This paper provides a survey of various data mining techniques. These techniques include Association rule, Fuzzy logic, Decision tree and neural network. The concept of data mining was summarized and its significance towards its methodologies was illustrated. This paper also conducts a formal review of the area of rule extraction from Association rule and Fuzzy Logic. This survey paper also conducts a formal review of the applications of data mining such as the education sector, marketing, fraud detection, manufacturing and telecommunication. This paper discusses the topic based on past survey paper and also studies the data mining techniques.
The challenging issue in the design and deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the key management and authentication scheme due to the constraints in the sensor networks. The major constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks are large memory storage, more computational complexity and limited resource. Hence, in order to overcome these constraints and to achieve secure communication between sensor nodes, it is important to establish an efficient key predistribution mechanism. Inspite of the fact that many elegant and clever solutions have been proposed, no practical efficient key predistribution has emerged. The existing key management scheme in WSN using ECC provides a predistribution scheme with bigger key sizes and increased memory overhead. The computational complexity is also high which increases the processing time. The recent progress and research on HECC provides new opportunities to utilize public-key cryptography in Wireless Sensor Networks. The key generation for HECC polynomial using genus-2 curve was performed. The encryption and decryption algorithm for HECC was formulated. The key predistribution using HECC and ECC were implemented in wireless sensor network and simulated using NS2 simulator. The various performance analysis namely delay, throughput and power for both HECC and ECC were performed and the results are shown. It is inferred from the results that the proposed HECC scheme outperforms the existing ECC scheme. Further in this project work, the Blind Signature using HECC and Digital Signature using HECC has been implemented in WSN using NS2. The various performance metrics for both the signature schemes have been obtained and the results were compared.
Nowadays digital camera technology and video processing techniques are increased worldwide. Due to this, the conventional fire detection methods are going to be replaced by computer vision based systems. The computer vision based systems detection has a significant role with surveillance system. Most of the algorithms used in the existing techniques propose spectral, spatial, temporal and other low level features of fire for distinguishing it from other objects in video sequences. This paper proposes a new approach to computational vision-based fire and flame detection by using a fuzzy logic edge detection and motion detection with ANN-SVM classifier as classification tool. The edge detection using fuzzy canny edge detection technique and the motion detection using motion estimation are use for fire and flame detection and ANN-SVM classifier is useful for the final classification. Finally, it decided whether the objects that have changed in that video are flame or not. Therefore, this method detects both smoke and flame effectively and obtain high accuracy by reduce false alarm rate.
An effective way for harmonic suppression is the harmonic compensation by using active power filter. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of active power filter (APF) control strategies put forward recently. The control strategies applied to active power filters play a very important role on the improvement of the performance and stability of APF. In this paper, the control strategies applied to active power filters are reviewed and analyzed. The characteristics and applicability obtained from the analysis can become the reference to the design of the APF. This paper presents the possible trends of the control strategies based on Artificial Intelligence applied to active filters.
The practice of caricature democracy comes with itself consequences of subversion of the will of the people. One of the consequences is the enthronement of the regime of social vices, which is created by tenacious period of military authoritarianism but sustained by bad democratic governance. Good governance creates platform for inclusive governance process but what is abnormal is the increase in the spate of insurgency even in democracy in Nigeria. This paper examined the interface between democratic governance and terrorism in Nigeria. Insurgency and violence in Nigeria manifest in form of boko haram religious set which has vowed to Islamize Nigeria as a condition for peace. The activities of boko haram have assumed terrorist dimension, threatening the corporate existence of the Nigerian State. The paper generated the following research questions in order to raise critical issues of concern and deepen understanding on the relationship between democratic governance and terrorism in Nigeria: is there any relationship between democratic governance and terrorism? Is terrorism in Nigeria a consequence of bad governance and leadership failure? In order to illuminate the factors accounting for terrorist activities in Nigeria, the paper adopted both descriptive and analytical methods and also employed social contract theory to explain the factors precipitating the spread of terrorism in the country. The paper insisted that the genesis of terrorism could be traced to bad governance in Nigeria and put forth necessary recommendations to roll back the boko haram insurgency in Nigeria.
