Bukavu is one of the cities of the DRC located to the east of the DRC, it is among the cities most vulnerable to climate warming. This study analyzes the trends in rainfall, number of rainy days and average temperatures station NSRF / Lwiro. From the analysis, it appears that rainfall decreases and the number of rainy days when the temperature increases from one year to another and from one decade to another. About their perception on climate change, climate risks and adaptation, a survey was conducted among 447 households selected in a random manner, in the form of Bran. These field results, it appears that the major climate risks identified by residents are the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation, rainfall deficit (drought), excessive heat and the disappearance of some terrestrial and aquatic species. Address the impacts of these risks, people questioned their own ways endogenous adaptation strategies, which are mostly more or less rational and may try to resolve issues related to climate change, it is there, the adoption of renewable energy, reforestation, the fight against deforestation etc. .. further studies, should be conducted to identify with the people of the town of Bukavu pragmatic and sustainable adaptation options.
Tea extracts are used in many over-the-counter preparations claiming to promote weight loss. The rationale for this usage includes reports that khaya extract inhibit the digestion/absorption of carbohydrate and fat into gastrointestinals tube of rats. The investigators in this study tested the potential of increasing doses of three extracts concentrations (3.3mg/Kg of khaya tea, 6.6mg/Kg of khaya tea, and 9.9mg/Kg of khaya tea) to induce weight loss, steatorrhea, and blood lipid alterations in rats ingesting a high-fat diet. During the 90 days on the HFD, the animals were treated with 3.3mg/Kg, 6.6mg/Kg and 9.9mg/Kg of body weight of khaya tea. The time course of the body weight and obesity-related biochemical parameters were evaluated. The animals were fed with a standard diet (SD, n= 6) or high-fat diet (HFD, n= 6) for 90 days. After 90 days of treatment with 3.3mg/Kg, 6.6mg/Kg and 9.9mg/Kg of body weight, Khaya tea suppressed the increases average 37.43% of the changes in body weight gain (expressed as % of initial body weight) (P< 0.05) and decreased the serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations at both doses (from 69±2 to 50.3 ±2.7 mg/dL, from 27±1 to 23.5 ±1 mg/dL; P< 0.05, respectively) after they had been increased by the HFD. The abdominal lipids content was also decreased by the diet containing khaya tea (from 7.30 ±0.11 to 5.52 ±0.16 mg/dL; P< 0.05). These results suggest that khaya tea could be a potentially therapeutic alternative in the prevention of obesity caused by a HFD.
Nature conservation had become an international preoccupation due to the global rate of deforestation which goes beyond 12 millions hectares. Until 2012, in the whole Congo bassin, the Democratic Republic of Congo had the high rate of deforestation (0.32%) while its reforestation rate was 0.1±0.3%. In this paper, criterion of classification for forest with high value for consevation are studied so to help decision maker on Uma forest conservation. Biologic diversity, ecosystems and mosaic at the landscape scale, threatened or rare ecosystems and habitats, critic ecological services, needs for community livelihood and cultural value are those criterion of classification. The results are : the mean of the value of plant diversity of Uma was 33.2 ± 6.5; the mean species richness of Uma is higher than other sites. The hugeness of this forest let that it successes to the second criterion and, the presence of some rare habitats to the third criterion. Uma forest is the source of Tshopo river which is used for fishing and on it is built the hydroelectrical station of Tshopo. This forest has many animal and plant species whose are very used by autochthon. Cultural value of this forest is most due to its inselbergs considered as sacral area. Verification of all these criterion is a great proof that Uma forest can be classified among forests with high value for conservation.
This work aims to characterize the structure and diversity of the heterogeneous population of Yoko Forest Reserve. First, we considered (i) the floristic variability (specific richness and diversity), and (ii) the structural variability (in terms of density, ground surface and diametric structure) evaluated at the scale of a hectare. The second step consisted on the analysis of the spatial structure (i) generally and its comparison to the whole plot, and (ii) specific structure of the whole plot (only the spatial structure of the important species was analyzed). So, a systematic inventory of all trees of 10 cm dbh was conducted over five hectares. It should be also noted that the position of each foot has been taken according to the coordinate system (x, y). In total, 1,919 trees of 10 cm dbh were inventoried in five hectares. These individuals were distributed into 98 genera, 141 species and 31 families; with average density of 19.6 genera per hectare, 28.2 species per hectare, and 6.2 families per hectare. The resemblance or similarity degree among the plots (Hectares) showed clearly two coherent plant communities, with a low coefficient of similarity, and each consisting of more or less close plots. Although the density is dominated by Microdesmis yafungana species J. Léonard J. but Pericopsis elata Harms species and Fabaceae family dominated other quantitative parameters. As for the structural analysis, the individuals presented a shape with a significant decrease as we moved to the next class and the most significant densities were observed in classes of diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4. Therefore, a study on the structure and diversity of heterogeneous forest populations is very important because it gives information about the natural processes of trees (growth, regeneration, demographics) as well the anthropogenic action on the forest ecosystem.
