Contraceptive use has been shown to increase rapidly in Tanzania in recent years, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraceptive through multimedia has a positive influence to use and at what magnitude. This paper used a cross-sectional data from 67 women of reproductive age collected in 2014 about the effects of multimedia on women contraceptive use at Kiranyi ward in Arumeru District in Arusha. The data were used to examine extent of multimedia in promoting contraceptive use among these women, the influence of multimedia on women contraceptive use and determining the association between multimedia and women contraceptive use. IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 was used for data analysis.
Findings indicated that about 61.2% Radio and 20.9% Television are the common media used in promoting women contraceptive use. Multimedia shows a great influence on women contraceptive use as 82.1% of the women interviewed claimed to have adapted contraceptive use after they heard contraceptive use advertisement from media. Media information affects women contraceptive use behavior through changing attitudes, adapting contraceptive use. Findings also revealed that there is an association between multimedia and women contraceptive use at p<0.001 in which 82.1% of the women of reproductive age interviewed in the study area adopted contraceptive use after heard contraceptive information from the media. It was concluded that multimedia family planning promotion had an effect on women contraceptive use. The Researcher recommended that responsible players should strengthen multimedia messages to ensure effective dissemination of contraceptive use information hence create enough knowledge and awareness on understanding proper women contraceptive use.
This study explores the management of forest resources from perspective of rural communities and other stakeholders who use those resources in different ways for a wide variety of reasons. The purpose of this study was to identify and understanding key issues related conflicting interests of different stakeholders in governing and utilization of forest resources. The relationships between forest resources and people are mediated through institutions. Institutional arrangements shape resource access and control, and are fundamental to understanding patterns of stakeholders’ interests. This study grouped stakeholders into three groups, which were regulators, facilitators and users with different interests with regard to conservation and use of forest resources. Combining a focus on securing livelihoods with rural community negotiating and decision making processes enables this study to discuss and analyze among different stakeholders which is a key to achievement of more equitable forest resource management and distribution of benefits. This study analyzed and understands conflicting interests of different stakeholders that take place within community as a result of governing, and utilization of forest resources.
The general objective of this study was to assess the challenges of controlling the development of informal settlements in Arusha city council. Ngarenaro Ward an informal settlements was used as a study area. Both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through household survey, key informant interview and field observation. Descriptive statistical and content analysis were employed in data analysis. The results showed that there are various driving causes of informal settlements as scarcity of land resource, long government process of providing planned and survey urban land or plots, level of education and income level differences. Other driving factors were poverty, ineffective housing policy, trusted local institutions and urbanization. Plot survey, regularization progammes, tittle deed provisions and squatter upgrading projects are strategies initiated by government planning authorities to reduce informal settlement and economically empower the poor. Upgrading of informal settlement is part of the national housing programme, which aims to address the country’s housing challenges. In minimizing these challenges like change of land use values and uses, rapid urbanization, high planning standards, land laws and regulation and lack of resources, Arusha city council has been taking different measures to reduce informal settlements as ongoing preparation of Arusha Master Plan, Poverty reduction and Business Formalization projects.
This study assessed Woodstock, species richness, tree diversity and Importance Value Index (IVI) of Chenene Forest Reserve (CFR). Forest inventory carried out in 120 systematically selected sample plots. The forest was post stratified into disturbed and undisturbed strata. The information recorded includes: diameter at breast height, species name, Geographical Positioning System (GPS) readings, and frequency of the species. Indicators of human activities such as charcoal kilns, pitsawing, burnt area and grazing signs. Analysis of the inventory data was done using Microsoft Excel. The inventory carried out in 2011 revealed that average number of stems per hectare (N), basal areas per hectare G (m2ha-1), and volume per hectare V (m3ha-1) as 352 35.20 (SE), 6.84 0.68 (SE) and 44.68 4.47 (SE) respectively. The parameters between disturbed and undisturbed strata in this study revealed low parameters in disturbed stratum as compared to undisturbed strata were 567± 87.37 stems ha-1, Basal area 11.21± 1.10m2ha-1 and volume 71.21± 7.00 m3ha-1 in undisturbed forest stratum and 246± 15.00 stems ha-1, Basal area 3.25±0.20 m2ha-1 and volume 17.92 ± 1.00 m3ha-1. The study identified 95 species and the Shannon- Index of 4.17. The study concludes that CFR is potential for having high tree diversity and is fairly stocked to provide products and services to the surrounding communities. The study recommends starting Joint Forest Management (JFM), Preparation of management plans and good governance in the management of CFR.