After harvesting the data field and their statistical analysis, it appears that the level of education for women, religious practice and the approval of the husband on contraceptive use are socio cultural determinants of access to family planning services. Protestant’s women have a contraceptive practice twice higher than that of Catholics. However of all these factors, the level of women's studies has proven to be the most predominant factor. It was identified that 47% of couples engaged in discussions on family planning in 60% of cases on the initiative of women. Assortative couples high school or university had more access to family planning services as assortative couples from primary or uneducated. The women of low education who primarily live in the outskirts of the city do not have access to family planning services because of the absence of the latter. To have a good access to these services, it is recommended that religious leaders and promoters of the education of girls to increase awareness in the community and take man as main target.
Les observations faites dans notre pays notamment dans la ville de Douala montrent que, l’état de ces écosystèmes aquatiques où sont déversées les eaux résiduaires provenant des différents dépotoirs des industries et des agglomérations et même du lessivage des terres environnantes, est assez démonstratif de l’impact de l’action de l’homme. L’objectif du présent travail est d’identifier et d’analyser les différentes formes d’anthropisation, ainsi que leurs effets sur le milieu afin de proposer des solutions de gestions durables. La méthodologie adoptée est celle basée sur les enquêtes et les types d’enquêtes adoptés sont l’enquête en face à face et l’enquête par observation directe. Les résultats des enquêtes ont montré que plus de la moitié des personnes enquêtées se sont installées dans cette zone à cause des difficultés financières. L’inondation apparaît comme la première menace subie par les populations. La majorité des popualtions se sont appuyés sur l’accès facile au site et le faible coût des domaines fonciers pour s’y installer. L’action de déversement des déchets dans le cours d’eau figure parmi les activités anthropiques les plus menées par les personnes ayant déjà été victime d’une catastrophe tandis que la production de la matière plastique se révèle être l’activité qui induis le moins les catastrophes le long du Tongo Bassa. Le remblai constitue la solution première à la prévention contre les catastrophes. Par ailleurs, les activités les plus menées sont l’élevage et l’agriculture et la majorité des personnes effectuant une activité la font sur la rive du cours d’eau. De manière générale, les déchets sont déverser dans les bacs à ordures et la majorité des domiciles possèdent des latrines aménagées situées loin de la rive. Plus de la moitié de la population enquêtée connait les noms des espèces végétales et les utiliser à des fins alimentaires. La proposition du drainage du cours d’eau est la plus avancée par les personnes enquêtées.
The objective of this study conducted from july to october 2013 in Bobo-Dioulasso,Burkina Faso was to evaluate if these collected milk can be stored for a determined time at the state believed without deteriorating.
Three hundred samples divided into 600 aliquots of 30 mL of raw milk were analysed after storage at room temperature and in the refrigerator at +4 °C. Milk composition was determined using infrared (FMA, Miris AB, Sweden, 2001). The bacteriological analysis focused on Lactobacilli, Coliforms, Staphylococcus and Psychrotropic. The data were subjected to the analysis of the variants (software SPPS 18 version). Means were compared by Newman- keuls test for p < 0, 05.
The results showed variation of the nutritional value of raw milk after 24 h at room temperature compared to immediately analysed. The Lactobacillis, Coliforms and Psychrotropic have not significantly changed during the period. On the other hand, the rate of Lactobacillis increased after 48 h at room contrasting with a decline in the rate of Escherichia coli package. When the retention time exceeded 120 h at +4 °C, there was a significant decrease in the nutritional value of milk. Different bacteria rate has not significantly varied between 24 and 168 h +4 °C conservation explaining a direct action of the storage on these milk temperature. Thus, milk collected in Bobo-Dioulasso can be stored at +4 °C in the refrigerator for 07 days without deterioration of nutritional value if the initial bacterial load does not exceed 103 cfu/mL.
Bulk density is one of the main soil physical properties that affect root growth and development. This study aimed at characterizing bulk density distribution in a nitisol derived from volcanic ash, and assessing its effect on the rooting system of the East African Highlands Banana. Sixteen soil profiles (2m large x 1m depth) were dug at 40 cm from banana mat of second cycle at pre-flowering stage. At 10 cm increments, banana root density and soil bulk density were measured simultaneously. Soil bulk density was measured by gravimetric method, three replicates per soil depth. Soil texture and organic carbon content were also determined. Banana root density (roots.dm-2) was determined by overlying a 2 m² grid and counting roots in each 1 dm² grids. Results highlight a gradient in soil bulk density with values ranged between 0.85 to 1.08 g.cm-3. The lowest bulk density values were observed in the 40 cm topsoil, which also had most roots density (77%). Root density decreased sharply in deeper soil layers (<0.90 root.dm-² below 40 cm depth) with increase in clay content, and decrease in soil organic carbon content. To improve banana root growth and development in compacted soils, we recommend agricultural practices that decrease soil bulk density, especially the addition of soil organic matter throughout mulching, and tillage before banana planting.
An urban dweller patient, 38 years old, came for an ultrasound scan of a mass of the right lower quadrant at the imaging department of the district hospital. She also suffered from fecal and air stasis. The ultrasound scan revealed dilated bowel loops and a mass of the right lower quadrant with a clear view of the fetus head whose parietal diameter measured 56 mm corresponding to a gestational age of 23 weeks and 2 days. The uterus was empty. The hypothesis of a mummified fetus was raised and plain abdominal film X-ray of frontal standing position was made. It showed air-fluid levels and small bowel mass of the right flank with a well individualized fetal head and two femoral bones. A surgery was required considering the signs of complications mainly a small bowel obstruction by compression. laparotomy performed 24 hours later confirmed the diagnosis of lithopedion in its lithokeliphos form. The situation subsequently became normal and the patient, received at the 45th day, was feeling well.
