Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce disturbances of several biochemical parameters especially in patients with severe or critical forms of the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive markers of the severity of COVID-19.Materials and methods: Retrospective descriptive study, involving 129 COVID-19 positive patients. Patients were classified into two cohorts: severe (n=103) and non-severe (n=26) cases. The ROC curve and the associated area under the curve determination were used to determine the predictors of disease severity.Results: The comparison between the two groups shows that the values of AST, GGT, LDH, CPK, CRP, Ferritin, PCT, Urea, Magnesium, Troponin I and BNP were significantly higher in patients with severe forms of COVID-19 compared to those with non-severe forms. While albumin, Chlorine and Calcium were significantly decreased in severe patients. ROC curve analysis showed that Albumin (AUC = 0.779), LDH (AUC = 0.798) and PCT (AUC = 0.732) have a medium predictive value for the severity of COVID-19. While the prognostic value were good for BNP (AUC = 0.854), CRP (AUC = 0.845) and high sensitivity Troponin I (AUC = 0.812).Conclusion: The identification of biological factors predictive of the severity and/or mortality of COVID-19 infection will allow the development of predictive models of disease severity and their complementary uses in clinical practice for risk stratification and for early and adapted management to minimize the mortality rate and for rational allocation of medical resources.
This study focuses on perceived stress and the COVID-19 pandemic among employees of a company in the Gabonese oil sector. It assesses the relationships between the sub-modalities of the covid-19 pandemic (knowledge of the pandemic, compliance with barrier measures and the effect of the pandemic) on perceived stress, on the one hand, and on the other hand the degree of stress perceived among employees diagnosed as co-morbid and not co morbid. The data from a questionnaire submitted to 54 men and women employees made it possible to establish an inter-correlation matrix, linear regressions on the pandemic, perceived stress and the type of employees who participated in this research. At the end of all these analyzes, we record strong and significant links; 1) between the quality of work, professional relationships and perceived stress; 2) between compliance with barrier measures, knowledge of the pandemic, the effect of the pandemic and the perception of COVID-19. To a lesser extent; 3) no difference recorded in the level of perceived stress between co-morbid and non-co-morbid employees while waiting for their results after the screening session.
The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between pollen rain, climatic parameters and surface sediments in the Sudano-Guinean zone. Pollen rain was evaluated from the pollen analysis of 30 samples of surface sediments treated by the method of Faegri and Iversen (1989). The sediments were subjected to treatment with Hcl 10%, HF 10% and acetolysis. The floristic inventory was carried out on 500 m2 plots in the Zou, Bassila and South Borgou phytodistricts in the Sudano-Guinean zone. A total of 30 surveys were obtained and submitted to the R software (R Core Team, 2019) for the various analyses. The climatic factors listed are temperature, rainfall and altitude. Pollen analysis identified a total of 271 taxa. The phytodistrict of Zou has the highest pollen richness (97 taxa) while the lowest is found in Bassila (60 taxa). Shannon's diversity index is between 3 and 4 and Piélou's equitability index is between 0.596 and 0.632. The results obtained on the relationship between pollen diversity, climatic parameters and soil characteristics in the Sudano-Guinean zone in Benin, allow us to affirm that soil texture and structure, climatic parameters such as altitude and average temperature condition the deposition and conservation of pollen and positively influence the pollen abundance in surface sediments.
This part of our study focuses on the quantification and identification of potentially pathogenic bacteria from wild dumps in the municipality of Ibanda. The random sampling in the wild dumps was taken according to the standard of the Quebec expertise Center of environmental analysis (CEAEQ), which makes it possible to evaluate the average contamination of the environment. Hand and equipment desinfection was carried out using ethanol (70%). The bottles were placed in an isothermal bag (±4°C) and then immediately transported to the LPVMA/UOB laboratory for further treatment. We made decimal dilutions, from 100 to a 10-3 dilution. For each dilution and culture medium, Pétri dishes were inoculated in triplicate and incubation was carried out at 37°C in a Memert incubator for 24 hours. Microsoft Excel and Past softwares were used to calculate the means of each CFUs collection and to perform the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test that compare the median of the data between columns. The results showed that FMAT germs were generally more frequent at all sites than Enterococci that were absent at more than half (60%) of the sites. Pseudomonas averaged 300 CFU/g10-6 at 5 out of 8 sites including DSELA, DSCA, DSMUSH, DSKM, and DSRGK. Salmonella and Shigella were present in all wild dumps with a maximum average value of 160 CFU/g10-6. Nonetheless they were poorly represented in the DSGB and DSCS sites. The DSELA site had more fecal and total coliforms than the DSKR site where they were absent. Enterococci were the most represented with 38.8% and 36.79% respectively in the DSCS and DSMUSH sites and coliforms are represented with 24.75% in the DSELA site. Yet Enterococci were absent in the DSELA, DSISP, DSRGK, DSPC, and DSKM sites where the absence of CFT was also reported. Concerning the prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria, Nyalukemba district was in the lead with 61.4% of Enterococci, followed by Ndendere district with 57.18% of fecal and total coliforms. The Ndendere district seems to be the most exposed to diseases potentially related to wild dumps, followed by the Panzi district depending on the prevalence of bacterial groups. On 10 sites explored, 8 genera were identified on the selective medium, namely Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingomonas and Vibrio. The implementation of the 3Rs strategy (Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse) as well as the installation of a biomethanysation plant could reduce the consequences of waste on the population and the environment.