The study was conducted in the two eastern provinces of DR. Congo, namely the North and South Kivu, respectively as low-lying areas in Rutshuru and medium altitude PABU and Mulungu. The objective is to identify the variety that best suits whose seeds yield is stable in these different environments. The trials were installed after the device RCB and results of the analysis was done using the software Statistix. The results show that there was no significant difference between the varieties by the overall averages of yields (kg / ha). Considering the AFR708 varieties (2046.5kg / ha) Hm21-7 (1949.3kg / ha) and RWR2245 (1861kg / ha) have higher average returns in the three test sites and these varieties are found in the station site Mulungu where agro-ecological conditions are favorable. However, some varieties (niche) can be recommended for each site. These include: For the site of Mulungu, all varieties except ACC714 that has not made at least 800 kg / ha despite favorable crop conditions in this site; for the site PABU the varieties CODMLB033, AFR708, and CNF5520, RWR2154 and the site CEDERU the RWR2245 variety. As for the sensitivity of varieties to major diseases, the results (0.05) demonstrated a reaction ranging from resistant (for diseases Ascochyta blight, anthracnose and rust) and middle (for angular spot).
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the suitability of renewable Egyptian biomass for full-scale manufacturing process to produce particleboards of requested quality. The tested raw materials are based on Sesbania aegyptiaca plant (Sesbania Sesban), Banana pseudo-stem and grain Sorghum stalks. For evaluating these raw materials, the chemical properties of the selected materials and sugarcane bagasse (the conventional raw material in Egypt) were compared including holocellulose, Alfa-cellulose, lignin , ash contents, alcohol-benzene extractives, hot water extractives and solubility in dilute alkali (1% NaOH). In addition, the physical properties were determined including fiber length, diameter and cell wall thickness, scanning with SEM, estimate of α-cellulose degree of polymerization (DP) and pH of lignocellulosic materials. Three layers particleboards were made from the selected materials and sugarcane bagasse using urea formaldehyde (UF) as a binder. The physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured panels such as density, thickness swelling (TS), modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), and internal bond (IB) were measured and compared with those panels which were manufactured from sugarcane bagasse. Both of physical and mechanical properties of panels which are manufactured from Sesbania Sesban and grain Sorghum stalks are closed to those from sugarcane bagasse and all of produced panels met the requirement of European standard (EN 314-2010): the Load bearing boards for use in dry conditions type (P4), but panels which are manufactured from Banana pseudo-stem do not meet the requirement of European standard.
The present work pretends to produce a pioneering work for future researchers who will be interested in the Luduha comunity so far as no scientific work has ever been realezed in that area where as it is an attic agropastora of the comunity of Luhwindja. The population of Luduha community has almost doubled within fifteen years passing from 4435 in 1999 to 8550 people in 2014 or a density of 328, 8 persons/ km² average, with a birthrate of 37,4 percent but the deathrate decreases with 10,5 percent, thus a high natural demography. It is a young population where in less than twenty years old represents 66, 7 percent with a high illeteracy rate. Among them 69 household chiefs who neglect studies. The spectacular growth of the population obliges villagers to practice fields associations because the cultivable surfaces are considerably reduced and pastures have decreased in the North, besides the community remains the agropastural attic of the whote population. The community has a silver potentiality where the exploitation is entirely homemade with many consequences on the people's life such as youngful delinquency, rural depopulation and negligency of works. The trade ex-changes which are most frequent in Luduha are farmwork with manufactoral imported products from neighbours.
The behavior of bank customers is a major issue of asset liability management banking and is one of the latest recommendations of the Basel Committee with a view to better risk management. The study we propose is modeling the behavior of bank customers is especially for customer deposits ''firms'' of a Moroccan commercial bank. The data on which we have worked are taken from the summary statements (balance sheet), in order to determine the portion of these deposits, stable in function of time that the bank could use to grant loans minimizing the risk of transformation and liquidity. We therefore conclude the depositors businesses, from these results, have no visible financial behavior towards their Demand deposits. This conclusion will allow the bank not to take into account the factor of short-term interest rates as affecting the volume of available current accounts.