Female Genital Mutilation/Cut (FGM/C) has been a common practice in both developed and in developing countries like Kenya. Kajiado County in Kenya is one of the areas where the practice is highly practiced with girls of below 13 years undergoing through the 'cut'. This practice is however, a criminal offence as outlined in Female Genital Mutilation Act of 2011, though it continues to thrive in various parts of the country such as in Narok, Migori, Kisii, and to a larger extent Kajiado County. This paper is an outcome of a study that was conducted in Kajiado Central Sub-County in Kenya and examined the challenges facing effective implementation of FGM Act of 2011. The focus on Kajiado Central Sub-County was based on the fact that the county as a whole is largely inhabited by the Maasai community whose FGM/C practice according to the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) stands at 93 percent. The research on which this paper was drawn adopted a cross sectional research design that employed various methods of data collection. Data was collected by use of research instruments such as semi-structured interview schedule and interview guide for Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with traditional circumcisers, manyatta elders, traditional religious leaders, public health officers, public administrative officers and sampled men and women with at least five children in the study area. The study found that despite the practice of FGM/C being criminalized with hefty penalties in Kenya, the practice is still widespread in Kajiado County. The findings of the study revealed that the implementation of FGM Act 2011 in Kajiado County has been constrained by a number of factors such as deeply ingrained culture and traditional practices, ignorance of the legislation and the consequences of FGM/C, ingrained traditional religious beliefs and superstition, reluctance by law enforcement officers in implementing the Act, as well as high poverty levels in the Sub-County. Based on the findings of the study, this paper recommends that efforts to eliminate FGM/C should not only be backed up by strictly enforcing legislative provisions by the county and national governments, but also incorporating both old women and men who are the custodians of culture. At the same time, the stakeholders should initiate advocacy and education programmes to help change the culture holders' mind sets, for instance, through the local mass media. Additionally, there is need to initiate alternative sources of income for traditional circumcisers who depend on the practice as a source of livelihood. Finally, school curriculum at all levels of education should incorporate themes such as female genital mutilation/cut and its effects on the life of a girl child and women.
Maternal mortality remains to be a major public health concern globally. In Kenya, pregnancy and childbirth is still an important cause of mortality among women of reproductive age. Due to the various awareness campaigns in Kenya on antenatal clinic attendance in health facilities, high numbers of women are now attending antenatal clinic (ANC). Despite the high rates of ANC attendance, utilization of skilled birth attendants during delivery remains very low. Most women still deliver away from health facilities without the assistance of skilled birth attendants. This study was conducted in Wareng' district and it is based on the premise that, despite awareness campaigns on skilled birth attendance in the country and in particular Wareng' district, there are other factors that determine delivery practices among pregnant women, which include the women's level of education, income levels, marital status and physical access of health facilities. Findings of the study showed that educated women have a better understanding of issues and are able to make their own decisions on matters concerning their health. Those women who make more visits to health facilities are constantly reminded during visits on the importance of delivering in the health facility and being assisted by a skilled birth attendant hence, increasing their chances of utilizing the same. This study recommends that the health practitioners in the reproductive health departments not only in the study area, but also throughout the country, should work with relevant stakeholders and embrace health education programs to provide more information on ANC through the appropriate communication channels so as to ensure that all women are prepared for safe deliveries.
The main purpose of this research work was to examine the influence of information technology on the Nigerian banking industries. Two research hypotheses were postulated as a guide to this study and a ten (10) items questionnaire was designed, validated and used to get the required information. Simple frequency tabulation and percentages was used to test and answer the research hypothesis. It was found out that introduction of information technology increases service delivery, improve innovation and provide new products /packages, it also help management and managers to influence their corporate planning processes, anticipate problems and take corrective measures. Based on these findings, it was recommended that managers and indeed management should tap from the knowledge available on information technology to improve on their services provision and introduction of new packages to supersede the existing ones. Also, government should improve on infrastructural provision to help enhance the proper take off of information technology development and that orientation awareness programmes should be created by managers, management, government of all level and non governmental organizations to eradicate computer illiteracy.
