The imbalances experienced by low voltage distribution networks following the individualization of energy consumption among domestic subscribers as well as the presence of non-linear loads in the network, reduce the quality of electrical energy and are accompanied by consequences which can on the one hand reduce the lifespan of certain equipment and on the other hand, lead to a resizing of equipment and cables in the network.
However, the objective pursued in this work was to carry out a study that could eliminate imbalances and reduce the rates of harmonic distortions in a low voltage network.
Indeed, the processed data were obtained following measurements carried out at the secondary level of transformer number 13 of 160kVA of the distribution network of the Gécamines city (MAMPALA district). These different measurements were carried out over a period of one week for a sampling time of 20 min using an MS2205 three-phase digital clamp multimeter.
Analysis of different data has proven that this network is out of balance with imbalance rates of up to 26%. The presence of non-linear loads in this network generates harmonic currents with harmonic distortion rates of up to 13.8 or 14% which leads to the presence of distorting power in the network. The latter reached a peak of around 15kVAD.
Different techniques for decontaminating low voltage networks are possible, within the framework of this thesis we have opted for the modern depollution technique, that is to say active filtering. We used a four-arm parallel active filter. The reference currents were identified using the synchronous reference method, the DC bus voltage was controlled by a neuro-fuzzy regulator and the filter was controlled by modulated hysteresis.
The results obtained after simulation on Matlab-Simulink proved that connecting the four-arm parallel active filter to the low voltage network eliminated the imbalance and reduced the current harmonic distortion rate from 13.8 to 1.59%.
It is following the increase in the population of the city of Lubumbashi on the one hand and the intensification of semi-industrial activity on the other hand that we deemed it appropriate to undertake a study on the estimation of the energy demand of the annex commune of the city of Lubumbashi.
The choice of the annex commune was motivated by the fact that it is the belt of the city of Lubumbashi and is currently undergoing spectacular development in infrastructure and will therefore need a significant demand for electrical energy.
The city of Lubumbashi is made up of seven municipalities which are: Lubumbashi, Kamalondo, Kenya, Katuba, Kampemba, Ruashi and the Annex commune. The growth rate over the last ten years of sampling is estimated at 42% and clearly shows that there is a need to know the demand trend curve in order to predict future energy needs.
The objective of this communication will then be to estimate the energy demand of the Annex municipality.
To achieve our objective, we started by mapping the said municipality by listing the different loads (houses, schools, churches, semi-industrial sector, etc.), so to assess future energy demand, we used the Bottom-up model.
What disorders are treated by Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) ? Which CBT techniques are most commonly used for treatment? What are the major challenges encountered in the use of CBT? These are the concerns of this research. Some of the mental health facilities in the city of Goma where CBT is applied were targeted. Using the survey method supported by the interview and documentary technique, then accompanied by thematic content analysis, we noted that depressive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, acute stress, generalised anxiety disorder, delusional disorders and social phobia followed by chronic hallucinatory psychosis and PMD are the main psychopathologies dealt with. Cognitive restructuring, modelling, assertiveness techniques and acceptance and commitment therapy are hardly ever used; psychoeducation and relaxation remain the most widely used CBT techniques. The lack of adequate training by CBT therapists, the incompleteness of sessions (some stop after 3 or 4 sessions) by patients, the client’s level of education, the lack of a well-defined institution in the region or in the country as a whole that specialises in CBT training, and patients’ socio-economic difficulties are the main challenges encountered in the use or practice of CBT.
The aim of this study was to test the validity of using morphometric data and stomach morphology to differentiate species of the genus Chrysichthys. Forty-one morphological measurements and three meristics descriptors were recorded for each of the 203 specimens sampled in five Ivorian river basins. The stomach structure of around thirty fish was also analyzed. The result confirmed the presence of the species of the two subgenera of the genus Chrysichthys found in West Africa. It is the subgenus C. chrysichthys, represented by the species C. maurus and the subgenus C. melanodactylus whose species are C. nigrodigitatus and C. johnelsi. The results of the examination of fish stomach shapes also showed speciation in individuals of the Chrysichthys genus. Specimens of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus showed five morphotypes, each specific to the environment of the fish. The species Chrysichthys maurus is characterized by two morphotypes while only one morphotype has been revealed within Chrysichthys johnelsi. The shape of the stomach therefore differs according to the species and the environment of the fish. In the end, the anatomy of the stomach confirmed the differentiations made by the study of morphometric variables.
