A study on the nutritional and toxicological analyses of three wild plants, fruits of: Capsicum frutescens, Passiflora foetida and the leaves of Piper umbellatum were analyzed. In this study, it appears that these wild plants may be of value as a food supplement in regard to their content in crude proteins, lipids, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The fruits of Capsicum frutesceus are richer in crude ash (14.42%), protein (3.18%), vitamin B2 (1.46 g / 100 g), and iron (4,108 g/100 g). The fruits of Passiflora foetida are richer in water (75.49%); citric acid equivalent (17.732%), lipid (14g / 100g), vitamin B1 (4,98 g /100 g), vitamin C (17.6 g/100 g), calcium (2.28 g/100 g) and leaves of Piper umbellatum are richer in vitamin A (0.933 g/100 g), magnesium (1.787 g/100 g), phosphorus (0.016 g/100 g). However, these plants also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids and terpenes and sterols, trace toxic substance such as nitrate, nitrite and cyanide. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population of the city of Kisangani and its surroundings for the diversification of the diet to fight against the lack of certain nutrients.
A study on the toxic and nutritional values of four wild vegetables (Ipomoea aquatica, Dewevrea bilabiata, Vitex welwitschii and Vernonia hochstetteri) was performed before and after cooking. In this study, it appears that these wild vegetables can be dietary supplements of values in those for crude protein, fat, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and C). The leaves of Ipomoea aquatica are particularly rich in lipids (21 gr/100 gr), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg %), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). The Dewevrea bilabiata leaves are rich in crude protein (0.04 mg/100g r), vitamin B2 (0.38 mg%), vitamin B6 (0.8 mg%), vitamin C (0.2 mg%) and leaves of Vitex welwitschii rich in vitamin A (0.75 mg/100 gr), vitamin B1 (1.33 mg/100 gr), vitamin C (0.2 mg%). However, these vegetables also contain some undesirable substances including alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes, traces of toxic substances such as cyanide and nitrites before cooking. After cooking, these substances and toxic components disappear. Similarly, cooking significantly reduced the levels of different nutrients. All these results justify the use of these plants in the diet of the population living around Kisangani city. A cooking these vegetables at moderate temperatures is recommended.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the nutritional value and cyanhydric acid content of eight plant species (Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Cola acuminata, Ficus vallis-choudae, Musanga cecropioïdes, Macaranga spinosa, Pycnanthus angolensis and Trilepisium madagascariensis) currently consumed by Okapia johnstoni in captivity at Epulu Fauna Reserve of Okapi in Democratic Republic of Congo. After two weeks of experimentation, the preference of Okapia johnstoni in consuming these plant species is in decreasing order as follow: Musanga cecropioïdes, Alchornea cordifolia, Alstonia boonei, Ficus vallis-choudae, Pycnanthus angolensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Macaranga spinosa and Cola acuminata. The biochemical analyses revealed that A. Boonei and C. acuminata are more rich in crude protein( 19.27% per 100 g of dry mater) and F. vallis-choudae is the richest species in the lipids (11.61%) and the poorest is A. cordifolia; M. cecropioïdes is the richest in calcium (6. 01%) against, P. angolensis which is the poorest (3.0 %); In the all plant species, magnesium is presented under the form of the trace; T. madagascariens and A. Boonei are the richest in cyanhydric acid (1, 60 mg) that P. angolensis (0, 40 mg). These results indicate that the selective choice of certain fodder to the detriment of others is a self medicative behaviour (zoopharmacognosy) in Okapi. Starting from these results, it is thus desirable that research works are carried out for the ex situ conservation of Okapi in the province of “Nord Ubangi”.