Object Oriented Programming (OOP) utilizes an alternate arrangement of programming language than old procedural programming dialects (C, Pascal, and so forth.). It is a methodology which is essentially centered on the way objects collaborate to convey and share the data. It changed the utilization of procedural oriented programming, where the attention was on the methodology of execution. The object oriented methodology brought another way, giving more significance to the items. There are four basic concepts which are to be emphasized. The first concept is that of an Object. It is the basic building block of any programming language. It represents the way you can describe anything in the programming world. The next is Class; a class in OOP is the principle body of any system. The classes frame the fundamental improvement unit of any system. Third factor is Inheritance, where we can create a new class known as derived class from the parent base class. This helps in reducing the time for coding and the derived class is error free. The last factor is Polymorphism, which means the capacity to ask for that the same operations be performed by an extensive variety of diverse sorts of things.
Background: Access to public health care may be restricted for old slum dwellers due to many reasons pertaining to health care system itself and socio economic conditions in slums objective. This study of elderly slum dwellers attempts to find out these factors affecting accessibility of public health services with an aim to propose measures for better service delivery to the poor elderly population in the slum. Methodology: 125 elderly aged 60 and above were randomly selected from Jawahar Nagar Urban slum of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Structured interview schedules were developed, field tested and used to interview elderly slum dwellers. Result: Out of 125 elderly people, 73.6% respondents were in the age group of 60-70, with 56.8% women and 43.2 % men. 78.4% elderly people were illiterate and just 0.8% had studied up to 12th standard.56% elderly population was dependent on others as they did not have any source of income. 12.812.8% were living alone and 44% were living with their children. 33.3 % think overall public health services are affordable to them, whereas despite highly subsidized cost of care 40% found it not affordable. The allopathic system of treatment is acceptable to the elderly slum dwellers. According to 40.8% elderly, the quality of services is better in private sector >for minor illnesses the facility of choice is nearby dispensary and reason is short distance. The facility of choice during serious illnesses and emergencies is a private hospital and reason is that there is no better care available nearby. 78.26 % elderly were aware about the free treatment facility available at Government health centres but unaware elderly have not accessed any public health facility. 77.6% elderly didn’t have free health care card mostly due to unawareness. Other barriers were Behaviour of service providers (88.3%), Distance from Home (64.7%), Transport Facility (82.4%), Amenities at health facility (88.3%), and convenience for attendants (88.3%). Conclusions: Though the elderly people of the slum agreed the cost of care and effectiveness is better at public health care facilities but their accessibility to public health care is restricted mostly because of long waiting time and behaviour of health care providers. There is lack of sensitization among health care providers regarding needs of old persons.
The chemical study of Cliona viridis, marine sponge recognized by its antibacterial and antifungal activity was investigated for the first time in Morocco. Cliona viridis contains different levels of primary and secondary metabolites. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH test and calculated in mg Vit E equivalent/g of dry weight. The fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography (GC) showed a predominance of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, we found the presence of several sterols which cholesterol is the most abundant.
The present study aims to: (i) check its abundance and distribution Sterculia setigera Del. in Togo according to biophysical factors and (ii) forecast its potential suitable habitat. S. setigera trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm) were numbered and human activities were recorded within 518 plots. Geographic Information System offers applications for evaluation of the abundance in relation to anthropogenic threats, human population density, elevation, annual mean temperature, annual mean precipitation, and types of soils. The distribution model based on Maximum Entropy was used to forecast the potential suitable habitat using the species occurrence data and environmental data. Occurrence data were gathered from fieldworks, herbarium records, and scientific published papers. Environmental data were formed by 19 bioclimatic variables and altitude data. Based on cross-correlations among variables, variables’ contribution, and jackknife test of variables’ importance, six bioclimatic variables were selected for model running. The two main variables that contributed towards predicting the potential suitable habitat were the annual precipitation and the temperature seasonality. The abundance of the species is more positively correlated by the soil type and the topography while it is negatively correlated to rainfall. Anthropogenic threats’ importance increase from the south to the north of the country while human population density decrease. The most suitable habitat of S. setigera were predicted in eco-floristic zones I and III of Togo. Further studies on the nursery, the regeneration, the cultivar selection and the assessment of the future climate impact will be a great asset for its sustainable management and domestication.
