This study has been realized for the valuation and comparison of organoleptic, physico-chemical and nutritive parameters qualities of eggs of local hen and layer hen.
So eggs of local hen and layer hens freshly raw bust are characterized both by a yellowness surrounded by the glair thick and viscous, normal odour and tang, satisfying contrary to aged eggs having notably a made flat yellowness, decomposed in the liquefied glair. But the eggs layer hens freshly boiled is typified by a white yolk or yellow pale surrounded of a tall depth of the white whilst that of eggs of natural hen is cleanly yellow bestead of a small depth of the glair. Yet both types of old boiled eggs have a glair relatively flayed (striker) when the egg is dissected and a coloured black layer on the inner of the yellowness.
Measured physico-chemical parameters showed significant differences between the eggs of natural hen and the layer hens in weighty respective terms (36,95 and 50,7g), volumes (34,58 and 46,33ml), pH (7,42 and 7,56) and amounts in total ashes (4,57 and 3,68%) but no for the amount in water (71,64 and 73,29%).
Furthermore for nutritive values, there is significant differences between the eggs of natural hen and the eggs layer hen comparing their respective amounts in lipid (10,11 and 6,79%), gross protein (15,28 and 12,92%), calcium (0,59 and 0,44gs/100g), magnesium (0,23 and 0,17gs/100g), iron (0,54 and 0,38mg/100g), vitamin A and carotene (0,50 and 0,30mg/100g), and in vitamin C (0,08 and 0,05mg/100g), but there is not of significant differences for the amount in phosphorus (0,21 and 0,18mg/100g) and vitamin B6 (1,15 and 0,97mg/100g). In short, the eggs of natural hen are more nutritive than that of laying hen.
A survey achieved itself on the collection of the parasitoids (Hymenoptera, agents of the biologic struggle) in the region of Kisangani to the level of two sites: forest reserve of Yoko and domain of hunt of Rubi-Tetle. The collection of the data has been done by two methods to know: net fauchoir and Yellow traps. To the total, 674 specimens of the parasitoids have been captured belonging to 10 super-families and left in 25 families. The analysis of the data gives what follows: The fallow is the more varied with 16 families, consistent of the secondary forest with 16 families and the primary forest with 14 families. For what is some relative abundance by habitat, the secondary forest comes in head with 51,2%,, consistent of the fallow with 31,5% and the primary forest comes to the low of the scale with 17,4%. Concerning abundance by taxon, we say that the following families are represented more: Platygastridae (22,3%), Eulophidae (16,3), Diapriidae (14,1%) Bethylidae and Braconidae (9,6%). All these families participate in the struggle biologic against the devastating bugs of cultures. On the ecological plan, we found in the setting of this survey that some families are specific to the types of habitats. It is for example about the fallow with 5 families (Triphiidae, Orussidae, Ceraphronidae, Scolidae and Eucoilidae); the secondary forest with 3 families (Pompilidae, Gastrupidae and Eurytomidae) and the primary forest with also 3 families (Figitidae, Aphelinidae and Chalcididae). On the other hand the other families are ubiquities.
Agricultural production constitutes one of the important economic development factors that generates important incomes. Among many Insects, Acarina, Birds, Mammals and diseases that attack crops, the stinking locust, Zonocerus variegatus (Hyménoptère : Pygomorphidae) is a fearsome devastater of crops in the region. This study was conducted to study the population, the distribution of Zonocerus variegatus, its action modes in the field, and to identify its parasitoids in Kisangani.
The study was carried out on food cultivation fields. Data were collected from July 2015 for six months, using a sweeping net. Two field works were conducted monthly. Stinking locusts were collected on fields and parasitoids around the fields (fallowland). Z. variegatus develops in 7 post-embryonic stages of which six larval and one adult stages.
The data analysis showed abundance of larvae, from stage 1 to 6. Zonocerus variegatus larva appeared superior to the one of stage 7. We observed that larvae are more damaging than adults. 22.31% of Zonocerus variegatus specimens were collected on cassava fields while 5.03% were captured on maize and cassava fields. We collected more Zonocerus variegatus in March (32.6%). Their abundance also proves their aggressiveness to crops. In total, twenty families of parasitoids were collected and distributed into seven super-families. We captured more parasitoids in February (32.83%) than in other months. May is less rich with 4.60%. Scelionidae family largely dominates the others with 23.64% parasitoid specimens, followed by Bethylidae 20.08% and Platygastridae 16.70%. The poorest families are Charipidae (0.19%) and Tanaostigmatidae (0.19%).
