In XML keyword search, the exact detection of user’s intention while searching, and grading of the result in the existence of query keyword ambiguities have been difficult problems. In recent times, many keyword search approaches for XML databases have been developed to resolve these problems. XML keyword search using Dual indexing and Mutual summation based Algorithm (XDMA) is one among the prominent keyword search approaches for data-centric XML Datasets. Also, it is proved that XDMA is more effective in keyword search for data-centric XML datasets. In this paper, we present precisely the uniqueness and novel features of XDMA in comparison with other keyword search approaches for XML databases.
The history of the Democratic Republic of Congo has been marked the last two decades by a multiplicity of armed conflicts of which that of Lord’s Resistance Army of Joseph KONY. During these armed conflicts, massive violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Right have been perpetrated (war crimes, crime against humanity, etc.). The judiciary answer to this great number of crimes has always left the public on its lust (thirst) at the extent to create disillusionment face to the justice among population.
The Congolese judiciary system of repression presents because of this fact many weaknesses due to the absence of a real independence of judges, to the subjugation of judiciary power by executive power, to a few number of magistrates, to international relationships weight in the instructions of certain affairs, to the non-execution of sentence condemning to damages and to the lowness of judiciary power budget, etc. This state of things has led to a malfunction of justice and needs a reframing even a reform of Congolese judiciary system and needs to rethink criminal cooperation between states affected by the rebellion of Lord’s Resistance Army in order to insure a fair trial to victims and their butchers and to make (render) efficient the struggle against impunity of international crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The compatibility of two species of Trichoderma spp. was tested in vitro and in soil with different fertilizing elements (N, P, K, Ca) added to increase concentrations in the solid potato-based medium.
After 48 h of incubation, CaCl2, KNO3 and KH2PO4 at 400 mg/L showed an inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Trichoderma harzianum strain (Tcomp) and Trichoderma viride strain (TV1) compared to controls varying respectively from 9.66 to 28.33 and 10.33 to 29.16 / 90.00 mm. For cons, the NH4NO3, (NH4) 2SO4 and CaSO4, 2H2O had a mean toxicity against the two strains tested, mycelial growth was ranged from 50.50 to 64.00 / 90 mm. After 7 days of incubation, both strains were able to produce conidia; their numbers have varied respectively from 6369.00 to 117833.20 / 245843.00 conidia / mm2 and 6793.00 to 67221.70 / 649635.00 conidia / mm2.
The pH was slightly basic in the potato liquid medium before culturing and after the addition of the products at different concentrations (7.64-8.60). The pH became acid after culturing of the two strains; it varied between 3.13 and 5.85. Fresh weights were low in the presence of 50 mg / L of Calcium Chloride and medium for other products from 0.01 to 2.79 and 3.04 to 6.69 respectively compared to control 7.31 - 9.28 mg. Dry weights were low in the presence of the tested products compared to controls from 7.31 - 9.28 mg.
In soil, both strains were able to grow on barley straw fragments at a concentration of 400 mg/L. The colonization percentage varied respectively between 63% and 94%.
Two strains of Trichoderma showed substantial compatibility with the most part of fertilizers tested in vitro and a great capacity to keep the soil in the presence of different elements. Thus, the antipollution properties of Trichoderma spp. can be used in agriculture in soils with excess of nitrogen and phosphate. They also have the ability to increase the capacity of nutrient uptake by plants.
Lycium europaeum L., an economically important traditional medicinal plant, which can be used for re-vegetation purposes under various ecological factors due to its ability to form an association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Our study presents a synthesis of information and hypotheses found in different consulted scientific studies regarding the importance of this plant, its adaptability potentials and its biological characteristics, in order to provide scientific support to encourage the cultivation and valorization of this plant in Morocco.
For some time now, sexual violence has become a topical issue in the world in general and in DR Congo in particular.
Similarly, sexual violence is highly detected, while their psycho-traumatic consequences, which are rarely diagnosed by health professionals due to training in this area during their studies, although they are traumatic, are serious and complicated.