Durum wheat is an important crop in North Africa and Morocco. Hessian fly is the most important insect pest of wheat in the dryland areas in Morocco. Breeding wheat for genetic resistance to pests is the most sustainable strategy. The objective of this study is to assess the genetic diversity of quality criteria in a recombinant population segregated for resistance to Hessian fly and to verify the effects of the presence of H.fly resistance genes on these criteria. Grains of 180 recombinant inbred lines derived from hybrid (Cando-cross-H25 / CI115 // CM829 / BZAIZ-AHF) were analyzed for composition of high molecular weight-glutenin subunits and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS). The reaction of these lines to Hessian fly being previously known, these results were compared between H. fly resistant and susceptible lines. Electrophoretic analysis revealed six different bands. The various combinations of these bands gave eight allelic forms encoded by Glu B1 locus. Two allelic classes were observed for low molecular weight-glutenin subunits, they are LMW-SG-1 and LWM-SG-2. The protein composition of this collection presents a great variability that will be useful to breeders by allowing choosing the useful alleles and broadening the genetic base. The characteristics studied were found similar between classes of H. fly resistant and susceptible lines.
This article presents a systematic literature review, whose main objective is to identify the concepts of green logistics, sustainable logistics and low carbon logistics and to point out the peculiarities, similarities and/or differences among them. As secondary objectives, this article sought to identify other terms associated with similar practices to the ones represented by the discussed terms. We conclude that low carbon logistics has a more limited scope, considering only CO2 reduction, while green logistics extends this scope, including other environmental aspects and sustainable logistics is the most comprehensive concept, but the least explored by researchers.
Public procurement issues have drawn many concerns and became a public debate because the rules and regulations are constantly reformed and restructured. Public procurement contributions in the world economy are very significant. In Indonesia, according to the Ministry of Finance, public procurement spending for 2009 was 33.4 percent of total government spending. This study aims to determine implementation practices of Public Procurement Plans or Rencana Umum Pengadaan (RUP) in Bitung City of the North Sulawesi Province. The multiple statistical regression equation is used to process data from 47 respondents from regional apparatus task forces (SKPD) and the results show that the influence of independent variables (X) on dependent variable (Y) is 87.3 percent (R2), while 12.7 percent is influenced by other factors. The result of F-test shows that F-result = 36.231> F- table = 3.21. The calculated probability value is 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. The partial test (t-test) from 9 independent variables (X) identifies 7 variables that have significant effects on the scores of RUP implementation (Y), while the other two variables have no significant effect. The overall results of t-test show that the implementation practices of public procurement plans have significant effects on the output of goods and services in the administrative district of Bitung City, which is a direct effect of the higher compliance rates of the bureaucratic apparatus performances in implementing public policies.
Each region has potentials and economic advantages that can be used as the source of its regional growth. The capability of each region to promote its own growth depends on its economic competitive advantages. This study is aimed to determine the centers of economic growth and regional development in West Halmahera Regency in the North Moluccas Province. The data used for analysis is secondary data which were collected using documentation method and internet browsing. The method of analysis used is scalogram analysis. The results show that among 9 subdistricts observed in this study, only 4 have the highest scores for socioeconomic infrastructures completeness. The subdistrict located in the central administrative area is the center of growth or growth pole, and the other 3 subdistricts act as the buffer areas. Based on scalogram analysis results, it is found that the growth of each subdistrict is relatively similar, with only 1 subdistrict that shows a relatively more advance growth in Hierarchy II with the highest Index of Subdistrict Growth (ISG) at 21.3433. The other 8 subdistricts are under-developedregions within Hierarchy III with variable Index of Subdistrict Growth (ISG).
Coconut fiber is the substrate of choice for the production of plants in vegetable nursery above ground Gabon. However, procurement and production costs of the material remain high. This study conducted in the experimental area of the company Horta Gabon, located in the town of Akanda north of Libreville in Gabon, with the aims to test the possibility of substituting coconut fiber imported by coffee husks produced locally. Thus, through monitoring of the germination and vegetative behavior of Tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum) subject to various disinfection treatments, which have focused on the nature of disinfectant and the volumes applied, have showed that plants of tomato products on coffee husks disinfected 1.5 L of Metam Sodium (MS) and washed have better returns in terms of germination and development of tomato seedlings. These results indicate that the coffee husk could be an alternative substrate of coconut fiber without causing major imbalances.