The recent advancement in fingerprint identification and authentication have encouraged many people to conduct researches in Fingerprint Identification and Authentication (AFIA) as fingerprint identification is becoming a new domain for user authentication. Fingerprint classification plays an important role in large organizations where fingerprint identification systems are deployed. Fingerprint identification is very helpful in authentication when two fingerprints do not match and also it reduces the time used for identification. This paper presents a thorough review on the existing classification approaches that have applied to fingerprint recognition problems. The explanation in this paper covers the various evaluation parameters used by AFIS classification approaches.
The authors report a case of hydrops fetalis discovered incidentally during a morphological ultrasound performed at 23 weeks of gestation in a 31 years old primigravida woman. The etiology was an infection by parvovirus B19. What is special about our observation is firstly that fetal infection by parvovirus B19 in pregnancy is rare and responsible of fetal anemia. Besides, thanks to a multidisciplinary care including obstetricians, neonatologists, anesthetists and after two transfusions, our patient was conducted pregnancy up to 34 weeks of gestation and give birth by caesarean section of a newborn female.
The present study was conducted to develop and investigate pineapple (Ananas comosus) preserve and candy to assess its prospect in marketability and study their storage life. Pineapple slices were treated with 2% solution of common salt to prevent browning, then cut into cube shape and treated with 1% calcium chloride and 0.25% potassium metabisulphide solution and finally processed. The preserves were processed with 60° Brix, 65° Brix and 70° Brix sugar syrup. The candies were processed with 65° Brix, 70° Brix and 75° Brix sugar syrup. Initially the composition of pineapple preserves processed with different level of sugar ware found in the range as moisture content 33.09-35.65%, ash 1.36-1.42%, protein 1.01-1.07%, fat 0.61-0.66%, total sugar 61.37-63.73% and reducing sugar 30.52-31.46% and pineapple candies were found in the range as moisture content 19.05-20.88%, ash 1.52-1.58%, protein 1.15-1.21%, fat 0.72-0.77%, total sugar 75.70-77.35% and reducing sugar 45.16-46.39%. The sensory results showed that color, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability scores differed significantly (p<0.05). The preserve (P2) processed from 65° Brix sugar syrup and the candy (C2) processed from 70° Brix sugar syrup was the favorite sample of the sensory evaluation with the highest overall acceptability among others of the similar product. The shelf-life of candy (6 month) packed in high-density polyethylene bag is higher than preserve (4 month) packed in glass bottle when stored at ambient temperature (27° C to 30°C).
Face recognition has become one of the robust means of authentication and hence lots of research has been carried on in this regard. For any face recognition system, the availability of a standard database consisting of appropriate face image samples is very important, since it serves as a benchmark for testing and comparing the results directly for the face recognition algorithms. From the last few decades, the creation of face database by proper acquisition of face images, has been an interesting research topic among research community. While there are many face databases available, the appropriate choice should be based on the task given (age, lighting, poses, expression, etc.). This paper makes a scrutinizing study of the existing face databases. The aim here is to give a clear picture to the researchers regarding the selection of the face databases to build effective face recognition systems.
Now a days the contamination of soil by heavy metal from industrial sources has become a serious issue. This research was conducted to observe the nutrient status and concentration of heavy metal in soil. In this work, nine soil samples were collected from three different points of the Zirani industrial area, Savar during October/ 2013. The result of pH revealed that all the soil samples were acidic in nature. The maximum value of OC % was recorded 2.13% at point 3. However, it was observed that except N the concentration of available K, P, and S in soil samples were higher than their critical level of soil chemical properties. The highest value of Pb was 0.762ppm which found at point 1 and the lowest value was 0.575ppm in point 2.0.089ppm was the highest value of Cu which was found at point 3 and the lowest value 0.065ppm was found at point 3. The maximum concentration of Zn 3.05ppm was found at point 3 whereas the lowest value was recorded 1.90ppm in point 1.The highest value for the Cd was recorded 0.235ppm which was founded at point 2 and 0.104ppm was lowest value that was founded at point 3. The result also showed that Cu and Pb concentration were relatively higher than their recommended value in soil. The abundance order of heavy metal content in soil samples were Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd which indicated that the concentration of these heavy metals were harmful for the environment and human life.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). In VANET, this location information is shared with the Roadside Units and the vehicles to determine accident affected vehicle and to send alert packets to these vehicles. Generally, in VANET, broadcasting scenario can be seen, which is not required as all the vehicles in the network are not affected when emergency event occurs. Instead, multicasting of alert packets is more useful. Therefore, in this paper proposed system is used to design and develop vehicle node having travelling direction and the location information. This node will work as a road side unit and it will manage all vehicles location information and also manage detection of failure node in the network. Once the failure node is detected it will calculate the relative position of other vehicle and multicast the messages to particular vehicle.