A study on the nutritional and toxicological analyses of three wild plants, fruits of: Capsicum frutescens, Passiflora foetida and the leaves of Piper umbellatum were analyzed. In this study, it appears that these wild plants may be of value as a food supplement in regard to their content in crude proteins, lipids, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The fruits of Capsicum frutesceus are richer in crude ash (14.42%), protein (3.18%), vitamin B2 (1.46 g / 100 g), and iron (4,108 g/100 g). The fruits of Passiflora foetida are richer in water (75.49%); citric acid equivalent (17.732%), lipid (14g / 100g), vitamin B1 (4,98 g /100 g), vitamin C (17.6 g/100 g), calcium (2.28 g/100 g) and leaves of Piper umbellatum are richer in vitamin A (0.933 g/100 g), magnesium (1.787 g/100 g), phosphorus (0.016 g/100 g). However, these plants also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids and terpenes and sterols, trace toxic substance such as nitrate, nitrite and cyanide. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population of the city of Kisangani and its surroundings for the diversification of the diet to fight against the lack of certain nutrients.
A study on the toxic and nutritional values of four wild vegetables (Ipomoea aquatica, Dewevrea bilabiata, Vitex welwitschii and Vernonia hochstetteri) was performed before and after cooking. In this study, it appears that these wild vegetables can be dietary supplements of values in those for crude protein, fat, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The leaves of Ipomoea aquatica are particularly rich in lipids (21 gr/100 gr), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg %), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). The Dewevrea bilabiata leaves are rich in crude protein (0.04 mg/100g r), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg%), vitamin B6 (0.8 mg%), vitamin C (0.2 mg%) and leaves of Vitex welwitschii rich in vitamin A (0.75 mg/100 gr), vitamin B1 (1.33 mg/100 gr), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). However, these vegetables also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes, traces of toxic substances such as cyanide and nitrites before cooking. After cooking, these substances and toxic components disappear. Similarly, cooking significantly reduced the levels of different nutrients. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population living around Kisangani city. A cooking these vegetables at moderate temperatures is recommended.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei in the Botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, University of Kisangani/DR Congo. 1.439 individuals were listed and gathered in various classes of size, diameter of stem and distribution around the carrying foot. 33 years after the establishment of this botanical garden, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei was transformed into a forest species. Indeed, it found ecological conditions similar to those of its medium of origin and which favor its optimal ex situ development. The individuals having the size ≤ 50 cm, are the most represented with 1055 individuals (73,3%) and numbers it individuals having a diameter ≤ 10 cm are higher with 1358 individuals (94,3%). The data on the carrying foot showed a good regeneration of the species. The number of individuals falls when classes progress in the ascending order. It is thus desirable that studies are regularly carried out on the species headlights of the botanical garden for a permanent follow-up of the evolution of their florula.
Une enquête ethnobotanique a été menée dans la cité de Kenge et ses environs (Province du Kwango), auprès de tradipraticiens, femmes et hommes ayant des connaissances approfondies sur les plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Elle nous a permis de recenser 22 espèces de plantes médicinales différentes utilisées tantôt dans le traitement de nombreuses pathologies comme les troubles sexuels, la stérilité, etc. et tantôt comme fortifiant par les habitants de cette entité. Ces 22 taxons sont distribués dans 18 familles et 21 genres. Les familles les plus représentées en espèces sont : Zingiberaceae (13,63% d’espèces), Euphorbiaceae et Fabaceae (9,09% d’espèces chacune). Toutes ces plantes sont aphrodisiaques; cependant, les plus prisées sont : Mondia withei (16,4% de citation), Landolphia lanceolata (9,2% de citation), Pentadiplandra brazzeana (8,0% de citation), Canarium Schweinfurthui, Hymenocardia acida, Jatropha curcas, Quassia africana et Zingiber officinale (5,48% de citation chacune). Les feuilles (25,3%) constituent la partie la plus utilisée tandis que la décoction est le mode de préparation médicamenteuse le plus utilisé (54,7%). La voie orale est la voie d’administration la plus utilisée (82,7%). Milletia drastica, Mondia witheii, Pentadiplandra brazzeana, Landolphia lanceolata, Hymenocardia acida and Zingiber officinale displayed high value of usage value agreements (VUAs).