Main of our study was to describe the epidemiology of fractures in children aged 0 to 5 years, regardless of the cause.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study over a period of 5 years at the Pediatric Surgery Department of the University Hospital Aristide Le Dantec in Dakar, Senegal. Various parameters were studied: frequency of these fractures compared to all consultations, sex, age, circumstances of occurrence of the injury, the period of consultation and the concept of hospitalization.
Results: Four hundred cases have been collected during the period of our study. The mean age was 38 months. The age group 49 to 60 months was the most represented with 28.5% of cases. The boys were the most affected with a sex ratio of 1.4. The majority of our patients consulted in the first 48 hours after the trauma (61% of cases). Fractures occur at home with 53.5% of cases and accidents of public roads (9.5%). Fall was the main mechanism with 63.5% of cases.
Conclusion: Fractures of children 0 to 5 years are uncommon. Fall at home is the main mechanism of these fractures.
Main of our study was to report on the age at time of surgery and the therapeutic features among children who underwent surgery for hydrocele in Dakar.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study conducted between 1st January 2009 and 30th December 2013. A hundred and seventeen boys who underwent surgery for hydrocele due to patent processus vaginalis were reviewed. We determined their age at the time of surgery and the therapeutic aspects including the surgical approach, the practiced surgical gestures, post-surgery medical treatment and surgical treatment outcomes, including favorable cases and complications.
Results: Mean age of the children was 44 months with extremes of 22 days and 15 years of age. Boys aged 3 to 11 were the most represented (58%); 38% were under 2. We performed a high ligation of the processus vaginalis in all children. Post-surgery medical treatment varied with a predominance of analgesics (98.3%) and antibiotics (73.5%). We recorded as post-surgery outcomes 112 favorable cases, one case of scrotal hematoma and four cases of recurrence.
Conclusion: Many children with hydrocele had early surgical operation whereas they could have benefitted from surveillance of the patent processus vaginalis. Hydrocele recurrences are common in our study, this result probably related to the inexperience of the surgeons.
Developing of voxel phantoms has been an active field of research during the last decades and is receiving more attention nowadays. Reference phantoms for several ethnic groups have been developed recently as an extension to the ICRP reference phantoms that are based on Caucasian standard anatomical data,. This work reports an attempt to develop a tool for automatic slice-based adjustment of voxel phantoms. This tool achieves the adjustment process depending on anthropomorphic data extracted from anterior and lateral images for targeted body. The software was used to adjust Golem voxel model according to 23 Sudanese individuals. The weight, height, and age of these individuals vary from 52 to 113 Kg; from 166 to 188 cm and from 20 to 35 years, respectively. The maximum equivalent diameter, mean equivalent diameter, major axis length, minimum axis length, solidity and volume of brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen and bladder were calculated for all prepared models. For each organ, the mean value for each of these parameters was calculated and the deviation of each model from this value was evaluated. For the obtained data, we have calculated a global deviation of model (GDM) and selected the model with the smallest GDM to be the Sudanese voxel model. We have also compared volume, height and weight for 17 organs of the Sudanese voxel phantoms with ICRP phantom Golem ، visible human and voxel man model.
Côte d’Ivoire became the first world producer of cocoa beans in 1970 by reducing forest cover and by losing biodiversity. The West-central region of the country was a former production site of cocoa, and contributed strongly to the annual supply of cocoa beans, but today, the plantations are old and the soils are poor, especially in the region of Daloa. To increase the yield of production, farmers use artificial fertilizers and the effect on cocoa trees is not really known. Our study aims to determine the agronomic characters improved by the application of the artificial fertilizer. In the plantations of the villages Dibobly, tien-oula and Zitta, non-experimental and experimental plots were installed and measures on cacao trees on a surface of 2 400m2 were realized. The results showed that the cover of flowers by feet and the number of fruits had significantly increased with fertilizer. However, the fertilizer had no really effect on the size of fruits, the mass of fruits and the number of cocoa beans. Also, the varieties of cocoa trees like Forastero and Criollo, had a different productivity for the same application of fertilizer. The productivity of the cocoa trees depends of the quality of the fertilizer but also of the cultivated variety. The results could allow improving the quality of the fertilizer and use it consequently.