Indeed, during our investigations, it was found that in Basoko:
- The high incidence of sexual violence was observed among victims over 10-15 years, or 90.2% of cases;
- The female sex is the most affected with a predominance of 96.7% of the cases;
- Most of the victims are illiterate, or 54.4% of the cases;
- Most victims are unemployed ie do not have trades to do, or 55.4% of cases;
- The majority of cases of sexual violence committed against minors are processed by the civil authorities, ie 83.7% of cases;
- Abundant haemorrhage, abrasion and tear in the perineum are characteristic clinical signs observed after sexual violence (69.6%); 41.3% and 9.8% of cases;
- Several late consequences due to sexual violence among victims: hemorrhages, Sexually transmitted infections, menstrual disorders, pelvic pain, pregnancy and early marriage and abortion.
So in Basoko, the severity of the consequences of sexual violence on the health of the victims, the lack of information and the underestimation are at worst. Often they are committed by relatives and recognized persons of the victims. This shows that sexual violence is a reality in the city of Basoko.
This study has been realized for the valuation and comparison of organoleptic, physico-chemical and nutritive parameters qualities of eggs of local hen and layer hen.
So eggs of local hen and layer hens freshly raw bust are characterized both by a yellowness surrounded by the glair thick and viscous, normal odour and tang, satisfying contrary to aged eggs having notably a made flat yellowness, decomposed in the liquefied glair. But the eggs layer hens freshly boiled is typified by a white yolk or yellow pale surrounded of a tall depth of the white whilst that of eggs of natural hen is cleanly yellow bestead of a small depth of the glair. Yet both types of old boiled eggs have a glair relatively flayed (striker) when the egg is dissected and a coloured black layer on the inner of the yellowness.
Measured physico-chemical parameters showed significant differences between the eggs of natural hen and the layer hens in weighty respective terms (36,95 and 50,7g), volumes (34,58 and 46,33ml), pH (7,42 and 7,56) and amounts in total ashes (4,57 and 3,68%) but no for the amount in water (71,64 and 73,29%).
Furthermore for nutritive values, there is significant differences between the eggs of natural hen and the eggs layer hen comparing their respective amounts in lipid (10,11 and 6,79%), gross protein (15,28 and 12,92%), calcium (0,59 and 0,44gs/100g), magnesium (0,23 and 0,17gs/100g), iron (0,54 and 0,38mg/100g), vitamin A and carotene (0,50 and 0,30mg/100g), and in vitamin C (0,08 and 0,05mg/100g), but there is not of significant differences for the amount in phosphorus (0,21 and 0,18mg/100g) and vitamin B6 (1,15 and 0,97mg/100g). In short, the eggs of natural hen are more nutritive than that of laying hen.
A survey achieved itself on the collection of the parasitoids (Hymenoptera, agents of the biologic struggle) in the region of Kisangani to the level of two sites: forest reserve of Yoko and domain of hunt of Rubi-Tetle. The collection of the data has been done by two methods to know: net fauchoir and Yellow traps. To the total, 674 specimens of the parasitoids have been captured belonging to 10 super-families and left in 25 families. The analysis of the data gives what follows: The fallow is the more varied with 16 families, consistent of the secondary forest with 16 families and the primary forest with 14 families. For what is some relative abundance by habitat, the secondary forest comes in head with 51,2%,, consistent of the fallow with 31,5% and the primary forest comes to the low of the scale with 17,4%. Concerning abundance by taxon, we say that the following families are represented more: Platygastridae (22,3%), Eulophidae (16,3), Diapriidae (14,1%) Bethylidae and Braconidae (9,6%). All these families participate in the struggle biologic against the devastating bugs of cultures. On the ecological plan, we found in the setting of this survey that some families are specific to the types of habitats. It is for example about the fallow with 5 families (Triphiidae, Orussidae, Ceraphronidae, Scolidae and Eucoilidae); the secondary forest with 3 families (Pompilidae, Gastrupidae and Eurytomidae) and the primary forest with also 3 families (Figitidae, Aphelinidae and Chalcididae). On the other hand the other families are ubiquities.