Despite their potential yield, the adoption of climbing beans in mountainous South Kivu is limited by the lack of technologies. Thus, appropriate technologies corresponding to poor farmer incomes should be adapted in terms of labour, soil and investment in capital so that intercropping would replace stakes and allow a better soil cover. This study was carried out at Burhale during two cultural seasons A2011 and A2012 in four sites comprising 9 trials each. The varieties used were: maize, soya-bean and beans. NPK and manure were also used. The MOJA was applied in 1st and 3rd trials and the MBILI in 2nd and 4th ones. Monoculture was practiced in 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th trials. Beans were sown 10 to 15 days after maize in 1st and 3rd trials. In 2nd, 4th and 7th trials this happened 20 to 30 days after maize. Soya-beans were sown simultaneously with maize in the 5th MBILI trial and in the 8th monoculture trial. Maize was sown on the experiment launching day. Leguminous plant yield was inferior (259.26; 271.88; 0 and 0 kg.ha-1 respectively for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th trials) to that of monoculture (2711.11 and 1100.18kg.ha-1 respectively for 6th and 7th trials). Maize yield was inferior (7564.4; 5397; 10279.61 and 842.91kg.ha-1 respectively for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th trials) to that of the 9th monoculture trial (7957.4kg.ha-1). Good LERs of 1.01 and 1.25 were found for 1st and 3rd; they were bad (0.76; 0.92 and 0.69) for 2nd, 4th and 5th trials.
This study was led in order to evaluate the health risks related to water, hygiene and cleansing in the two surfaces of health of kalehe in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (RDC).Several factors make difficult the control of the management of the urban cleansing and the access to drinking water. Within the framework of this study, investigations spares and of observation were realized to evaluate the impact of basic hygiene and the supply drinking water. It arises that the problem of the availability of drinking water in the two surfaces of continuous health selected to be a major concern for the population. Domestic waste is badly managed with causes of the absence of infrastructures of hygiene and basic cleansing, a lack of synergy of action of the actors. Concerning the other conveniences of the habitat, approximately 54, 8 % of the households do not have latrines with presence of the excrements in the court (69, 9 %). For the evacuation of the household refuse (56, 2%) throw them in the rivers what degrades the environment in these two surfaces of health of the zone of health of kalehe. A sensitizing of the population in the management of domestic waste to avoid the diseases due to the bad management of waste and the good management of water is recommended. The persistence of such practices is likely to increase the environmental and medical problems.
This paper aims at developing a simple and adapted grid to evaluate school program in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with a statistical basics. The developed model is tailored on specific evaluation basics, as well as program structures, integration of the competence-based approach and internal coherence levels. The grid was tested on the program of biology senior 4. It allows the process of self–evaluation during apprenticeship whilst it focuses to adapt didactic triangulation diagram in teaching process. In future this grid may become valuable tool for school programs set-up, dealing with universality.
A new Mefenamic acid derivative [(4-amino-5-(2-(2,3- dimethylphenyl)aminophnyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thion](L) , was synthesized and characterized by (FT-IR) , UV-Vis and 1H ,13C-NMR Spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis (C.H.N).[L] has been used as a chelating ligand to prepare some complexes of (Co(ІІ), Ni(П), Cu(П), Zn(II)and Cd(II) ions .The prepared complexes were identified and their geometrical were suggested in solid state by using (FT-IR) and (UV-Vis) spectroscopy ,elemental analysis(C.H.N), Flame atomic absorption technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements . The work also include a theoretical treatment of the formed complexes in the gas phase, this was done using the (hyperchem-8) program for the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The heat of formation (ΔHf○) and binding energy (ΔEb) for ligand and their complexes were calculated by (PM3) method at 298 K○. It was found that the ligand [L] and its metal complexes were stable, which agreed well with the experimental studies in solid state. Furthermore the electrostatic potential of the free ligand [L] was calculated to investigate the reactive sites of the molecules. PM3 were used to evaluate the bond length and vibrational spectra for the ligand [L] and their metal complexes then comparing with the experimental values. The work, which also included the induce Photostabilization of (PVC) film in air was investigated in the absence and presence of [L] and its complexes with transition metals (Co(ІІ), Ni(ІІ), Cu(ІІ), Zn(II)and Cd(II) by accelerated weathering tester. Polymer has been mixed with these complexes in solvent which containing of complex 0.5 % by weight. The photostabilization activity of these compounds was determined by monitoring the carbonyl (ICO),polyene(Ipo) and hydroxyl (IOH) indexes, weight loss method with irradiation time. It was found that the (ICO) (Ipo) and (IOH) indexes values increased with irradiation time and this increase depend on the type of additives.