The Lobo River reservoir, the main source of drinking water supply for the municipality of Daloa, is facing a deterioration in its quality. This study aims to assess the quality of this resource. The physico-chemical and chemical parameters of this water were determined during the two seasons of the year 2020. The methodological approach consisted firstly of characterizing the water in the reservoir in relation to the WHO guide values; secondly, determining the phenomena that govern the mineralization of this water and, thirdly, calculating the organic pollution index (OPI) and the water quality index (WQI) of the reservoir. The results show that the physico-chemical parameters (T, pH and EC) comply with the WHO guide values. However, the water has a high turbidity, with a very strong colour in all seasons. Phosphate (0.93 mg/L), ammonium (1.48 mg/L), total iron (2.99 mg/L) and manganese (0.66 mg/L) concentrations are high. On the other hand, chlorides, nitrates and nitrites remain low in both seasons. On the other hand, chlorides, nitrates and nitrites remain low in both seasons. Normalized Principal Component Analysis (NPCA) revealed that the mineralization of this water is of natural and anthropogenic origin. The water quality (2.25 to 3.25) and organic pollution (429.73 to 693.31) indices show that the water in the reservoir is unfit for consumption, with moderate pollution in the dry season and heavy pollution in the rainy season.
The literature on sexual behavior, including its characteristics, explanatory factors and consequences, is very abundant. Unfortunately, little or no work addresses the life courses and the influence of cultural and socioeconomic heritage patterns in which sexual activity occurs at the beginning of women's fertile lives. This article examines the sexual behavior of adolescent girls between 2006 and 2018 in Benin through the lens of capabilities. Data from the last three (03) Benin Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2006 and 2018 were used to identify factors associated with early sexuality among adolescent girls in Benin.The variable explained was first early sexual intercourse. The discrete-time logistic regression method used led to the results that, taking into account the effect of duration and timing variables, the factors associated with early sexual debut in adolescence are residence in the departments of Atacora/Donga and Alibori/Borgou; low level of schooling or lack of schooling; and membership in a religion of Muslim and Christian persuasion. Taking into account the standard of living of the households and the activity carried out by the adolescents, it is noted that adolescents living in an environment of average standard of living have significantly different sexual behaviors from other adolescents in recent years. The risk of early sexual debut is greater in this social group, all other things being equal. Social position, educational background, and cultural identity are among the factors that influence adolescents' ability to manage their own sexuality.
The nutritional status of students of school age and adolescents is of great concern to any country. This study aimed to assess the eating habits and nutritional status of students aged 5 to 18 from urban households of the district communal 1 of Niamey. 300 households in six districts were surveyed, 97% of the heads of households were men, 87% of these heads were monogamous. Each head of household had an average of 10 people in charge. Among the 623 students surveyed, 55% are boys against 45% girls, the majority (65%) were in primary school, 63% in public schools. Students in the 10-14 age group (48%) were the most abundant. The nutritional status of the students was evaluated according to 2006 WHO standards. Thus, it came out with the proportion of 2.56% overweight, 1.44% obesity all grades combined. Also, the coexistence of underweight (9.30%) with a proportion of 15.97% of growth retardation 66% of wasting according and emaciation to BMI and MUAC. On the other hand, the proportion of acute malnutrition according to the weight-for-height index (22.2%) as well as underweight only concerned the age group of 5 to 9 years. The extracurricular sport was rarely practiced by the students (27%). The dietary diversity score was assessed according to FAO references. Eating habits varied and diverse for 74% of the students and the most consumed food groups were cereals (99%), then fruits (97.7%). Although, strongly correlated with the socioeconomic level of the parents.
This paper proposes a revised Lambda-Gamma algorithm applied to the solution of a short-term hydrothermal planning problem. It is a Lambda-Gamma algorithm, which, in addition to the Newton-Raphson method for solving the coordination equations, also specifies the direction of adjustment of the Lambda and Gamma parameters according to the convergence conditions. This gives it the particularity of being more explicit, detailed and easy to implement. Next, the performance of this revised algorithm is compared with that of the Newton-Raphson Approximate algorithm for hydrothermal planning. From this comparison, it is found that the proposed algorithm outperforms and is more robust than the approximate Newton-Raphson algorithm given its convergence to a global minimum even when the practical constraints of generator power limits are taken into account. In addition, the conformity of the results obtained with those of the literature, allowed to validate the algorithm.