Agricultural production constitutes one of the important economic development factors that generates important incomes. Among many Insects, Acarina, Birds, Mammals and diseases that attack crops, the stinking locust, Zonocerus variegatus (Hyménoptère : Pygomorphidae) is a fearsome devastater of crops in the region. This study was conducted to study the population, the distribution of Zonocerus variegatus, its action modes in the field, and to identify its parasitoids in Kisangani.
The study was carried out on food cultivation fields. Data were collected from July 2015 for six months, using a sweeping net. Two field works were conducted monthly. Stinking locusts were collected on fields and parasitoids around the fields (fallowland). Z. variegatus develops in 7 post-embryonic stages of which six larval and one adult stages.
The data analysis showed abundance of larvae, from stage 1 to 6. Zonocerus variegatus larva appeared superior to the one of stage 7. We observed that larvae are more damaging than adults. 22.31% of Zonocerus variegatus specimens were collected on cassava fields while 5.03% were captured on maize and cassava fields. We collected more Zonocerus variegatus in March (32.6%). Their abundance also proves their aggressiveness to crops. In total, twenty families of parasitoids were collected and distributed into seven super-families. We captured more parasitoids in February (32.83%) than in other months. May is less rich with 4.60%. Scelionidae family largely dominates the others with 23.64% parasitoid specimens, followed by Bethylidae 20.08% and Platygastridae 16.70%. The poorest families are Charipidae (0.19%) and Tanaostigmatidae (0.19%).
Objective: To describe the prevalence of excess weight (EW) in the context of First Nations (FN) living on the reserves of British Columbia (BC).
Design: A cross sectional survey conducted in the frame of my PhD theses, on data collected in 2008 and 2009 through a research study named “First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study” (FNFNES) aiming to document the nutritional status and exposure to contaminants in Canadian First Nations communities living south of the 60th parallel. The survey included anthropometric data, dietetic and sociodemographic and lifestyle data.
Subjects and settings: Three levels random sampling: province, communities and households. 493 women and 356 men aged 19 years and over were randomly selected from households in 20 communities.
Statistical analysis: For data analysis, the statistical analysis software (SAS 9.1) was used.
Results: Among women (n = 493) and men (n = 356) respectively, the prevalences were 44.8% and 35.4% for obesity, and 31.6% and 41.3% for overweight, that is a total of 76.4% and 76.7% of excess weight.
Conclusions and applications: This study suggests that the prevalence of excess weight is very high in both adults women and men, which shows a real public health problem in First Nations living on the reserves of British Columbia. Policies aiming reduction of excess weight should be initiated in order to prevent the health and socioeconomic consequences of overweight on that population.
The World Summit for Children (1990) marked the dawn of a pleasant and brighter phase for the world's children. According to UNICEF, this World Summit reflected the world's hopes for children (UNICEF, 2002 p.ll). World leaders promised to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was approved by the United Nations General Assembly the previous year (1989). At the Summit, "they signed on to ambitious goals to reduce child mortality, increase immunization coverage, deliver basic education and a whole raft of other measures by the year 2000 (FGN/UNICEF, 2001p.ll). This gave the hope that an action plan with time-tied concrete goals plus a specific legal framework would transform the lives of children worldwide in a short time. This means that the issue of children's survival, development, protection and education were no longer matters for charity but legal obligations.
This Paper focused on management of diversification at the senior secondary education level in Nigeria. Secondary education has been described as the second in the tripot of education. It serves as a bridge between the primary education and tertiary education. The two major aims of secondary education are: preparing the recipients for higher education and preparing the recipients for useful living within the society. The paper went further to x-ray some diversifications that could be explored in order to achieve fully the aims of senior secondary education to include: full utilization of the available human resources; provision and full utilization of financial resources; provision and full utilization of material resources; full and proper use of time resource full utilization of alternative sources of funds, provision of adequate instructional and personnel supervision, strict adherence to adoption of the principle of division of labour and specialization, adoption of the principle of leadership by example, adoption of the principle of reward and punishment moral-re-orientation, curriculum expansion and implementation. The paper finally concludes a wholesale adoption of the discussed diversifications for easy achievement of the aims of secondary education.