Alzheimer is defined as the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person's daily functioning. The appearance of Alzheimer's Disease symptoms are resulted based on which part of the brain has a variety of infection or damage. Therefore, MRI is the best biomedical instrumentation to detect Alzheimer's Disease. For that reason, this paper proposes a novel method for detecting Alzheimer's Disease in MRI images using thresholding and morphology. In this paper, we analyzed 20 MRI images collected from OASIS brains database to detect the threshold that will allow our program to automatically detect Alzheimer's Disease existence in MRI images. Automatically Image Classification is one of the challenging problems of our recent era. So, we have implemented and tested our proposed technique and the end results have 98% accuracy.
By this study we want to know the degree knowledge of Goma students about relatives numbers. Can the vacation of the school have an incidence to the performance of students or to be girl or boy can come above it.
The present study was designed to assess the serum cytokines [Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and they were correlated with severity of disease by spirometric measurements. Finding of the present study is that among the severity of COPD stages, there was significant (p<0.01) difference in the level of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in serum among the very severe COPD than mild, moderate and severe COPD patients. There was direct correlation in cytokines levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with COPD and their severity. The present study signifies that the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 are directly proportional to the post bronchodilator FEV1 percentage. Our results provide population-based evidence that COPD is independently associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, with a different inflammatory pattern than that observed in healthy subjects. Overall, these results identify a novel systemic inflammatory COPD phenotype that may be the target of specific research and treatment.
This paper presents the research study on the inventory of the legume used in forestry and forage in the high altitude of South-Kivu (in high altitude of Kahuzi-Biega National Park, villages of Muhongoza (Kalehe), Nacibimba (Kabare) and Burhale (Walungu). We used the survey, transect and collection methods. At the end of this research we found 21 species of legume, 2 species are used in forestry and 19 are forage species.
This article argues that junior researchers in literary criticism should learn to interpret literary texts in ecocritical approach as they do with the rest of the literary devices of age. Strategies to carry out the interpretation exercises are suggested for the learner to find a guide along his path towards reaching the meaning that the story conveys. Ecocritical approach reaches results that are not different from a tool of speech for the defense of the environment. The whole work aims to make it clear to the researcher about the ecocritical reading techniques applicable to both poesy and prose that fit the nature-reading paradigm.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum.L) is one of the most important oilseed crops, having seeds and oil that are highly valued as a traditional health food and recently, natural antioxidants have gained increased interest because natural food ingredients are safer than synthetic ones. Antioxidant activity and bioactive molecular tests were carried out on 16cultivars of sesame seeds from different areas in the world. This activity was found to be high ranging between 59 and 64% for the samples; this result can be related to the large amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents with the values 3.79-3.97 mg/g and 0.127-0.147mg/g respectively. The flavonols content was ranging between 0.400 and 0.421mg/g EQ per mg extract. those results strongly suggest that phenolics compounds are a good natural antioxidant and also put the American cultivar in the first choice for the customer with the Indian and Morocco ones. Due to its all favorable properties; sesame seeds could be used in either food or cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
This article studies the drawing theory of Francisco de Holanda through the sketchbook De Aestatibus Mundi Imagines (1543-1573). This graphic work reveals the author's artistic life through the parts that compose it. The visual production of Holanda is marked by two poles, chronologically demarcated: i) first stage – Humanist Thought (youth, journey to Italy, treaties Da Pintura Antigua, Diálogos em Roma and Do Tirar Polo Natural) and ii) second stage – Trent Thought (distancing from the court, doctrine of faith, spirituality, treaties Da Fabrica que Falece na Cidade de Lisboa and Da Sciencia do Desenho). The album De Aestatibus Mundi Imagines permeates these two phases, given the interregnum of its production, and show the matrix of thought of Holanda, between classicism and reforms. This period of 20 years alternated between importance of observational drawing in Renaissance humanism and the post-Council of Trent, where the drawing was under suspicion. The studied work materializes through the direction of that conflict.
An elegant CMOS LNA design using feed-forward noise and distortion cancellation technique is presented in this paper. The design is implemented in 130nm CMOS technology. In comparison to other conventional technique the proposed LNA shows improvement in performance parameter such as NF, gain, stability and power dissipation. . In this paper a CMOS inverter along with resistive negative feedback is used to provide necessary biasing and impedance matching at input port. The LNA design is inductorless and hence the size is small. Using this technique LNA shows a gain of 34-22 dB with a noise figure of 1.6-1.9dB for operating bandwidth of 600 MHz – 3GHz. The proposed LNA drains 13mA current from 1.2V power supply.
