This paper presents the design of an ultra wideband microstrip patch antenna for (UWB) communications. In this structure there is a square patch consists of a partial ground plane and fed by a 50 ? microstrip line. The proposed antenna can achieves a wide bandwidth from 1.52 GHz to 11.19 GHz with VSWR<2 with stable and bi-directional radiation pattern. The simulation of this antenna has been performed by using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) and Computer Simulation Technology-Microwave Studio (CST).
This paper present the mapping of active Iron ore mines of Noamundi areas of Jharkhand.It was observed that the spectral characteristic of iron ore lie in the NIR and SWIR region. The Iron ore absorbs the0.85-0.9µm, and shows strong reflectance at 0.7-0.75µm region of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). The study involves hyperspectral image data, preprocessing like Noises are fixing bad and outlier pixels, local de-striping, atmospheric correction etc. and mines map generation by using NDII (Normalized Difference Iron ore Index) from the image. Atmospheric correction was carried out by using FLAASH algorithms applied on Hyperion image using the Hyperion tools available from ENVI 4.7 . The Iron ore mines are full of Iron ore or Fe dust material. So Iron ore has spectral signature due to own chemical component. In the case of Iron ores, the maximum reflectance Hematite shows near 0.7µm and maximum absorption shows near 0.85µm range of EMR . By using this importance character of Iron ore, Iron ore mines are mapped with the help of NDI Index which shows a reasonable match with known mining locations.
Land surface temperature (LST) is important factor in surface feature mapping, analysis, and estimation of emissivity and heat balance studies. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for various applications in Remote sensing field. Feature mapping and analysis can be done according to their emissivity and brightness temperature. In this investigation an attempt has been made to estimate surface temperature from ASTER and to use the relationship between aster thermal bands for feature mapping. ASTER has 5 thermal bands (wave length ranging from 8.125µm to 11.65µm) and these are used in comparison. ASTER thermal bands have been used to convert digital numbers to exoatmospheric radiance using published ASTER user manual gains and offsets. The exoatmospheric radiance is then converted to surface radiance by applying the Emissivity Normalization method, assuming the emissivity of the Investigation area is constant (0.96, the emissivity of urban areas).The surface temperature is then extracted from the surface radiance, based on ASTER images of May 2007.The extracted temperature data were compared to individual ASTER temperature bands. A positive correlation has been found from this comparison.
Search engine is one of the most important applications in today's internet. Users collect required information through the search engine in the internet. Analyzing user search goals are essential to provide best result for which the user looks for in the internet. In existing system, various techniques such as Feedback session, goal text, Pseudo-documents restructuring search result based on term frequency are used to infer user search goals. Existing search results based on term frequency (keywords) which may display unwanted results. In proposed system "Classified Average Precision (CAP)" algorithm is used to understand user search goals efficiently and evaluate the performance of inferring user search goals. Phrase search is performed in proposed system instead of keyword search. Initially Noun Phrase of user query is framed using natural language processing. Framed noun phrases are searched in webpages available in Internet. Term frequency of each noun phrase is found in Pseudo document i.e., finding number of webpages a particular noun phrase is occurred. Based on term frequency, place the webpage/document which contain only the above noun phrases at top link. Here user needs is highlighted and provides a user friendly search engine. Performance of inferring user search goal is evaluated using a new CAP algorithm.
Terrorism is an act of political violence which cause fear and inflict pains; destructions and loss of lives which are mostly carried out by Nation-States, criminal gangs and sometimes unorganized individuals. But development can only be carried out and sustained by human and it can not occur without peace and not just peace but people living without fear totally committed to congenial existence within the society. That is why the state of destructive insecurity being experienced presently in the northern Nigeria is unfortunate and regrettable. Terrorist groups exist all over world mostly in third-world countries while their activities are mainly political in nature it has direct effect on the economic development of the area where they operate. So many lives and property had been destroyed within the last five (5) years in the Northern Nigeria; effort made by the federal and state governments in the region to curb the man made disaster was all in vain. This study therefore examined the causes, what, why and how terrorism and terror groups in the northern Nigeria can be curtailed so that development can be sustained in that geo-political region. The study also concluded that concerted efforts must be made by both government and private sector to wage an all frontier war on armed criminal gangs by whatever name they call themselves.
This sheet discusses a subject very important it's the relationship between the efficiency of capital markets and the random walk of prices, where they appear this relationship through stock prices, which is expected be responsive to all information reach to investors , and movements of prices become random so long as the information contained independent of one another, which increases the efficiency of capital markets, However, some investors access to private information will leading to a non-random changes in prices as a result of information asymmetry and therefore weaken the efficiency of capital markets, Accordingly came the signal theory to help least partially in the provision and correct the information available to investors and raise the efficiency of capital markets.
In this paper, we present a comparison between two methods for learning-classification; the first one is called Kohonen network or Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) which is characterized by an unsupervised learning. The second one is called Support Vector Machine (SVM) which is based on a supervised learning. These techniques are used for recognition of handwritten Latin numerals that's extracted from MNIST database. In the pre-processing phase we use the thresholding, centering and skeletization techniques in the features extraction we use the zoning method. The simulation result demonstrates that the SVM is more robust than the SOM method in the recognition of handwritten numerals Latin.
Autograft tissue currently remains the gold standard of periodontal plastic surgery. It provides excellent predictability, improved long-term outcomes, and superior aesthetics over other treatment options. The amniotic sac encloses the developing foetus through gestation and is composed of amnion and chorion tissues. Amnion basement membrane closely mimics the basement membrane of human oral mucosa. Use of placental allografts in dentistry is a more recent development. The currently available dental form of placental allograft is composed of cryopreserved, dehydrated amnion chorion laminate. Fresh amnion has generally been used .When compared to traditional guided tissue regeneration membranes, placental barriers, such as amnion chroion membranes demonstrate many unique properties including anti-adhesive effects, bacteriostatic properties, wound protection, pain reduction, and epithelialization effects.
The cluster can take a variety of forms and unique dimensions: geographic scope, social distance, nature of relationships, types of actors, sense of belonging to the cluster, level of technology, life cycle ... Based on the diamond of Porter, we tried to place the clusters in relation to industrial districts and clusters.
This study assessed Woodstock, species richness, tree diversity and Importance Value Index (IVI) of Chenene Forest Reserve (CFR). Forest inventory carried out in 120 systematically selected sample plots. The forest was post stratified into disturbed and undisturbed strata. The information recorded includes: diameter at breast height, species name, Geographical Positioning System (GPS) readings, and frequency of the species. Indicators of human activities such as charcoal kilns, pitsawing, burnt area and grazing signs. Analysis of the inventory data was done using Microsoft Excel. The inventory carried out in 2011 revealed that average number of stems per hectare (N), basal areas per hectare G (m2ha-1), and volume per hectare V (m3ha-1) as 352 35.20 (SE), 6.84 0.68 (SE) and 44.68 4.47 (SE) respectively. The parameters between disturbed and undisturbed strata in this study revealed low parameters in disturbed stratum as compared to undisturbed strata were 567± 87.37 stems ha-1, Basal area 11.21± 1.10m2ha-1 and volume 71.21± 7.00 m3ha-1 in undisturbed forest stratum and 246± 15.00 stems ha-1, Basal area 3.25±0.20 m2ha-1 and volume 17.92 ± 1.00 m3ha-1. The study identified 95 species and the Shannon- Index of 4.17. The study concludes that CFR is potential for having high tree diversity and is fairly stocked to provide products and services to the surrounding communities. The study recommends starting Joint Forest Management (JFM), Preparation of management plans and good governance in the management of CFR.