Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capability to produce hundreds and thousands of DNA / RNA sequences per analysis. This ability to sequence thousands of sequences at a time has brought about profound changes in genomic research. The primary aim is to see regions of similarity or variation / mutation amongst many sequences at hand. Today, NSG has reduced the time and is cost effective. This reduction of cost and time to obtain genomic data quickly has provided information on gene structure, protein structure, protein expression, genetic variations, gene expression profiles and others. This range of information has now expanded genomics research from analyzing and studying rare genetic disorders, cancer, infectious diseases like COVID, Phylogenetic trees, animal research, disease and control in husbandry, oral diseases, and metagenomic studies.
The analyzed information has enabled diseases diagnosis, prognosis, targeted therapies, precision medication and other methods. The scope is not only restricted to human genome analysis but is used in disciplines like animals, and agriculture in detecting pathogens and developing new diseases resistant crops and animal breeds. Moreover, the NGS capacity to use massive parallel processing to sequence has had a major impact in pharmaceutical industry. New drugs discovery uses DNA / RNA sequencing methods to first identify mutations, to develop targeted medicine / drug development. NSG has a bright future in unlocking various mysteries and providing insights into genomic information which we have still not been able to uncover. This paper first talks about NGS techniques, challenges, techniques used, NGS uses currently, future development directions in sequenced data quality, cost, and analysis techniques.
Introduction: The control and prevention of SARS-COV-2 infection is based on both the respect of individual protection measures and distancing, but also on vaccination.
This work aims to evaluate the impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 infection among health professionals at CHUIR and to correlate with the positivity of screening tests.
Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted over the period from 15 June 2021 to 1 September 2021.
The diagnosis was based on RT-PCR defined and the antigenic test.
The healthcare professionals were divided into 2 groups: G1-vaccinated / G2-non vaccinated.
The comparison concerned the viral load in positive cases by means of the threshold values (Ct) of RT-PCR and the positivity of the antigenic test.
Results: During the study period, 1658 healthcare workers were tested of which 638 were positive, representing a positivity rate of 39%.
Clinical symptoms were present in 99% of all positive cases.
G1: contains 440 health professionals representing 69% of all positive cases.
G2: presents 198 positive non-vaccinated subjects, representing 31%.
The average Cts in vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects was n=24.
Conclusion: Understanding the determinants of transmission, including human behavior and vaccine efficacy, is essential for the development of prevention strategies.
This paper presents the analysis of the economic impact of flooding in the agricultural sector of the Karhongo/Nyangezi group. The data were collected from a sample of 100 people (79 women and 21 men) drawn by snowball in the 10 villages of the Karhongo group in Nyangezi, Ngweshe chiefdom, Walungu territory, South Kivu province in Democratic Republic of Congo; which villages are often victims of flooding. Other data were collected by field observation, documentary means and survey questionnaire. These data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (calculation of average, numbers and percentages, cross tables, etc.); Excel and SPSS 20.0 software were used for this. The results indicate that the floods of February 2023 worsened the crumbling of the economic situation of the population of the Karhongo group. Total or partial destruction was helplessly observed on national road no. 5 (Cihanda bridge completely collapsed with all the consequences on local, provincial and international commercial transactions), agricultural service roads cut, houses flooded or destroyed, fields of cassava, beans, banana plantations and brickworks flooded or destroyed, etc. The results of this study also reveal that the prices of basic foodstuffs (cassava, corn, bananas, beans, etc.), after flooding, have experienced an exaggerated increase of around 84.25% on average. Finally, the study shows that humanitarian aid (from the government or NGDOs) to disaster victims is always insufficient and late. Partial solutions are recommended: dredging or drainage of the Cihanda and Bishalalo rivers, the floods of which cause serious flooding, and the reforestation of the hills, etc. to reduce these disasters as little as possible given that they cannot be completely avoided.
Air pollution is a major public health issue worldwide, particularly in the provincial city of Kinshasa, and environmental protection has become a duty for all governments in recent years. Global warming and air pollution are the main reasons for this. Indeed, the study of air pollution aims to understand its particularities in order to limit its effects as much as possible. To achieve this goal, we will be setting up a measurement station equipped with MQ-135 sensor networks to collect useful data and send it to a remote server. In addition to the literature review that preceded all the methods used, this approach was based on the direct observation method supported by a field survey. On the one hand, the results of this study showed that the city of Kinshasa is much more affected by the nitrogen oxide pollution emitted by industry. On the other hand, since the mission of any State is to guarantee the safety of people and their property, to help the relevant State services to have adequate technical resources for permanent monitoring of the said environments, in order to combat any possible spillover of harm. We would also like to support these services in the organization of cells to combat any nuisance, and to include a heading reserved for this purpose in state taxes. These costs continue to elude the public coffers of the city of Kinshasa, representing an enormous loss of revenue for the State.
To study the nature and magnitude of inheritance of seed yield and its components in three crosses of L. siceraria (Molina) Standl accessions involving four diverse parents under two environments, generation mean analysis was used seed yield and its components. Generations developed six generations, (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1P1 and BC1P2) were planted for evaluation in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The result showed that the additive-dominance model was adequate in explaining the inheritance of seed yield and its components. This was ascribed to a non significant estimate of A, B and C scaling tests. The results of the generation mean analysis indicated that the additive genetic effects (d) significantly accounted for a large proportion of variability observed for fruit weight, seed number and 100-seed weight in the crosses evaluated. An additive genetic effect suggests that selection among segregating population could provide an average improvement in the performance of seed yield and its components in subsequent generations. Broad and narrow-sense heritability was estimated to be high (≥ 0,5) for yield and its components at Abidjan and Manfla. That indicate a great genetic effect on these traits expression. Additive components played a major role in improving the yield component that shown strong heritability whatever environment. The number of quantitative factors revealed multigenic appearance. These results confirm the appropriateness of these yield components in improving plant efficiency. A recurrent selection scheme has proposed as an effective selection strategy for improving oleaginous gourd Lagenaria siceraria.