The present study investigated the biology and ecology of Eremospatha haullevilleana De Wild. in the forest Reserve of the Yoko; one of the remnants of the primary forests in the Congo Basin, Democratic Republic Congo. The study aimed to evaluate the growth rate and the rate of formation of the new buds on the tufts in different conditions of light availability. 32 small rattan tufts were selected along 3000 m of phenologic trail and observed for a period of 9 months, from April to December 2008. The regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between the growth, new buds formation rates and the light availability. The results showed that the growth rate of stem increased with time in open-up and semi-open-up habitats, whereas it decreased in shaded habitats. The open-up habitats appeared to be favorable environments to the survival of the stems of E. haullevilleana De Wild. Therefore, the formation of new buds was found to be slow (2 to 4 buds during the 9 months of investigation); and the ratio of underground biomass over surface biomass decreased with the density of light.
Salvadora Persica is a plant known for its medicinal properties whose variety of pharmacological activities have been reported by many studies. Volatile extracts of Salvadora persica are obtained either by hydrodistilation or by using a Soxhlet apparatus from crushed roots by using hexane as solvent. The obtained result by hexane extraction 2.5% has given better results than the one got by steam distillation 0.05%. Thus, the extracts obtained have been analyzed by coupling (GC-MS). The following products are among the many products identified: The Eugenol, the Asarone the Borneol the Carvacrol, vanillin, the Cuminal, Camphor, Acetamide the n-benzyl, the benzyl Isocianate and the oily acids Oleic and palmitic that represents the majority of the products extracted. The essential oil of action Persica - on Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the method aromatogram- shows that these bacteria are inhibited. Therefore, essential oil Miswak generated a zone of inhibition of 40, 25 and 15mm respectively on Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Meanwhile, it did not influence Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils has been evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Comparing the antibacterial effect with antibiotics, it was observed that the Miswak has a noticeable antibacterial power. It may, then, be an excellent oral hygiene agent.
The conversion of sunlight into electricity using solar cells system (10-14%) is worthwhile way of producing solar energy. The rapid fall in solar cell prices leads researchers to intensify their research on efficiency improvement of solar cells and to further reduce the costs of the fabrication process. Bangladesh receives strong sunshine throughout the whole year (3.8-6.42 Kw-hr/m2) and it has been found that the average sunshine hours are 6.69, 6.16 and 4.81in winter, summer and monsoon, respectively. Bangladesh has good prospect of converting this sunlight into electricity through solar system, but there is no technology developed to fabricate solar cell locally in our country. To introduce this technology first time in Bangladesh "Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission" has set up a laboratory to fabricate and research on crystalline silicon solar cell. This paper presents a solar cell fabrication process, in our solar cell fabrication laboratory, starts with a 200μm thick p-type silicon wafer using a diffusion technique with phosphorus oxy-chloride (POCl3) gas source and metallization with screen printer. The resulting solar cell is mono-facial and it is fabricated using phosphorous diffusion and screen printing technique. Initially the efficiency of our fabricated solar cell was very low because it's very sensitive and depends on various parameters. The best achieved efficiency of our fabricated solar cell, using a screen printed and firing through metallization, on 161 cm2 (total area) silicon wafers was about 7.0 %.
Montagnea arenaria (DC) Zeller is a secotioïde Basidiomycetes, coprinoïde how is adapted for arid and desert environments is collected for the first time in the cork oak forest of Mamora (Kenitra region in the north west of Morocco). In this work, the collected specimens are described, taxonomy and ecology of M. arenaria (DC) are also discussed.
This study has been led to develop Bambara groundnut in Côte d'Ivoire, legume under used, using it as part of fortification and substitution of wheat for the production of bread flour. The physicochemical characteristics of the flour composed and breads, followed by the sensory analysis of the witness (100% wheat flour) breads and compound bread where wheat flour (FB) is overridden at the rate of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by the bambara groundnut seeds were made. Going from 0% to 20% substitution, the chemical composition of the FB/FV breads improves respectively in protein, ash, fibre and fat. FB/FV breads from the rate of substitution have volumes significantly higher than bread witness. Sensory evaluation indicates that there are no significant difference (p≤0, 05) between the light bread and all breads FB/FV. This study would suggest that seeds of bambara groundnut could be properly incorporated into the flour of wheat until the rate of 20%.