This study intended to determine the contribution of the Fundacion Grameen Pilipinas Incorporation (FGP) to the poverty alleviation in the province of Northern Samar. The contribution of FGP was measured in terms of sustainability, impact in household income, and women empowerment.
A total of 134 individuals from the three (3) geographical areas, namely: Balicuatro area, Central area and Pacific area, were used as respondents of the study. The study adopted the descriptive-evaluative research method and utilized frequency counts, percentages, weighted means, financial ratios in the analysis of the data.
Survey questionnaire, interview schedule, and focus group discussions were used in the data gathering. Triangulation was employed to verify the veracity and accuracy of the responses of the respondents through the conduct of interview with the employees of Grameen.
It was found out that the collection rate from years 2010 to 2014 was 89 percent, indicating a high performance in terms of sustainability. This was further confirmed by its fair performance in terms of the overall liquidity which was rated 82 percent. This favorable finding may be due to the affordable loan amortization of the beneficiaries which ranged from Php100 to Php499.
It was also found out that the total average daily net income of the respondents was Php90.45, which was verified to be higher by 45 percent than their average daily net income before they availed of the FGP.
Most of the woman beneficiaries were ascertained to be highly empowered considering their active involvement in productive activities at home and in the community.
Summing it up, the FGP had contributed significantly to poverty alleviation among the target clients who were poor. The program was found to be highly sustaining and had increased the income of the family through the empowerment of the woman beneficiaries in engaging in productive endeavors in the home and community.
Indigenous agricultural products in Northern Samar are plentiful but their availability in the market is unpredictable. This study tried to find out what are the indigenous agricultural products as an eye – opener for the farmers in increasing production. It aimed to determine the market potential and find out if it is profitable to sustain the production entirely. It also tried to ascertain the problems and constraints deterrent to production and marketing.
The study was conducted in four barangays of Catarman, Northern Samar. The researcher utilized triangulation to derive a valid data.
These barangays produced indigenous agricultural products of several varieties of root crops, fruit trees, and vegetables. They also produce processed livestock, cereal, and marine products. It revealed that Copra and rice were the main sources of income in the four pilot areas. Some were produced in fewer quantities partly sold and consumed by the farmers. Prices slightly varied in the different barangays mostly sold either through small middlemen or to the ultimate consumers. Generally, they were sold on cash basis.
The most reported problems common to the four barangays were climatic change (rank1), occurrence of pests (rank 2), lack of capital (rank 3), and insufficient of water supply (rank 4).
During community consultation major problem exposed in Washington and Galutan lack of water supply, Macagtas capital deficiency and Libjo pest occurrence.
Finally farmers’ participation in the preparation of implementable market plan should be arranged to systematize marketing of indigenous products.
The different forest ecosystems of the RDC have been affected by the dynamics of the soil occupation during these last decades, characterized by a clean reduction of the natural formations to the profit of the formations anthropiques. The studies achieved on this day limited themselves to an analysis diachronique by the integrated approaches implying the techniques of spatial analysis combined to the geographical information system (SIG).
Setting to part the analysis diachronique of the imagery LANDSAT TM, ETM+ and OLI (of parth and Raw 177-59, 1766-59 and 176-60) spreading of years 1986 to 2015 and supported of direct observations, the present survey sketches a prospective analysis of this dynamics while combining the applicable variables of the changes and the deterioration of the forests to a test of modelling to the deadline 2065.
The variables have been regrouped in 7 subgroups: agriculture, lumbering, infrastructures, the demographic factors, the socio-politic factors, the economic factors and the biophysical factors. Nevertheless, only the variables spatially explicit have been quantified and steady to the models. For the rest, two tools of modelling (CA_Markov and LCM) have been used and the best allowed of cartographier the risks of deforestation the deadline 2065; the modelling has been made to the scale of the reserve of biosphere of Yangambi. For the two models a based objective and quantitative approach on the budgeting of the mistakes and the correct predictions has been adopted finally.