The aim of this work is to characterize the sedimentary hydrodynamics responsable for the morphological evolution of the beaches adjacent to the Assinie Passe. We opted a posteriori for a sedimentological approach based on granulometric analysis, for which fifty-four sand samples were taken from the three levels of the beach foreshores at varying depths, following four profiles of the two squares. These samples, subjected to physical and numerical processing, yielded graphs whose analysis reveals three granulometric stocks transported by rolling, graded suspension and saltation from coastal dunes and rivers. These predominanttly fine sandy facies are « well classified«, with acuity indices in the mesocurtic, platycurtic and rarely leptocurtic intervals. This approach shows that the beaches adjacent to the Passe of Assinie are governed by a relative sedimentary hydrodynamics, dominaded by the combination of marine currents (tide and swell) and the contribution of fluvial currents. Knowledge of the sedimentary hydrodynamics of beaches adjacent to river mouth is fundamental to the monitoring of coastal erosion and the sustainable management of the evoluting coastal environment.
This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the impact of the contributions of organic fertilizers (Tithonia diversifolia, Batguano) on the growth and yield of maize cultivation in monoculture and in association with cowpea. From this study, the following results were recorded: In monoculture, Bat-guano gives a yield of 4.18 T/Ha significantly higher than Tithonia diversifolia with 3.73 T/Ha in the QPM3 variety; 3.82 T/Ha against 2.43 T/Ha with the Mus1 variety. In maize-cowpea association, Bat-guano gives the yield of 3.19 T/Ha significantly higher than Tithonia diversifolia with 2.77T/Ha in the QPM3 variety, 2.89 T/Ha against 1.40 T/Ha with the variety Mus1. The study that was conducted highlights a clearly beneficial effect of the use of natural fertilizers, namely Tithonia and bat guano, on the cultivation of maize in monoculture as well as in association with cowpea. Data analysis indicates that the treatment with bat-guano was found to be the manure capable of significantly improving the vegetative and yield components of grain maize compared to tithonia. In general, both treatments had higher yields compared to the control (F0).
This article is a contribution to increasing the profitability of broiler breeders in Kasaï in general and in Mbujimayi in particular, by developing a feed that would cost less compared to imported commercial feed. And to consider the possibility of replacing conventional protein ingredients with Vigna sinensis and QPM maize in the broiler ration. It appears that after 42 days of observation, the commercial food (R0) was better in terms of average live weight, i.e. 2,168 grams, while the food based on corn QPM + Vigna sinensi comes second position with 1,940.7 grams. The trend was further confirmed with regard to the quantity of feed consumed per chicken, the weekly weight gain, the consumption index, the weekly cost of feed. However, it was found that the commercial feed is expensive (18,995.49 FC) and provides a low profit (7,702.98 FC) compared to the feed based on QPM maize + Vigna sinensi whose total cost was evaluated. To 14,340.48 FC and having procured a profit equivalent to 8,997.92 FC. The substitution of Vigna sinensis as a protein ingredient can thus become a basic ingredient in the formulation of Cobb 500 broiler feed to replace the commercial feed which is imported into Zambia and whose price on the market is increasing. For poultry farmers, QPM maize and Vigna sinensis will be a way out to solve food problems in terms of quantity and quality.
This article aims to analyze the thorny problems of regulating motorcycle taxis in the city of Kinshasa with regard to the abuses and anarchy observed in this transport sector. This study is also intended to be an opportunity to talk about the socio-cultural, economic, security and other impacts of motorcycle taxis in the life of the Kinshasa population, on the one hand; and in the political-administrative management system of this megalopolis, on the other hand. This article establishes the correlation between failing governance of urban authorities and actors involved in the management of motorcycle taxis in Kinshasa, it highlights the need to adapt the means of action to the local economic and political contexts and to operationalize the transport management to remedy this. The analysis centers around the need to promote effective regulation of motorcycle taxis and to create a participation framework based on consultations open to a wide range of stakeholders.
The aim of this study was the determination of phenotypic and zootechnical characterisation in ovines breeds slaughtered at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse for butchery in the city of Abidjan. Thus, a study was carried out on 160 slaughtered ovines breeds, including Djallonké and Sahelian ovine. Indeed, before slaughter, individual and direct observations of breeds, sex and coat color characteristics were done. Also, measurements of the height at the withers and the thoracic perimeter were done. Then a descriptive analysis was performed, followed by a Chi-square test for qualitative variables. In addition, an ANOVA was performed for the quantitative variables. The results show that ovines of the Sahelian breed (67.5%) are the most slaughtered. Thus, the most dominant coat colors in Djallonké and Sahelian ovine breed were respectively black-white (34.62%) and white (59.26%). Also, ovine 3 years or older (74.38%) were the most slaughtered. Djallonké and Sahelian ovine breed without horns and pendants were more slaughtered. The breed had an influence on the height at the withers (p < 2e-16) or the thoracic perimeter (p < 2e-16). Similarly, age had a significant effect on thoracic perimeter. However, the sex factor had no effect on the height at the withers and thoracic perimeter. In conclusion, the breeds, sex, ages or coat colors of slaughtered ovines at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse are diversified.