral). The most viable parks are those of Tagazar and Gothèye unlike those of Torodi which are experiencing advanced degradation. Thus, our results suggest that parks are more affected by anthropogenic than climatic actions. For the sustainability of these parks, it is important to take inclusive measures that allow all stakeholders to be involved in the management and exploitation of park resources.
Banana farming is threatened currently by certain constraints as the bacterial Wilt and the bad farming practice. The aim of this study is to select the best fungicide that increases the percentage of reject reprise for using to decontaminate reject from macro propagation after weaning, and choosing the high-performance varieties with high percentage of rejects. The split plot experimental device was used. Two factors were in this study as banana varieties and fungicides. The former one has two levels as Mancozeb and Victory and banana varieties, three levels as Yangambi, Cavendish and Thick-Michel variety which were compared to control, reject without decontamination. The application of fungicides didn't involve date and reprise rate of reject between them in comparison with dismissals of three banana varieties compare to no disinfected reject before plantations. The rate varies between 90 and 100 %. Additionally, the dimension and number of leaves didn’t be influenced reprise by reprise rate of rejects of banana varieties. Study wasn’t oriented on growth parameters after plantations. The reprise rate of reject doesn't vary between the banana varieties. The reject could or not be disinfected for economic reasons because the high percentage of reject is always obtained. Thereby, it would be preferable to not disinfect reject because plantations can succeed.
The different remuneration systems have emerged, following the development of industrialization in the world. Today, expectations have changed, work is no longer just an opportunity for an exchange between individual efforts and material rewards, it also allows employees to fulfill themselves through a professional activity whose psychosociological and environmental dimensions are becoming increasingly important. The purpose of this study, conducted among 105 agents of a banking structure, was to analyze the remuneration system within a branch of the Bank of Central African States (BEAC). It is a question of presenting the types of remuneration, then evaluating their influence on the job satisfaction of these agents. The descriptive results show a variation in the perception of factors linked to the remuneration system among managers, middle managers and clause agents. While significant links are observed between the factors linked to the remuneration system and the job satisfaction of agents.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that regional economic integration can contribute to the emergence of Cameroon. Our research hypothesis is that limiting trade barriers increases the quantity of Cameroon's exports to the CEMAC sub-region and makes it more competitive. In the light of the econometric analysis based on the error correction model (ECM), the econometric estimation of the relationship between GDP per capita, investment, the trade liberalization index, etc., has led us to say that trade openness, supported by regional integration indices, has a positive impact on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Cameroon. Thus, trade openness will allow Cameroon to raise the standard of living of its populations and to achieve the objective of its vision of emergence in 2035, provided that the related provisions are an effective reality and that the market is considered as such.
This research was carried out on the rice farming sites of the agronomic research substation of Finkolo in the sudan-Guinean zone of Mali. The objective was to test the efficiency of the application of some dosage of mineral manure in the production of rain rice. Specifically the study aimed to evaluate the effect of different dosages in the use or the cereal complex and of urea within the agronomic parameters of rice varieties (NERICA 4 and 8). The experimental setup used was a bloc factorial conducted three times. The dosage of 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of the cereal complex to the best performance on the whole parameters measured of the rice. Moreover, the growth in hight and the straw yiel were better due to the application of 100 and 150 Kg ha-1 of urea. The Nerica 8 was more performant in paddy yield compared to Nerica 4. The application of mineral manure should be recommanded in rain rice farming in order to improve the production in the ameliorated varieties because it enhances noticeably the yield. In order to obtain a better efficiency in the use of the mineral manure, above all the nitrogen fertilizer, a suited localisation for the application is required.
Transformed over time by several historical, social and political factors, the traditional chiefdom in Togo was to gradually empty itself of the original elements that founded its power. Nowadays, it is changing into new elements to legitimize its power. In doing so, this article, based on three (3) approaches (structural-functionalist, Weberian and socio-historical) seeks to analyze the foundations of the legitimation of the traditional chiefdom in present-day Togolese society.To achieve this, this research adopted a methodology which consisted in documenting existing work on the subject and in carrying out in-depth individual interviews carried out with actors and resource persons concerned by this issue, particularly in academia, civil society and central (political) administration. Consequently, this research made it possible to show that the customary sources which originally founded the traditional chiefdom in Togo have lost their political, social and cultural quintessence (delegitimization) but there is nowadays a whole range of sources of legitimacy and / or legitimation of devolution of power from the traditional chief (re-legitimation).
The Sacred Principle of Equality between Men and Women deserves a very thorough analysis both on its content and on its application by states. In order to study the different sources of the principle of equality between men and women, it should be noted that they are of two kinds: some are international in nature while others are national. It is well known that international law on parity provides a framework for promoting and protecting women's human rights. Moreover, the obligation to protect women's rights has been taken into account by several multilateral treaties. But it was with the creation of the United Nations, whose charter proclaimed the promotion and encouragement of respect for fundamental rights and freedoms by all, regardless of race, language and religion. It is one of the main goals of the organization that was laid by the foundations of a comprehensive international legal system of the protection of women's rights that exists today and to which women as human beings are fully entitled. Women also have the right to the protection enshrined in legal instruments under international, criminal and humanitarian law and international labour law. In the absence of the political will of the states that have ratified it, no concrete changes can be seen to improve the situation of women for their participation in companies.