The results show a meaningful regression of the forest formations to the profit of the classes anthropisées with rates of deforestation of 1986-2002 and 2002-2015 of 1,1% and 4,31% and respectively. These reports come proved the necessity of the setting in application of a planning plan in view of the lasting management.
The visual and statistical comparison of the affected and real cards of 2015 allowed to use the tool THAT Markov for the simulation of the variation in surface of the classes of soil occupations the deadline 2065. However, the omen of an alarming and continual regression if some consequent measures are not set in motion.
This survey is based on the assessment by remote detection of the deforestation in the forest region of Masako in Kisangani (RDC), it aims to quantify the dynamics of the soil occupation while using the techniques of the cartography by remote detection as well as those of the systems of geographical information.
We had used of the Landsat pictures TM p176r060 of January 1990 and March 2001, to make the cartography of the soil occupation, the method of the post-classifications has been used, six classes have been kept in order to apply a SIG under Arcgis 10, The matrix of confusion has been used to validate the results of the classification, the matrix of transition and the yearly rate of deforestation, have been used to quantify the fragmentation of the forest landscape.
Of the gotten results, the methods prove that him ya had a change in the occupation of soil of it spaces it of 11 years. So while comparing the gotten results, we noted that the forest landscape is in full change in Kisangani. Fragmentation remains intense for the classes of the dense forests and the secondary drill. The dominant class is the one of the fields and fallows.
Wahid Hasyim has thought Islamic education renewal. Orientation Islamic education in the lifetime of Wahid Hasyim the middle of the twentieth century purely religious and towards ukhrowi. While Wahid Hasyim already initiated the reform of Islamic education oriented and pragmatic mundane ideal to akhiratan. This is among the significance of this paper need to be removed. Issues raised is how Wahid Hasyim thinking about human nature and position, the basic concepts of human morality and its relationship with the outside world, the purpose of education, curriculum, educational methods and learning resources? Whatever color the thinking of education? The approach in this paper is a socio-historical analysis using the tools of philosophy of education, linguistic analysis and the analysis of the concept. The result is that Wahid Hasyim have thought of educational reform (Islam) which is a very radical at the time, among others, 70 per cent of general knowledge and 30 percent of religious knowledge in the curriculum and educational purposes in addition to objectives religion too mundane namely life skills as an output pesantren education.
In the modern construction sector, steel-concrete composite deck slabs have emerged as an alternative to conventional concrete slabs nowadays. The composite construction is lighter, stronger and economical when compared to conventional construction method. The longitudinal shear capacity of the slab determines the ultimate load of the composite slab and is the most prominent failure type in composite slab construction. The profile steel sheeting acts as an external tensile reinforcement in the slab. In this experimental investigation, three types of embossments viz., chevron, rectangular and inclined penetrated are introduced for predicting the m-k curve. Totally six numbers of steel-concrete composite deck specimens are used for the study. For each type of embossments, two numbers of specimens were chosen with two different shear span conditions. The specimens are cast using M25 grade of concrete and using 1 mm thickness of profiled steel sheeting to avoid the shrinkage and creep of the concrete, 8 mm diameter of secondary reinforcements are provided (on top of the profiled sheet). The specimens are subjected to static loading and load capacity was found. As per the regulations of Euro-code 4, the m-k method is used to determine longitudinal shear capacity of the deck slabs. The linear regression analysis was plotted using experimental tests data to predict the m-k value.
The main objective of this research work was to develop a Cluster Analysis based fault identification model for the power system. Cluster Analysis based Data Mining Techniques model has been implemented to locate the 3-phase transmission lines fault in IEEE 30 bus power system. Power World version 18 software was used to simulate the IEEE 30 bus power system and the 3-phase transmission lines fault. The bus voltages at fault were collected and import to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for determining the bus at fault. Through Cluster Analysis using Squared Euclidean Distance method, fault has been identified at each bus. This meant that the application of Data Mining Techniques yields a huge potential in solving complex problems related to power system, it not only yield an accurate result but also fast computation. The proposed innovative, successful model was able to locate the fault at each bus by bus nominal voltage comparison method.