In the optics to impregnate themselves of the realities concerning hygiene and purification in the township of Allada in Benin, 600 chiefs of household identified by probabilistic sampling have been interviewed in order to study the relative indicators of hygiene and purification. Besides, a qualitative approach consisting in an observation of the women having in charge of the children of less than 5 years has been adopted in order to document the different convenient concerning manipulations of the stools. It is evident from this survey that the level of hygiene and purification is relatively weak in the township of Allada. A total of 69.5% of the households has access to the drinking water and only 37,2% of the households have latrines at home. The worn-out waters and the strong garbage (except 21,2% collected by the non-government organization of pre-collection) are rejected directly almost in the nature by the - totality of the households. This survey demonstrated a tie between the type of dwelling and the existence of latrine (p <10-5), as well as a tie between the level of instruction and purification (p <10-5). Also, a link exists between the religious factor and the existence of latrine by the families (p <10-5). On the other hand no tie has been put in evidence between the religious factors and the knowledge of the illnesses bound to hygiene and purification (p=0,004).
A highly dynamic market, violent competition, changing client demands, and the need of strict control and risk management are only some of the challenges of the business environment where modern financial companies conduct their operations. Factors such as mergers and acquisitions, deregulation, technological innovation, and competition, have forced financial companies to rethink their business. Business intelligence (BI) solutions for financial companies provide the decision makers with the ability to manage and take advantage of information resources, in order to solve the problems and make high-quality and timely decisions. The use of BI in financial services industry helps financial companies for creating a vision for financial managers, training the organization to determine realistic goals, and supporting optimal decision making. Business intelligence covers many areas of the financial services industry, and among the most important are: Relationship Marketing, Performance Management (PM), Risk Management (RM), Asset and Liability Management (ALM), and Compliance. Data warehouse (DW) and on-line analytical processes (OLAP) are the informational basis for the application of business intelligence. Data mining (DM) is important part of business intelligence and deal with complex statistical analysis, discovering hidden relationships between data and predicting the behavior trends of business systems. This paper is an attempt to straighten Economy Bank for Investment and Finance (EBIF) through business intelligence techniques to properly identify opportunities and trends in financial businesses. In this work, we propose a business intelligence system, developed on Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2, for an Economy Bank for Investment and Finance based on the information which the company has. We utilized the business intelligence system in EBIF to accomplish complex processing and data analysis.
The study of the plants hosts of the edible caterpillars of medicinal use used in the treatment of the diseases in the sector of Bakumu-Mangongo led to the inventory list of 18 species belonging to 12 different families to Fabaceae prevalence. These plants generally come from the forests secondary (12 species) and dominated especially by the trees (17 species), the phanerophytes in particular the mesophanerophytes (11espèces), the sarcochores (14 species) and with distribution Guineo-congolese (16 species) among which 9 species are Omni-guineo-congolese. The drugs are often prepared by decoction or aqueous maceration at basis of the fresh leaves, the roots, the barks of stem or trunk, the bark of root, latexes and are managed by oral route, anal way and bath of the body. Accessibility to the edible caterpillars and the plant species of medicinal value are the positive assets of these resources for the populations. On the other hand, the no-ecological exploitation of these resources could lead to deforestation, disappearance if not rarefaction of the biocenoses and the disturbance of the ecosystems.
The study is a contribution to the knowledge of Rodents and Shrews diversity in Yasikia forest, located at 31 Km from Kisangani, on the road towards Opala. On transects, Rodents and Shrews were sampled using the protocol with [xPF, ySH]. A total of 13 sampling lines were observed during 15 days (from March 26 to 11 April 2015). As results, we collected 74 shrews, belonging to two genera at least 9 species; 68 rodents which represent 9 genera and 12 species. In total, we collected 145 small mammals, with a trapping effort of 6478 trap-nights. The specific biodiversity and trappingsuccess showed that Pitfall traps are the most efficient to capture Shrews. It also catches small Rodents and adult such as N.cf.grata, and other adults’ rodents as Praomys genera, but with reduced number. Sherman traps are more effective to catch Rodents. They also catch shrews in reduced number. The trappings were conducted in three habitats. In the primary forest G. dewevrei (EC = 1060 night-traps, 50 specimens, 14 species, and TS = 4.72%), mixed primary forest (EC = 1500 night-traps, 69 specimens, 15 species, and TS = 4.6%) and fallow land (EC = 440 night-traps, 23 specimens, 9 species, and TS = 5.23%). No new species was announced but rather the presence of three endemic species of which two (C. Goliath and L. huttereri) are rare.
In this article, we focused on the evaluation of the engineering process of the formation of collectors within the ONEP. This study is based on the technique of semi-structured interview which allowed us to investigate, how deep the ideas and perceptions of resource persons about a number of issues relating to the management of engineering from the training.