Drought and salinity are the major problems of Mediterranean agriculture. From an agronomic point of view, adaptation to stress is the ability of a plant to maintain reasonable yields. Various physiological traits related to stress tolerance (relative water content and chlorophyll content) and their impact on yield components were studied in Sorghum (Sudan Grass III). Experimental design consists of five treatments: a control (100% ETM = 1 g / l), two water regimes (70% and 35% ETM) and two salt diets (3g / l and 6g / l). Results showed that under moderate water stress, the relative water content and chlorophyll index have decreased slightly and penalized yield components. In response to severe stress, relative water content dropped from 89% to 78% and chlorophyll index fell by about 38% which acted unfavorably on all yield components. Different intensity of salinity generates a slight increase in TRE but decreased chlorophyll content and size of main panicles. All the parameters studied shows that there are positive correlations between plant water status and its yield: sorghum maintains high TRE under salinity and drought which indicating that this plant is of type "stay green" that keeps green and photosynthetically active leaves to have reasonable yields under abiotic stresses.
This study investigates the relationship between trade liberalization and employment generation in Nigeria using secondary data on the quoted variables for the period 2003-2007. Panel regression model (Pooled Least Squares) was employed to examine the nexus between trade liberalization and employment generation. The study found that employment generation as result of trade liberalization the key determinant is tariff structure as a percentage increase will generate 73.4% of employment while other variables (wages, openness and FDI) effect on employment is not much. Also, the cumulative significant of the study shows that trade tariffs, wage rate, openness, and foreign direct investment have simultaneous significant effect on employment rate in the Nigeria's manufacturing, transport, agriculture and mining and quarrying sectors. Consequently, it was recommended that government, through legislative actions and mutual collaboration between the newly created Ministry of Trade and Investment and other trade-related agencies should continue to design policy measures directed toward the increase in tariff for the importable goods to facilitate more employment generation. Also, government should create the enabling environment for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to strive. Public-private partnerships toward the development of the considered real sectors should be encouraged in order to enhance employment generation.
In this work, a quantitative study for sugar concentration determination was conducted using Uv-Visible Spectroscopy. Glucose and Sucrose of three extracted plants fruit were analysis by refractometer and thin layer Chromatography before applied for quantitative determination. The TSS values recorded have a good agreement with the Sucrose standard and previously analyzed sugar in fruit and vegetables. TSS of Coach-fruit, Cactus Opuntia and Peel is 18Bix%, 18Brix% and 21Brix% respectively. These results have a good precision with the TSS sugar found in Apple species (18.83Brix %), Potato species (19.10%) and Grape (17.50Brix %) fruit-vegetables.The single spot observed on TLC, assay the purity of sample. Calibration models for Glucose and Sucrose determination were developed using the standard solution. Sugar concentrations were determined from single standard and calibration curve. The mean concentrations of Sucrose and Glucose in Coach-fruit, Cactus pear and Cactus peel, were 143.035mg/ml, 42.420mg/ml, and 0.943mg/ml for Sucrose; and 86.912mg/ml, 18.938mg/ml and 8.810mg/ml for Glucose determined.