Urban green areas are important part of dynamic and complex urban ecosystem and provide significant ecosystem services. Less attention is often given to the potential urban green areas serve in urban biodiversity conservation in most developing areas. This paper identify and mapped urban green areas of Ugep, the largest ‘native’ town in West Africa and further examine the size and change pattern of the green areas in comparison to the built-up areas and exurban from 1999 to 2013. Using aerial photograph and ground truthing helped to identify and map land uses while graphs and tracing papers served in calculating the size and change pattern of the urban green areas, built-up areas and exurban. Ten urban green areas depleted by anthropogenic activities were located in the study area. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tested the validity of the size and change pattern of the green areas, built-up areas and exurban. Results showed that significant differences occur in the size and change pattern among green areas, built-up areas and exurban. The area covered by the green areas, built-up areas and exurban was calculated and then converted to percentage of site covered. Green areas decrease in size from 23.65% in 1999 to 18.19% in 2013, and exurban, 60.13% to 49.01%. During the period of study, built-up areas increased from 16.23% to 32. 80%. Hence, built-up areas consistently expanded at the detriment of green and exurban areas. The vestiges of natural vegetation remain primarily along stream buffers and pristine sites. The most evident problem in the study area is that emphases are not laid on the ecological values the green areas possess hence increased built-up areas has caused biodiversity imperilment in the area under study. It is therefore recommending that conservation planning should specifically address the issue of human settlement and development to underline the values of unprotected green areas for nature conservation within the urban setting.
A floristic and structural composition studies of Kponyo forest, a forest close to the hunting field of Bili Uélé, was carried out with the aim of knowing the variability of the forest types through the evaluation of the parameters such as abundance, taxa predominance, basal area, biodiversity indices and the mode of space distribution of the dominant species in each inspected site. The method of subplot made it possible to sample two hectares (8 pieces of 50 m X 50 m). On the whole, 636 individuals belonging to 173 species and 66 families were inventoried. The species Gilbertiodendron dewevrei abounds the hydromorph land forest while the species Garcinia epunctata abounds the firm land forest. The Fabaceae family dominates this florule. Basal area average is 28,14m2/ha. The analysis according to the K repley® function of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and Garcinia epunctata shows a random distribution within the settlement.
Democratic Republic of the Congo is among the countries who attach great importance to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this floristic study was to evaluate the plant diversity of the Rubi-télé hunting area for a good sustainable management. This area is located in the Bas Uele province, Territory of Buta and the Community of Monganzulu village Sukisa (N: 02 ° 19 '072 "E: 024 ° 58' 368'; altitude: 471m). This reserve has an area of 9080 km2.
All individuals with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were inventoried and measured 1.30 m above the grade. We opted for a targeted sampling of delineating the 50 m X 50 m plots (mixed forest) and where the Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (mono forest dominant) was abundant. The study conducted in the field hunting Rubi-Télé an area of 2ha led us census 452 individuals in the mixed forest divided into 79 species, 28 families; 267 individuals in the forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei divided into 30 species, 14 families.
Basal area for forest Gilbertiodendron dewevrei is 32,3m2/ha and mixed forest as basal area 23m2/ha. Julbernadia seretii is more abundant with a rate of 11.95%, in the mixed forest. Family Fabaceae leads with 30.87%.
For Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest species abounds its habitat, first with 46.44% of the family Fabaceae is leading with 64.12%, it appears that the mixed forest shows the scattering of the forest wealth specific Gilbertiodendron dewevrei because its diversity index values are low.