India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world and its energy requirement is going to increase manifold in the next four decades with the increase in population as well as per capita use of energy. This will require both increase in energy supply and its efficient use to cope up with growing demand of energy. Scientists throughout the world are working in this field to achieve this gigantic task to sustain human development. The present paper tries to describe what is going on in the scientific arena to fulfil this ever increasing human need. It also tries to suggest some innovations that have capability to change the energy scenario in India. What can be the best case scenario in the field of production-mix, innovative use of present sources of energy as well as efficient use of energy with the help of innovations in science and technology? The paper tries to point out that we should come out of scarcity mentality and think of abundance in each and every aspect of human endeavour with human creativity and innovations. With right blend of innovations and applications we can think of abundance in the energy scenario in coming decades.
This study was intended to identify variables that may justify the rejection or acceptance of funding requests from SMEs and directed to MFIs in Bukavu town.
Its scope was thus allow the streamlining of the process of SMEs in the preparation and composition of credit application files since it is possible that they are informed with the way they are perceived by donors of found given their characteristics.
Based on a sample of 77 randomly selected SMEs and making use of logistic regression, it was found that the rationing of credit of SMEs by MFIs in Bukavu town is positively influenced by the working capital ratio, requested amount of credit, long-term relationship, the guarantees offered; and negatively by the economic returned ratio, the immediate liquidity ratio and sex at the 5% meaning threshold.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei in the Botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, University of Kisangani/DR Congo. 1.439 individuals were listed and gathered in various classes of size, diameter of stem and distribution around the carrying foot. 33 years after the establishment of this botanical garden, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei was transformed into a forest species. Indeed, it found ecological conditions similar to those of its medium of origin and which favor its optimal ex situ development. The individuals having the size ≤ 50 cm, are the most represented with 1055 individuals (73,3%) and numbers it individuals having a diameter ≤ 10 cm are higher with 1358 individuals (94,3%). The data on the carrying foot showed a good regeneration of the species. The number of individuals falls when classes progress in the ascending order. It is thus desirable that studies are regularly carried out on the species headlights of the botanical garden for a permanent follow-up of the evolution of their florula.
A survey has been conducted on the impact of wastes produced in the great establishments of Irhambi-Katana grouping, territory of Kabare, East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study aimed to identify the impact of wastes produced by the great establishments of Irhambi-Katana grouping on human, the surrounding population and the environment. For reaching this objective, we used the method of collection of data by a questionnaire of inquiry and an interview in the great establishments of our study medium. After this inquiry and the analysis of the data collected, we accepted that the wastes in the great establishments of Irhambi-Katana grouping are bad stored according to the results found from our inquiries, the bad storage of the wastes in the great institutions of the Irhambi-Katana grouping sweeps along diseases and the nature pollution (atmospheric, of the water and of the soil) and the sensitization by an environmentalist agent and the creation of dump for wastes are the means for fighting against the consequences of these lasts on the environment and the human health. Thus, we recommended to the government to command respect the law on the wastes management and to the great establishments of Irhambi-Katana grouping to evacuate the wastes that they produce far from themselves for safeguarding the environment, the human and the surrounding population.
Introduction: The mining exploitation always affected the immediate environment and the socio-sanitary life by the nature of the rock exploited and the use of the chemical products at the time of the treatment of gold. The objective of this survey was to clear the perceptions of the orpailleurs and non orpailleurs on the environmental and socio-sanitary effects of this exploitation.
Methode: A transverse survey has been achieved in the mining City of Kamituga in Province of the South-Kivu. A questionnaire has been distributed to a sample of orpailleurs and present non orpailleurs at the time of the investigation. Then a documentary withdrawal has been achieved in five sanitary structures of Kamituga to determine the illnesses met at the orpailleurs during five years.
Results: A total of 220 investigated of which 153 orpailleurs and 67 non orpailleurs had taken part to this survey, 26% of the children of less than 17 years were minor. The most quoted illness is the silicosis to 30%, then the intestinal parasitoses to 27%, the malnutrition à18%, the cough and the tuberculosis to 10%, the HIV to 8%. The relocation of the institutions and sacred sites were discerned by 22,7% to 36,6% of them investigated. The degree of the association of perception of the effects of this exploitation was associated meaningfully between the ‘function’ orpailleur and the masculine sex (p=0,006) ; the use of mercury, of cyanide and the generation of the acidic mining drainage (DMA) and their threat for the environment according to the majority of the orpailleurs (p?0,05), the level of the knowledge of the effects and the function orpailleurs and non orpailleurs (p < 0,05 and p < 0,01), the use of the protective materials and the knowledge so many the orpailleurs and non orpailleurs (p < 0,01).
Conclusion: This survey had permitted to note that the environmental effects and sanitary socio resulting from the mining exploitation of gold in Kamituga were known meaningfully so much by the population that by the orpailleurs. These effects result from the dismissal of mercury and cyanide in the environment, of the deficit on average of use of the protective materials, of the relocation of the institutions and the sacred sites.