This study investigated the influence of the social environment on the questions asked by 3-6 year olds in the city of Lodja. To do this, we asked ourselves why children aged 3 to 6 ask a lot of questions and how the immediate environment (parents, teachers, brothers and sisters) reacts to the questions asked by the children. To answer these questions, we asked 50 parents whose children were aged 3 to 6. At the end of the analyses, we found that it is curiosity (90%) and the desire to know the realities of the world or the environment around them, so that they can grow up (40%), that pushes children to ask their parents a lot of questions; more often than not, parents do not have the time to answer the questions asked by their children. Only 30% are used to answering them; the refusal to answer the child’s questions can generate the following consequences: deprivation of the information he needs, sadness, trauma, shyness, frustration, revolt against the environment and loss of confidence in the parents.
The aim of this study was to identify the degree of correlation between the self-esteem of Grade 6 students in the Provincial City of Kinshasa and their performance in mathematics. To do this, we collected data from 850 students in 14 schools, using a self-esteem questionnaire and the mathematics test.
After statistical analyses, we found that self-esteem affects students’ performance in mathematics. Indeed, students who consider themselves strong in mathematics performed well, while those who consider themselves weak performed poorly. Therefore, we need to foster students’ good self-perception, as this can affect their academic development positively or negatively.
The results of this study, which focused on the profile of kindergarten teachers in Kisangani, show that the teachers working in the schools of Kisangani are qualified. All are trained in the field of teaching. Also, most of the educators had been teaching for between 0 and 10 years (54/80) or in their respective classrooms (66/80). Finally, as compensatory strategies, the majority of the respondents had teacher training, either specific training in the field, ranging from one to nine times.
Man is called upon to communicate with his fellow human beings by means of language implemented either by speech or by writing.
In undertaking this research, we wanted to identify the level of mastery of 5th grade primary school students in Kisangani in French spelling and reading comprehension and to evaluate the degree of correlation between the performance of these students in spelling and reading comprehension. The data analysed in this study came from the educational planning and evaluation service of the University of Kisangani. After analysis, it was found that the performance of the students was low in both spelling and reading. And, there is a positive and significant correlation between spelling and reading performance. This suggests that a student who can write understands what he or she is writing and vice versa.
The objective of this study was to identify the motivations that lead pupils in the 6th year of secondary school in Kisangani to choose faculties and/or courses of study in higher and university education. We therefore estimated that the motivations behind the choice of faculties and/or courses of study by pupils finishing secondary school in Kisangani are essentially based on the possibility of finding a job at the end of their studies.
To test this hypothesis, we administered a questionnaire to 100 sixth-grade students in secondary schools in the commune of Makiso, one of the six communes that make up the city of Kisangani. From the data collected, we proceeded to a frequency count, converted into a percentage.
At the end of the analyses, we arrived at the results according to which the motivations which push these pupils to choose these faculties or branches of study are based on the aptitudes which they possess and acquired throughout their current secondary school sections. These results invalidate our hypothesis that the possibility of finding a job is the basis for our respondents’ choice of faculties or fields of study at ESU. Thus, educators need to focus on training so that students develop skills that will help them to pursue further studies.
The aim of this study was to carry out a socio-agronomic characterisation of rice farms and to determine the level of farmers’ perception of rice blast management practices in Burkina Faso.