The objective of this study is to develop statistical models to predict the drilling flow on rock aquifers. The study area is the former region of N'zi-Comoé (Central-East of Ivory Coast) that is located between longitude 3° 40' and 4°55' West and latitude 6° 20' and 8°10' North. The geological formations are composed of igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. The methodology has been first applied to the approach of principal component analysis normalized, for identifying relevant and expressive variables of the drilling flow. Then, a calibration was performed with a sample of 100 drillings representing two thirds of the total sample to determine the coefficients of linear regressions and associated standard errors. Finally, an evaluation of the developed models was performed using the criteria of performance and robustness. The most relevant and expressive variables for modeling the drilling flow are the transmissivity, the thickness of healthy base drilled, the depth of the first significant water inlet and the total number of water inlet. Thus, two models were developed. Models assessment shows that they are performing with correlation coefficients ranging around 0.7, biases varying between 10-7 and 10-2 and quadratic errors in the order of 2.5 to 2.9. These models have also demonstrated their robustness with rates fluctuating between 3.2 and 5.3%. However, the model 2 is more efficient and more robust than model 1.
Oji River and its environs is located few kilometres from Enugu, the capital city of Enugu state. Geographically, the study area is bounded by latitudes 6o14' N-6o17'N and longitudes 7o17'E-7o19 IE. The study area is underlain by the Ajali Sandstone and Nsukka Formation. The area has abundant water resources. A total of ten (10) water samples were collected at various locations for hydrochemical analysis. The result shows that the water resources for (WS 2, 4-10) are safe for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses as the chemical constituents are below (WHO,2011) permissible limit. Except for WS 1-Oji wonderful river where nitrite (NO2+) and Fluoride (F) value were observed to be higher than (WHO, 2011) permissible limit (8.2 and 2.5mg/l) respectively. This indicate that nitrite and fluoride treatment is required for WS 1-Oji wonderful river while for WS3-Ogba spring were copper value (11.0mg/l) were observed to also be higher than (WHO, 2011) permissible and as such requires copper treatment.
Stress is increasingly pervasive and a fundamental reason for causing 60% of all human ailments and other diseases. Due to the irregular growing pace of life style, stress has become one of the major reasons causing health issues. Stress is experienced by every person almost every single day which is automatically related to the interconnection between the environment and the person itself. This stress may be a danger sign for their lives. So, it is necessary that people should be aware about the consequences of being over stressed, before it leads to some serious health issues. Therefore, we are designing a continuous Intelligent Human Stress Monitoring System(IHSMS) which will be responsible for monitoring the users'/patients' stress levels and providing the continuous feedback about their stress level' and pieces of information related to it. It will be helpful to the people about their behavior patterns to quite activities which trigger high stress level and anxieties. Our Intelligent Human Stress Monitoring System is based on a wireless body area networks of Intelligent sensors (W.I.S.E) that transmits vital parameters ideal to record stress levels and changes in the stress level' and then transmits aggregated data via internet to hospital and medical health care facilities where they are continuously being observed. In addition to this, our Intelligent Human Stress Monitoring (IHSMS) system provides online signal processing through LabVIEW. In short, our Intelligent Human Stress Monitoring System (IHSMS) will be very beneficial to health care sectors.
Girls have high aspirations for their education, despite concerns with poverty, gender-based violence, the consequences of early pregnancy and marriage, and lack of school facilities. Every year more than 8000 girls drop out from the school due to pregnancy. Though many countries agreed to increase opportunities for all children to have access to education in Millennium Development Goals, girls Student's pregnancy is among the rapidly growing social challenges that hinder the realization girl child to education (MoEVT 2008 and BEST 2010). Tanzania is one of the nations which highly experienced adolescents' pregnancy rate in the world affecting their full potential in life. More vulnerable to meet challenges of poverty, Community who are against children pregnancy are the ones who involved in love affairs with students and impregnated them, recent research done by TAMWA groups that leading to involved in love affair with students and impregnated them are government staffs, bus conductors', businessman, tax drivers, and well off people (TAMWA 2010). Recently research done in Iringa municipal shows those 30 students of nine secondary schools and 4 students of three primary schools are impregnated during 2012. Thirteen million children are born to women under the age of 20 years worldwide and more than 90% in developing countries (Wikimedia Foundation, 2010). The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region is characterized by high school dropout rates in the world. Teenage pregnancy prevalence is 143 per 1000 girls and resultantly, women are losing battle of equal access to secondary education (James et al, 2000). Therefore there is need to help girls to get their basic needs particularly education so they can participate full to the development of the community that surrounds the (Community Development Gender and Children 2000).