An ecological study based on the natural regeneration of the undergrowth was carried out in the S. Lisowski botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, Kisangani University. A floristic inventory was conducted taking into account the height and diameter of all individuals. From this inventory, 3901 individuals have been recorded and grouped into 6 species, 6 genera, and 5 families; for the species assessed according to the scale of abundance – dominance of BRAUN BLANQUET, 8 species grouped into 8 genre and 7 families were counted. The obtained result show the dominance of the Leptonychia tokana (1232 feet or 31.58%) species, followed by Costus lucanusianus (881 individuals or 22.58%) and finally Tricalysia bequaertii (741 feet or 18, 29%). Among the Spectra evaluated according to the scale of abundance-dominance of BRAUN BLANQUET, Trachyphrynium braunianum and Anthurium ferrierense are the most abundant. The most represented families in the undergrowth of the garden are the Rubiaceae, Marantaceae, Malvaceae and Costaceae.
Mycelium growth and yield of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 0.6 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1 at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiation effects were evaluated on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, induction of different mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, size of fruit bodies and mushroom yields. The results shown that growth rate of irradiated mycelium were slightly slower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced more fruit bodies with no significant different on size of fruit bodies. The mushroom yield represented by BE of irradiated mycelium is higher than control and increased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found sufficient to increase the yield of mushroom and it is directly to support local mushroom industry.
This paper deals with model predictive control (MPC) approach for a 2 DOF (degree of freedom) helicopter. The main objective is to stabilize beam of the 2DOF helicopter with respect to pitch and yaw angles. Development of controller for 2DOF helicopter is challenging because of its coupling effects between two axes and also due to its highly nonlinear characteristics. An accurate model of the system is developed first which has a similar response to that of the real plant. This model is used as a reference to design a non-linear MPC for 2 DOF helicopter. The 2DOF helicopter can also be referred as TRMS (twin rotor MIMO system) because it has two rotor each at its head and tail. Irrespective of variations in reference signals and speed, the controller has a good response in terms of accuracy.
The petrography of Miocene ferruginous muddy sandstones of Bingerville permitted to understand the transformation of muddy sands to muddy sandstones. The muddy sands lithification starts during the rainy seasons which distribute the iron hydroxides in the kaolin of muddy sands. During the evaporation of pore waters during the arid seasons, the iron hydroxides lose their water. These hydroxides are transformed into iron oxides supporting the transformation of muddy sands to muddy sandstones thanks to ferruginous cement. This cement derives from the total oxidation of the ochreous matrix. This matrix is a mixture of kaolinite and iron oxides. These muddy sandstones are quartz wackes with ferruginous cement. There are always nano-vacuums between the grains of quartz and ferruginous cement which surrounds them. These nano-vacuums are the spaces left after the evaporation of pore waters which surrounded the grains of quartz. Quartz of quartz wackes are transformed into iron oxides through their weakness zones. That is supported by the lot of iron oxides in the sedimentation environment. The muddy sands lithification of Miocene took place at Holocene thanks to their exposure in subaerial environment and/or aerial.
The unsteady squeezing hydrodynamics of lubrication between two rough parallel plates is analyzed here, which can be modified to represent a hip-joint, where in different moments can be numerically modelled. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has been deployed here to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. Also the effect of roughness parameters on different moments is numerically modelled. The associated stochastically averaged Reynolds equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution. The results obtained here are presented in graphical forms. The graphical representation establishes that the standard deviation associated with roughness has significant impact. Further it is observed that the situation remains relatively better in the case of negatively skewed roughness. This effect advances when variance (-ve) occurs.
In this article we aim, on the one hand, to show how quality standards can contribute to dissemination and stimulation of innovation. On the other hand, we propose an econometric model, based on Solow growth model, to test the impact of the stock of quality standards and innovation, measured by the stock of patents, on economic growth. The model thus proposed is applied to data from processing industries in Morocco. The results show a significantly positive effect of the stock of quality standards on the economic growth of this sector.