The study was carried out in four rice-growing lowlands in the villages of Dî and Lanfièra in the Sourou Valley and Bama and Tonwogoma in the Kou Valley. A random sample of 120 rice farmers was included in the study. The results of the study indicate a very high level of illiteracy among farmers (≥40%), depending on the site, and a low level of participation by women in rice production. Farming practices are characterised by heavy use of the FKR64, FKR84 and FKR2 varieties and by heavy application of organic manure and chemical fertilisers, depending on the area. The majority of farmers recognise rice blast on their plots and use control methods such as varietal control, chemical and mechanical control and moisture control before storage. None of the farmers uses bio-pesticides in their production system. This study shows that farmers have a good knowledge of blast disease and use endogenous control methods. However, farmers are not very familiar with the use of bio-pesticides. For more efficient and healthier control, it is vital to raise farmers’ awareness of the need to use improved resistant varieties and bio-pesticides, with the support of research structures.
The extent of the scientific literature on sickle cell disease in Gabon over the last thirty years and the areas of study are not known. However, the exponential growth trend shows that there is an area of research that should be explored. The question here is to find out in which fields studies on sickle cell disease have already been carried out since 1990, 33 years of research. Because the environment can influence clinical signs in different patients, every African country is carrying out scientific research to improve the care of their patients. This review examines the history of research into sickle Cell Disease in Gabon. In Gabon, research into sickle cell disease is being carried out in all areas of epidemiology, screening, medical and psycho-clinical management, and pathologies associated with sickle cell disease and endangering the vital prognosis of Gabonese sickle cell patients. Traditional Gabonese pharmacopoeia plays a very important role in the management of this disease. Ultimately, local healthcare professionals should be familiar with the latest guidelines and resources specific to Gabon for the most accurate and up-to-date information on sickle cell disease management.
The Aghien lagoon is expected to provide drinking water for the population of Abidjan. Hydrodynamic modelling is therefore required to assess the impact of this operation, coupled with the impact of climate change, on the functioning of this lagoon ecosystem. The aim of our work is to determine the hydrodynamic parameters required for this exercise. The methodology consisted of surveying sections of the lagoon and its un-surveyed tributaries using a Work Horse Rio Grande Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The results show that the effect of upwelling is clearly evident in sections 1 and 3 of the channel, with velocity vectors directed towards the Aghien lagoon. The mean velocity is around 0.42 m/s at low tide, compared to 0.385 m/s at high tide in section 03. The greatest variation in mean flow velocity was observed in section 02, with values increasing from 0.23 m/s at low tide to 0.18 m/s at high tide. However, the effect of upwelling attenuated the mean flow rates from 57.77 m3/s to 40.29 m3/s in section 2 (Mé section) and from 265.15 m3/s to 237.22 m3/s in section 3 (downstream channel). The flow in the northern part of the lagoon is low (0.007 m/s) and the velocity vectors point in opposite directions.
The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence the decision to outsource the accounting function in SMEs in Cameroon. To do this, we propose an analytical model for understanding the outsourcing decision-making process. The approach adopted is exploratory qualitative research based on a sample of 20 individuals, all players in the accounting process (company managers, accountants and chartered accountants. The results revealed that the main factors influencing the decision of SMEs are: cost reduction (salary; tax optimisation), refocusing on the core business, tax pressures and certain structural (size) and behavioural (profile of players) contingency factors.
This article is a review of the literature aimed at gaining a better understanding of the phenomena involved in belt drive systems. The numerous works on this subject (theory and experimentation) published over the last 2 centuries reveal three main approaches to the problem. In the first, the authors sought to determine the actual cause of the tension difference in the belt strands, through either friction or shear theory. The main objective was an attempt to explain the phenomena at work in the pulley/belt contact zone. Published work advocating the second approach aimed to solve the various equations of motion translating the excitation mechanisms of the belt’s transverse vibrations. This approach deliberately neglected the belt’s bending stiffness. The authors who proposed the latter approach investigated the equations of motion, as in the previous approach, but this time integrating the belt’s physical characteristics (bending stiffness, damping modes, thickness). This literature review finally shows that the various theoretical and experimental studies (notably with test benches) indicate that bending stiffness plays a non-negligible role in belt excitation and generates speed fluctuations at the crankshaft. The existence of this fluctuation results in the different vibratory modes to which the belt is subjected.