According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the population in Africa resort to traditional medicine to solve the primary problem of health. In the present study, an ethno-botanical survey was carried out in six markets of the district of Lukunga according to principles' included in the declaration of Helsinki. The ethno-botanical data collected were then supplemented by information concerning the plant ecological types. The results from this study revealed that 39 species belonging 37 genera and 25 families were inventoried in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga in Kinshasa city. These plant species treat 31 diseases; however the best consensus emerges between inquired only for the treatment of malaria and diabetes mellitus (ICF ≥ 50%). While according to the value of use agreement, only two plant species: Annona senegalensis and Quassia africana displayed interesting result (VAUs ≥ 0.15). Our study revealed that the use of the medicinal plant species is a current practice among the age ranging from 22 to 67 years with prevalence at the old people of 43-49 years. The majority (66%) of the medicinal plants users have a level of secondary studies. The maceration (32%) is the most use mode of preparation while the root is the most used plant part. According to ecological studies, the phanerophytes as well as the Guinean species are prevalent in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga. Lastly, the chemical screening revealed the presence in the two selected plant species of the secondary metabolites of biopharmaceutical relevance such as total polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins. It is thus desirable that advanced phytochemical and pharmacological studies are carried out on the two plant species for the scientific validation of their bioactivity (conversion of the traditional knowledge into scientific culture) on the one hand, but also with an aim of both revalorizing and preserving/using them for sustainable development according to the convention on biological diversity on the other hand.
The study of the plants hosts of the edible caterpillars of medicinal use used in the treatment of the diseases in the sector of Bakumu-Mangongo led to the inventory list of 18 species belonging to 12 different families to Fabaceae prevalence. These plants generally come from the forests secondary (12 species) and dominated especially by the trees (17 species), the phanerophytes in particular the mesophanerophytes (11espèces), the sarcochores (14 species) and with distribution Guineo-congolese (16 species) among which 9 species are Omni-guineo-congolese. The drugs are often prepared by decoction or aqueous maceration at basis of the fresh leaves, the roots, the barks of stem or trunk, the bark of root, latexes and are managed by oral route, anal way and bath of the body. Accessibility to the edible caterpillars and the plant species of medicinal value are the positive assets of these resources for the populations. On the other hand, the no-ecological exploitation of these resources could lead to deforestation, disappearance if not rarefaction of the biocenoses and the disturbance of the ecosystems.
Preliminary inventory of wild edible no-timber forest products (NTFP) used for their tubers, fruits, seeds, roots, leaves buds, barks, by the Ambuila population, in the north-east of Angola, revealed the existence of 59 species of plants distributed in 43 genera and 31 botanical families among them Apocynaceae , Zingiberaceae and Arecaceae are the most represented, respectively with 5, 5 and 4 species. The inventoried edible wild plants are found in both forest and savanna but with predominance in the forest. Furthermore, the analysis of biological type performed on all harvested plant revealed the presence of trees, shrubs, herbaceous and lianas (66.09%), but we noticed that woody species predominate on herbaceous with 33, 30%. According to their importance, the most demanded organs of plants are: fruits, almonds and seeds (45.00%), leaves (32.50%), stems, bark and buds (16.25%) and roots and tubers with 6.25%. By descending the classification, the wild NTFP consumed by the Ambuila rural population are: fruits, almonds and seeds (34.67%), vegetables-leaves (22.7%), stimulants (21.33%), spices (10.67%), beverages (6.67%) and tubers represent 4.00%. Most of wild edible forest products at Ambuila are destined to self-consumption, only seven species of the 59 are sold locally, the average unit price is estimated at U$ 0.713. Most of the products are consumed after processed (cooked, grids or boiled), the rest are consumed raw.
The purpose of this work lies within the scope of the valorization of traditional food of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the province of Tshopo in particular and aims the inventory and evaluation of the nutritive value of the edible caterpillars of Kisangani city and its surroundings. The determination of moisture, the total lipids, total ashes, total proteins, the total sugars and the energy value was carried out according to usual techniques. 12 species of edible caterpillars were identified and gathered in three families: Attacidae (8 species, 67%), Notodontidae (3 species, 25%) and Nymphalidae (1 species, 8%). The average values of various calculated parameters are: water (60.92%), dry weight (39.08%), ashes (4.20 g), proteins (52.13 g), lipids (19.81%), sugars (1.19 g), and energy (392.33 kCal). The production of edible caterpillars must constitute an objective to be preached through agro-forestry programs for a sustainable management of the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and those of the Tshopo Province in particular.
Democratic Republic of the Congo is among the countries who attach great importance to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this floristic study was to evaluate the plant diversity of the Rubi-télé hunting area for a good sustainable management. This area is located in the Bas Uele province, Territory of Buta and the Community of Monganzulu village Sukisa (N: 02 ° 19 '072 "E: 024 ° 58' 368'; altitude: 471m). This reserve has an area of 9080 km2.
All individuals with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were inventoried and measured 1.30 m above the grade. We opted for a targeted sampling of delineating the 50 m X 50 m plots (mixed forest) and where the Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (mono forest dominant) was abundant. The study conducted in the field hunting Rubi-Télé an area of 2ha led us census 452 individuals in the mixed forest divided into 79 species, 28 families; 267 individuals in the forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei divided into 30 species, 14 families.