The access to safe water remains a serious major concern in Africa particularly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of pond water treatment consumed by plateau de Batéké population in Bita village using Moringa oleifera seed powder and Vetivera zizanoides root powder. Pond water samples were treated with different concentrations of M. oleifera seeds and V. zizanoides roots as a bio-coagulant. The measurement of physico-chemical parameters in the course of time has permitted to determine the optimum conditions and to evaluate the treatment efficacy. Results revealed that Moringa oleifera seeds are more efficient than Vetivera zizanoides roots. This activity is dose dependent. After one day post-treatment, the rate of turbidity reduction is 93.53% at the concentration of 1.818 g/l. Also, the treatments allowed the reduction of nitrates and nitrites in treated pond water. These results indicate that M. oleifera improve considerably physic-chemical quality of treated pond water. Thus, this approach is ecological and respectful of the environment. It is inexpensive, simple and beneficial for the populations of the rural zones. Moreover, M. oleifera is a plant species particularly easy to cultivate in an intensive way and is adapted to the tropical climate of Africa.
Data mining is the process of extracting the useful information from the large amount of available data. Association rule mining is a popular tool for discovering useful associations from large amount of data. Once private data is released for mining, it is very difficult to prevent its misuse. Useful associations with hidden information or knowledge that are sensitive to the database owner could be easily exposed using this kind of tool. Therefore it is necessary to hide all the sensitive information that can be mined from the data in the form of association rules before releasing the data. Most of the methods proposed in literature for association rule hiding deals with binary database and few methods for quantitative database suffer with side effects. This paper proposes an approach for hiding sensitive association rules using differential evolution and mutual information. The proposed algorithm hides the rule by decreasing Association Measure of the rule below threshold. Side effects are reduced by choosing the items with higher mutual information. Experimental results on real datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively sanitize the sensitive data with fewer side effects to the non-sensitive data.
The price of the crude is continuing to scaling down, but one wonders what would be the consequence of that crude price drop off on the bitumen produced at the refineries. Madagascar would have a solution to use either the Bemolanga tar sands naturally (as it is) or to use extracted bitumen to replace the imported bitumen for tarring its roads. In fact, Madagascar is importing bitumen since 1960 and needsmuch foreign currency to pay out the bitumen product bills; nevertheless it has the possibility to use these petroleum materials to tar its roads. Using only imported bitumen for tarring roads would certainly not well develop the road construction in Madagascar. On 1962 (when Madagascar became independent country)the streets of Bemolanga village and all the streets in Morafenobe, the main town situated in Western part of Madagascar, located at 30 km away from Bemolanga deposit were tarred with Bemolanga bituminous tar sands by the “Societé des Pétroles de Madagascar). The tar sands were dropped into a metal barrel and then, heated up with wood fire while mixing from time to time to produce viscous liquid, which is poured on the top of the prepared road and compacted manually afterwards. These tarred streets lasted more than twenty years life, thus, on 1980, almost of the tarred streets stay unbroken. In many countries who own tar sands, bituminous shale, natural bitumen and heavy oil, such materials were used in road construction to tar their roads since longtime ago. Thus our study consists in evaluating the possibility to use the Bemolanga tar sands to tar the maximum length of roads in Madagascar. The conclusion of the study is that it is technically possible to tar Madagascar roads with the Bemolanga tar sands. The decision to go further to the project would just be political decision.
La stratégie de l’ange bleu de la communauté internationale se veut comme un récapitulatif des institutions ciblées par les ennemis de la paix en Afrique pour sa déstabilisation. Ensuite, elle balise la voie aux futurs leaders africains qui seront issus des élections, dans la mesure du possible, de s’imprégner de la situation de la décennie allant de 2005 à 2015, afin d’imaginer, dans une vision prospective, le devenir de l’Afrique, une fois que les principes démocratiques ne seront pas de mise au sein des Etats.