A travers ce présent travail, nous voulons savoir les causes primordiales de la fraude fiscale à la petite barrière mais aussi dégager les fascicules qui gangrène les petits commerçants de cette zone frontalière et à la fin ce travail nous permettra d’(e) :
- Identifier les causes de la fraude des commerçants à la frontière Congolo-Rwandaise malgré l’instauration du régime DSI et DCI voir DDI.
- Savoir les facteurs explicatifs de la fraude à la frontière Congolo-Rwandaise dans le régime DSI ;
- Identifier les facteurs clés de cette fraude après estimation de notre modèle économétrique ;
- Proposer des stratégies les plus efficaces pour lutter contre la fraude dans les transactions entre les villes de Goma et de Gisenyi.
Après nos analyses à travers ce travail, nous avons pensé que les déterminants de la fraude fiscale sont entre autres le sexe, l’âge, l’Etat Civil, le détournement, la concussion, le niveau de vie, le revenu, la lourdeur de la taxe, la double taxation, les tracasseries, la position de la douane, le capital, taille de ménage et la fréquence de la fraude. Après nos analyses nous avons constaté qu’il ya ceux là qui sont réels et les autres qui ne les sont pas. Ainsi avons proposé un modèle économétrique que vous trouverez à la fin de nos analyses et cela après un test économétrique par le logiciel E-VIEWS et SPSS.
The importance of banking sector for financing economy has already proved.
In Democratic Republic of Congo, we observe afresh a significant evolution since 2005 which remains marked up by existence of growing number of banking group agencies.
13 commercial banks are in Goma today while only six in 2005, and the number of bank accounts opened in banks has significantly accrued from 30 000 in 2005 up to 334 000 in 2015.
The growth rate in banking sector has been extremely accrued from ten years passed.
The total asset of all banks passed from 300 million USD in 2002 up to 14,1 billion USD in 2015 ended.
Tne Rawbank is a commercial bank of DRC regulations found in May 2001. This branch of indian Rawji Group has runned up itself at the first range of congolese banking market with around 21% market portion of which 5% for Goma agency only.
We want to find out what are the factors (determinants) which motivate clients to choose Rawbank especially it became within 12 years the first bank in DRC in terms of Deposit asset and client number.
Ce travail a été réalisé dans le cadre de l’Unité de Recherche en Biochimie et Biologie moléculaire, à l’Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de Bukavu, en République Démocratique du Congo, dans l’optique d’une contribution, lointaine soit-elle, à l’initiative de la lutte contre le VIH par inhibition du mécanisme d’attachement du VIH aux lymphocytes T de l’organisme, une étape déterminante qui conditionne l'ensemble du processus de l’infection par ce pathogène.
Pour ce faire, les extraits de Rumex usambarensis étaient mélangés avec un sérum positif pour le VIH, ou déposés, quelques secondes avant le sérum, à la zone de dépôt de l’échantillon du test « Détermine » habituellement employé pour le dépistage du virus, en vue d’en évaluer les effets sur le principe biologique du test à la fin de la migration.
Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus, in vitro, démontrent que ces extraits inhiberaient la fixation des anticorps anti-VIH aux antigènes correspondants, contrairement à l’expérience témoin qui a révélé, par colorimétrie, l’effectivité de la réaction de fixation des anticorps aux antigènes incorporés dans le test.
Il se dégage de ces expériences que les extraits de « Rumex usambarensis » pourraient éventuellement bloquer l’infection par le VIH, in vivo, par inhibition de fusion de l’enveloppe virale avec la membrane de la cellule cible, sous réserve des effets secondaires probables et des interactions avec d’autres molécules de l’organisme.
This paper is about the role of political actors and cultural agents in the promotion of culture in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It aims to point out the impact of culture on the country’s long-lasting development and thereby contributes to making of cultural policy the backbone of the society’s attraction towards the structure of a creativity economy or a modern cultural economy. This, of course, requires the political actor to make of the cultural sector an important aspect of his operation programme for people’s and society’s progress and the cultural agent to make of it an asset of the development of man and of man’s environment.