Basal area for forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei is 32,3m2/ha and mixed forest as basal area 23m2/ha. Julbernadia seretii is more abundant with a rate of 11.95%, in the mixed forest. Family Fabaceae leads with 30.87%.
For Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest species abounds its habitat, first with 46.44% of the family Fabaceae is leading with 64.12%, it appears that the mixed forest shows the scattering of the forest wealth specific Gilbertiodendron dewevrei because its diversity index values are low.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the nutritional value and cyanhydric acid content of eight plant species (Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Cola acuminata, Ficus vallis-choudae, Musanga cecropioïdes, Macaranga spinosa, Pycnanthus angolensis and Trilepisium madagascariensis) currently consumed by Okapia johnstoni in captivity at Epulu Fauna Reserve of Okapi in Democratic Republic of Congo. After two weeks of experimentation, the preference of Okapia johnstoni in consuming these plant species is in decreasing order as follow: Musanga cecropioïdes, Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Ficus vallis-choudae, Pycnanthus angolensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Macaranga spinosa and Cola acuminata. The biochemical analyses revealed that A. Boonei and C. acuminata are more rich in crude protein( 19.27% per 100 g of dry mater) and F. vallis-choudae is the richest species in the lipids (11.61%) and the poorest is A. cordifolia; M. cecropioïdes is the richest in calcium (6. 01%) against, P. angolensis which is the poorest (3.0 %); In the all plant species, magnesium is presented under the form of the trace; T. madagascariens and A. Boonei are the richest in cyanhydric acid (1, 60 mg) that P. angolensis (0, 40 mg). These results indicate that the selective choice of certain fodder to the detriment of others is a self medicative behaviour (zoopharmacognosy) in Okapi. Starting from these results, it is thus desirable that research works are carried out for the ex situ conservation of Okapi in the province of “Nord Ubangi”.
The Mbiye Island is a forest reserve managed by the University of Kisangani. It is currently undergoing an unprecedented anthropization related to the manufacture of charcoal. This practice leads to forest loss peril. This study has the following specific objectives: To assess the impact of charring on the ecosystems of the island Mbiye. Assess profitability or profits from charring wood in the household coal. To collect data, a sample of 40 peoples was drawn from randomized in five villages of the island Mbiye. These villages are: Akoka, Kolema, lilo, Makululu and Mongaliema. Respondents were questioned individually on the basis of a survey sheet. It observes five major activities that carbonization ranks first (50%). The Mongaliema town ranks first in the production of wood or 23.7 %, followed Makululu with 22.2%, with 20.7% Akoko and finally Kolema,Lilo have a low percentage (14.8% and 18, 5% respectively). The most used in the manufacture of charcoal from trees bordering the forest reserve of the island are: Gilbertiodendron dewevrei 95%, Cynometras essili and Irvingia gabonensis 75% and finally Fagara macrophylla and Xylopia aethiopica 45%. Revenues or 62.5% from the carbonization for coal are affected more in the education of children and health care. The dependence of the latter charcoal depends on deforestation and degradation of forest ecosystems of the planet in general and the forest reserve of the island especially Mbiye. Following these questions, we issued the assumptions that the deforestation, depletion of forest species used in the production of charcoal, degradation of forest ecosystems and climate change would be the major impacts of this activity.
This work aims to characterize the structure and diversity of the heterogeneous population of Yoko Forest Reserve. First, we considered (i) the floristic variability (specific richness and diversity), and (ii) the structural variability (in terms of density, ground surface and diametric structure) evaluated at the scale of a hectare. The second step consisted on the analysis of the spatial structure (i) generally and its comparison to the whole plot, and (ii) specific structure of the whole plot (only the spatial structure of the important species was analyzed). So, a systematic inventory of all trees of 10 cm dbh was conducted over five hectares. It should be also noted that the position of each foot has been taken according to the coordinate system (x, y). In total, 1,919 trees of 10 cm dbh were inventoried in five hectares. These individuals were distributed into 98 genera, 141 species and 31 families; with average density of 19.6 genera per hectare, 28.2 species per hectare, and 6.2 families per hectare. The resemblance or similarity degree among the plots (Hectares) showed clearly two coherent plant communities, with a low coefficient of similarity, and each consisting of more or less close plots. Although the density is dominated by Microdesmis yafungana species J. Léonard J. but Pericopsis elata Harms species and Fabaceae family dominated other quantitative parameters. As for the structural analysis, the individuals presented a shape with a significant decrease as we moved to the next class and the most significant densities were observed in classes of diameter 1, 2, 3 and 4. Therefore, a study on the structure and diversity of heterogeneous forest populations is very important because it gives information about the natural processes of trees (growth, regeneration, demographics) as well the anthropogenic action on the forest ecosystem.