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is an exigent technology which is used to customarily monitor the patient’s critical data. Initially, the sensor nodes have been placed on the human body which is configured with the wireless devices for transmitting the data. Sensor nodes are typically powered by batteries with a limited capacity. To some extent it is possible to prolong the life of the network by controlling the energy consumption of each sensor node. Energy consumption during the information transmission in WBAN remains one of the most significant research challenges. This paper imparts the proposed method called Cooperative Virtual Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (PC-VMIMO) technique for Priority Based Energy Efficient Data Transmission, which is exclusively used to overcome the above challenges. In the same power transmission and lofty traffic overhead situations, this method can produce higher data rates and minimize the node transmitting time of the priority information, thereby reduce the energy consumption, latency, overhead and also improve the communication performance of the entire network. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various performance metrics, compared with the existing methods.
Madagascar has not come up to petroleum discovery till now, nevertheless many petroleum companies have acquired licenses for petroleum exploration in the western sedimentary basin of Madagascar, since the new promotional petroleum exploration undertaken on 1980. The existence of the two non conventional fossil deposits discovered since longtime ago have boosted the invertors to come to Madagascar to try to find out the geological model of the eventual petroleum discovery within the huge sedimentary basin of different ages. The two deposits which are The Bemolanga tar sands deposit and the Tsimiroro heavy oil deposit were located in the Morondava sedimentary basin, in the central part of the western sedimentary basin of Madagascar. The two deposits stand besides and are about only 60 km away from each other. To support the petroleum exploration works, it was worth to know the physico-chemical and the geochemical characteristics of the oils and the minerals containing the oils. Thus the main focus of this paper is to develop the analysis for the characterization of oils and minerals which we have been undertaken since thirty years ago. The result of the analysis have stated the Permo-Triassic age of the Bemolanga and Tsimiroro deposits. To complete the useful data for the exploration issue, geochemical and chemical analysis were undertaken to evaluate the Source rock evaluation and the behavior of the Bemolanga and Tsimiroro oils. The results of the study showed that: The Bemolanga bitumen and Tsimiroro oils have high basic compounds content; not any kind of clays which may inhibit the oil recovery process was found; vapor injection process and combustion process would fit to recover these oils.
This paper presents a survey on practical as well as theoretical advancements in fractal image compression (FIC) practice. It is a lossy compression scheme comprises Affine Contractive Transforms, Iterated Functions represented as fractals. It is with a high compression ratio, but entails more time for encoding. Although many schemes are published to speed up encoding, they do not easily satisfy the encoding time or the reconstructed image quality requirements. FIC method incorporating optimization techniques results in better performance of the practical applications.
Cloud adoption is widely popular in all enterprises and institutions in todays’ scenario. This paper describes how cloud is adopted in educational institution. Cloud provides many benefits to users and it also has some security related issues in its adoption. To address the security problem in the cloud adoption in educational institutional, this paper proposes an architecture for secure adoption of cloud in educational institutions. The proposed architecture provides many benefits to users with secured cloud environment. The architecture uses four security parameters that are Authentication, Authorization, Confidentiality and Integrity. These four parameters are securing the cloud environment from users’ side to cloud environment. The authentication and authorization are used to check the entry of users to identity the unauthorized access. Confidentiality and integrity is used to ensure that the content in the cloud environment is only accessed by the authorized users.
Assessment of groundwater quality is important in many groundwater studies. Water never occurs in its pure state in nature. Groundwater composed of chemical ions in the form of solution. The type and concentration of these elements depends upon the surface, sub-surface environment, rate of groundwater movements and the source of groundwater. In addition to the above natural causes, man also contributes his share in changing the quality of water by sending sewage into ground and contaminating the aquifer by discharging industrial waste into it. The use of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial needs is determined by, physical and chemical characteristics. The hydrochemical studies generally involve (i) a description of the occurrence of various constituents in groundwater, (ii) the relation of these constituents to water use, (iii) identification of geochemical patterns and (iv) the development of a hydrogeochemical model of the area. The present experimental work determines the ground water quality parameters by using GIS software at Ariyalur taluk, Tamil Nadu, India.