The objective of this paper is to reveal the reality of the use of the New Technologies ICT on the competitive analysis, in the context of the Tunisian Firms, through the study of one of the most important on a national scale which is the Tunisian public CPGT Firm. This research study, besides, allowed revealing the role and the real impact of the ICT on the competitive structure of this Firm within this more relentless world environment. We took as approach of empirical investigation the technique of the survey (investigation) by questionnaire with the staff and the conversations (interviews) with the responsible leaders on the strategic orientation of the firm in the medium and long term, on the technological and informative infrastructure as well as at the level of the competitive strategy of the firm.
E-Voting has been attracting a lot of interest in the country and has been a subject for discussion in various media during the past years after elections. The current method of voting during general elections in Ghana is through paper base voting which comes with a lot of problems ranging from delay in voting resulting in long queues, double voting, result manipulations, spoilt votes due to wrong thumb-printing and delay in declaring results. To study seeks to investigate the feasibility of e-voting implementation in Ghana. The findings of this research will likely generate greater awareness about the e-voting system in Ghana and also provide useful knowledge to stakeholders about the benefit of e-voting system and also provide useful knowledge in policy formulation concerning Ghana elections. The study adopted mainly exploratory and descriptive analysis as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches. Purposive and simple random techniques were used in selection and administering of questionnaires to employees of Electoral Commission and the voting population from selected regions in Ghana. The result of the findings shows that for e-voting system implementation to be successful, Government must show strong commitment to provide support by securing donor fund to improve on the existing infrastructure and provide the needed resources to support the successful implementation. The study also shows that Government need to improve infrastructure in most part of the country and Electoral Commission should also embark on educating the people on e-voting and creating awareness. It was recommended that e-voting for now should be implemented on pilot basis and run alongside paper voting until infrastructure is available nationwide.
In this competing world where efficient and effective production takes place, industries uses 3 phase supply that cannot afford a failure of even a single phase. Failures of any phases make appliances prone to erratic functioning and may even lead to failure of that appliance. Goal is to build a system that can support one of the phase supplies with the help of existing phase supply. The development of this system will be achieved by using microcontroller which can be programmed using embedded. This microcontroller is then coupled with inverter using driver circuitry. If we go to have a three-phase inverter, which is available in market the cost of it is more. So, here is an attempt made to have single phase to three phase inverter using Microcontroller, which saves money up to great extent.
This paper presents a finite horizon Markov decision process model for determining the optimal production lot size (PLS) of multiple items with demand uncertainty. The model is formulated using states of a Markov chain that represent possible states of demand for items. Using weekly equal intervals, the decision of whether or not to produce additional units is made using dynamic programming over a finite period planning horizon. The proposed model demonstrates the existence of an optimal state-dependent production lot size as well as the corresponding production-inventory costs for items. A numerical example is taken to illustrate the solution procedure of the developed model.
This paper presents the concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb and Cd in vegetables, soil and water samples. Samples were collected from Mayham (Adigrat, Tigray region). Total acid (7ml mixture of HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4) digestion method was employed and determination was made by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The percentage recoveries of the metals were in the range of 89% to 100% in vegetable, 84% to 100% in water and 82% to 103% in soil sample. The range of concentration(µg/g) of the metals on dry weight basis are: Cd 1.18-1.45 in vegetables, 1 in soil and 9 in water; Cu 9-18 in vegetables, 15-17 in soil and 4.3 in water; Pb 1.67-5.01 in vegetable, 3-5 in soil and 2.6 in water; Zn 40-398.5 in vegetable, 59-66.8 in soil and 9.2 in water; Fe 218.25-4987.5 in vegetables, 23705.75 – 29248.5 in soil and 177.5 in water sample. The result obtained imples that the plant is rich in iron, zinc and copper and has small concentration of non-essential trace elements like lead and cadmium.