Given that entrepreneurial support constitutes an essential lever in all economic development policies, as it creates a conducive environment for entrepreneurship by providing entrepreneurs with necessary conditions, financing opportunities, and networking to develop their businesses, Morocco has launched several programs and mechanisms to support entrepreneurship. These initiatives aim to encourage and assist young individuals in starting businesses and to support existing enterprises in revitalizing or sustaining their activities. With this in mind, we deemed it important to examine the current state of various entrepreneurial support programs and mechanisms established by the Moroccan government for project initiators and existing businesses To accomplish this, the structure of this paper begins by presenting the conceptual foundations of entrepreneurship, with special attention given to the concept of entrepreneurial support. Subsequently, we will present the results of an inventory of all entrepreneurship support programs and mechanisms, which we conducted through a thorough documentary review involving entrepreneurship stakeholders. This inventory compiles and categorizes these support initiatives implemented by Moroccan authorities since the early 2000s to foster to foster the growth of its entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Cocoa farming makes Côte d’Ivoire the largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans in the world. this leads to the reduction of the forest area to 80%. However, these vegetal formations are a source of many goods and services for the population. Despite the intensification of cocoa production, producers preserve and/or grow woody species in association with cocoa trees. Recent studies reveal that the type and dimensions of species, as well as the ecosystem services provided by Traditional Agroforestry Systems to Cocoa (SAF) are determined by peasants. Our objective is therefore to contribute to a better knowledge of SAF by studying the preserved woody stand in cocoa SAF, in the western area of Côte d’Ivoire, with strong agricultural dynamics. Floristic inventories were carried out in 75 plots of 400 m2 each and ethnobotanical surveys concerned 100 producers. The results showed that the preserved flora is diversified and rich of 48 species with 44 genera distributed among 27 families, among that the most dominant are Euphobiaceae (13 p.c.) and Fabaceae (10 p.c.). The preserved species are useful in 12 uses categories dominated more than 35% by traditional medecine, food, firewood, timber and trade. In the current context of global change, these results make possible to value the resources of SAF but also help to find how to guarantee the resilience of production systems and food security.
This research was focused on the problem of lubrication of the TIGER engine in the Mbujimayi city, which causes harmful problems on this type of engine and which has an impact on the socio-economic life of Mbujimayi’s population. For that we tried to know the causes of the lack or the bad lubrication in the TIGER engine in order to propose some solutions to guarantee the long life of the engine.
The results obtained showed that a large part of the people interviewed, 83%, do not know why oil-gasoline should be mixed at the time of purchase and 17% have limited knowledge of this mixture. At the end of this study, it also emerged that 40% of the breakdowns that occur on the TIGER engine are wear and tear and is caused to 71.4% by the lack or poor lubrication.
Lubricating oils are essential to ensure the proper functioning of an engine. They are composed of base oils of petroleum or synthetic origin and additives. The latter confer good properties to lubricating oils. However, these characteristics can be lost after use. The lubricating oils of the engine type become black during its use, and this is due to their degradation because of several phenomena, such as oxidation, contamination, as well as corrosion and other phenomena.
The results obtained showed well, that this engine oil degrades quickly, and also remarkable with the change of color that becomes more and more black, contains solid contaminants that can be the cause of engine damage. In addition, of the mills in the Dibindi market, 94% are equipped with single-cylinder diesel engines. Of these 94%, only 29% of the mills reuse the used oil, and 48% of the users do so because of lack of financial means, and 43% prefer to earn a lot of money by reducing the expenses related to the purchase of new oil. 49% do not know the negative consequences that would happen if they reuse used oil; and finally, in the single-cylinder diesel engines targeted, 25% of the breakdowns are due to bad lubrication or bad lubricants.