Delegated management is another alternative for financing economic and social projects in Morocco. The National Initiative for Human Development is an example. However, this alternative raises parallel economic issues that can be supported by the management control, Insofar as it leads the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public policies.
As part of our article, we tried to analyze the relationship between the efficiency of PPPs and assistance to strategic steering in Morocco.
This study aims to look into the importance and efficiency of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) tool in the teaching and learning of primary school pupils in Morocco - the fourth grade level - in terms of performance, Teaching, learning and the degree of retention of knowledge.
The research involved a sample of 46 fourth grade level learners in one of the primary schools in Kenitra city during the 2014-2015 school year.
The experimental methodology with two groups was used in this research. For the first group, we opted for the traditional method of teaching (the use of the common blackboard), while for the second group we used the interactive whiteboard.
The study also used two achievement tests: the first, immediately after the lesson and the second two weeks later.
The results of the study showed the positive effect of using the interactive whiteboard in raising learners' achievement and retention of knowledge.
The study recommended adopting the use of the interactive whiteboard in primary education because of its benefits in building learning and raising the learners’ motivation to learn.
The research was conducted in Kisangani, capital of the Eastern Province (DRC) dismembered. The objective was to analyze the contribution of traffic of diamond on the socio-economic conditions of the actors in Kisangani on the one hand, and on the other hand, the axes of allocation of the income. The investigation was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Investigations showed that if the turnover of the actor was low before their entry into the circuit of the diamond market, some said revenue increase were found with the dividends derived from this activity. This money enabled them to acquire property and continuity of traffic. The nature of these goods has significantly evolved compared to the starting situation. Their income is also assigned for other purposes including both expenditures to meet the needs of the members of the family, friends and acquaintances and workers. Diamond activity helped increase their financial capacity and enabled them to acquire property coveted by the population and the other economic operators in the city.
A zooplankton production trial based on chicken manure and guinea pig droppings was conducted between July and August 2014 at the Dschang University Research and Application Farm to contribute to the improvement of the productivity of fish farming systems. This work was aimed at determining the period and the best fertilizer to produce some zooplankton of interest necessary for larval rearing. An experimental design of 2 treatments and one control (unfertilized): T1 (chicken manure), T2 (guinea pig droppings) at a rate of 2.13 kg /are each triplicate was used in a completely Randomized 9 basins of 1 m3 previously inoculated with copepods and rotifers at densities of 14 and 45 ind / l of water respectively. Physico-chemical parameters of water and biological (zooplankton) follow-up was done every 2 days and the collected data were submitted to a one-way analysis of variance. It follows that: Except for temperature, pH and water depth, fertilizers had a significant effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the water (p < 0.05). The most significantly high zooplankton densities (1161 ± 15 ind / l) (p <0.05) as well as rotifer and copepod species were obtained on day 12 and day 20 in basins fertilized with chicken manure, on the 14th and 22nd day for those fertilized with Guinea pig’s droppings. The highest densities, biomass, daily production and intrinsic growth rates of the copepods were observed in basins fertilized with guinea pig droppings. Each of the fertilizers has been shown to be of interest to produce a specific type of zooplankton, guinea pig droppings for copepods and chicken manure for rotifers.
The general objective of this study was to assess the challenges of controlling the development of informal settlements in Arusha city council. Ngarenaro Ward an informal settlements was used as a study area. Both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through household survey, key informant interview and field observation. Descriptive statistical and content analysis were employed in data analysis. The results showed that there are various driving causes of informal settlements as scarcity of land resource, long government process of providing planned and survey urban land or plots, level of education and income level differences. Other driving factors were poverty, ineffective housing policy, trusted local institutions and urbanization. Plot survey, regularization progammes, tittle deed provisions and squatter upgrading projects are strategies initiated by government planning authorities to reduce informal settlement and economically empower the poor. Upgrading of informal settlement is part of the national housing programme, which aims to address the country’s housing challenges. In minimizing these challenges like change of land use values and uses, rapid urbanization, high planning standards, land laws and regulation and lack of resources, Arusha city council has been taking different measures to reduce informal settlements as ongoing preparation of Arusha Master Plan, Poverty reduction and Business Formalization projects.