The present study was designed to assess the serum cytokines [Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and they were correlated with severity of disease by spirometric measurements. Finding of the present study is that among the severity of COPD stages, there was significant (p<0.01) difference in the level of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in serum among the very severe COPD than mild, moderate and severe COPD patients. There was direct correlation in cytokines levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with COPD and their severity. The present study signifies that the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 are directly proportional to the post bronchodilator FEV1 percentage. Our results provide population-based evidence that COPD is independently associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, with a different inflammatory pattern than that observed in healthy subjects. Overall, these results identify a novel systemic inflammatory COPD phenotype that may be the target of specific research and treatment.
The challenging issue in the design and deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the key management and authentication scheme due to the constraints in the sensor networks. The major constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks are large memory storage, more computational complexity and limited resource. Hence, in order to overcome these constraints and to achieve secure communication between sensor nodes, it is important to establish an efficient key predistribution mechanism. Inspite of the fact that many elegant and clever solutions have been proposed, no practical efficient key predistribution has emerged. The existing key management scheme in WSN using ECC provides a predistribution scheme with bigger key sizes and increased memory overhead. The computational complexity is also high which increases the processing time. The recent progress and research on HECC provides new opportunities to utilize public-key cryptography in Wireless Sensor Networks. The key generation for HECC polynomial using genus-2 curve was performed. The encryption and decryption algorithm for HECC was formulated. The key predistribution using HECC and ECC were implemented in wireless sensor network and simulated using NS2 simulator. The various performance analysis namely delay, throughput and power for both HECC and ECC were performed and the results are shown. It is inferred from the results that the proposed HECC scheme outperforms the existing ECC scheme. Further in this project work, the Blind Signature using HECC and Digital Signature using HECC has been implemented in WSN using NS2. The various performance metrics for both the signature schemes have been obtained and the results were compared.
Nowadays digital camera technology and video processing techniques are increased worldwide. Due to this, the conventional fire detection methods are going to be replaced by computer vision based systems. The computer vision based systems detection has a significant role with surveillance system. Most of the algorithms used in the existing techniques propose spectral, spatial, temporal and other low level features of fire for distinguishing it from other objects in video sequences. This paper proposes a new approach to computational vision-based fire and flame detection by using a fuzzy logic edge detection and motion detection with ANN-SVM classifier as classification tool. The edge detection using fuzzy canny edge detection technique and the motion detection using motion estimation are use for fire and flame detection and ANN-SVM classifier is useful for the final classification. Finally, it decided whether the objects that have changed in that video are flame or not. Therefore, this method detects both smoke and flame effectively and obtain high accuracy by reduce false alarm rate.
Analyzing the stability of similariton pulse in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. The intracavity elements comprise an Yb doped fiber, a saturable absorber and a single mode fiber. Stability of the pulse has been investigated in the presence of the higher order linear and nonlinear effects of third order dispersion and self-steepening respectively.