The completion of this work has allowed us to analyze the different training engineering practices from the analysis of training needs to the evaluation and monitoring of training, through the design and implementation training activities in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the training system for collectors of ONEP in order to improve it.
The results of our work have shown that the assessment remains the weak link of collectors training engineering processes within the office, to the extent that it would require many advances to improve its effectiveness.
Bush meat constitutes one of the available animal proteins source for many rural people. Pressure on big species is growing because of urban request consumption. Small mammals become topical resource interested for hunting to support family and for sale. This study proposes to estimate hunt fullness on sengis Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi, one case among other small mammals appreciated at Yoko. We have initiated a follow-up of capture beside villagers during eighteen months.278 specimens come from 107 trap makers divided up 73 young men, 30 adult and 4 old people. The young man input is majority and estimated about 68%. Prospecting habit, seasonality capture has been examined also.
Preliminary inventory of wild edible no-timber forest products (NTFP) used for their tubers, fruits, seeds, roots, leaves buds, barks, by the Ambuila population, in the north-east of Angola, revealed the existence of 59 species of plants distributed in 43 genera and 31 botanical families among them Apocynaceae , Zingiberaceae and Arecaceae are the most represented, respectively with 5, 5 and 4 species. The inventoried edible wild plants are found in both forest and savanna but with predominance in the forest. Furthermore, the analysis of biological type performed on all harvested plant revealed the presence of trees, shrubs, herbaceous and lianas (66.09%), but we noticed that woody species predominate on herbaceous with 33, 30%. According to their importance, the most demanded organs of plants are: fruits, almonds and seeds (45.00%), leaves (32.50%), stems, bark and buds (16.25%) and roots and tubers with 6.25%. By descending the classification, the wild NTFP consumed by the Ambuila rural population are: fruits, almonds and seeds (34.67%), vegetables-leaves (22.7%), stimulants (21.33%), spices (10.67%), beverages (6.67%) and tubers represent 4.00%. Most of wild edible forest products at Ambuila are destined to self-consumption, only seven species of the 59 are sold locally, the average unit price is estimated at U$ 0.713. Most of the products are consumed after processed (cooked, grids or boiled), the rest are consumed raw.
The Marantaceae family constitutes a bio-indicator of natural forest perturbation. The present study was undertaken with the aim of elucidating the origin of these inhabited herb kinds in the mature Yoko forest stack. The pedoanthracological approach was used to search for the under soil Marantaceae perturbation indicators, to determin their age by the 14C dating and lastly, evaluate the perturbations, incidences on the vegetation of the current forest of the region. Four soil pit excavation established in the Marantacea forests permitted to identify two indocators: the Charcoals and pieces of the ceramic. The analysis of these indicators coupled to the story of the region of the last centuries: (i) the fossil charcoals result either from the burn intinerant agriculture or from the household fire; (ii) the pottery comes from the kitchen ustensils that the human kind used for his survival needs. The Charcoals from de pits which have 14C dating indicate the ancient fire dated 1125 ± 30 years BP and the contemponary fire of 350 ± 30 to 145 ± 30 years BP. These perturbations have got an impact on the actual floristic riches. For some identified taxa like Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (De Wild.) J. Léonard, Monodora sp, Tetraberlinia bifoliata J. Léonard, Pouteria sp, Homalium longistylum Mast, Turraeanthus africanus Welw ex C.DC.) Pellegr), their fossil charcoals were not found in the actual Marantaceae forests.
Cloud computing is defined as a type of computing that depends on sharing computing resources rather than using local computer resources. What makes this technology different than traditional client-server architecture is that the resources are shared through virtualized machines. This technology is becoming popular as number advantages such as high scalability and reduced IT costs attract potential users. On the other hand, some challenges, such as legacy applications to be moved to cloud computing environment, are to be discussed. In this work, possible stages to manage and undertake such a migration are attempted to be explored and described. The stages are proposed not only to describe the necessary steps but also to itemize related constraints for each level of migration. Main limitations include plans for migration hence a comprehensive/complete work-flow targeting organization specific requirements such as financial, cultural and legislative parameters remains as a future research avenue. Nevertheless, main benefit of this work is to assist organizations who need to migrate legacy applications onto cloud environment is supported as the work-flow is argued be used as a base to determine the constraints/issues that may arise at the stages.
Thirty high activity yeast strains saccharolytic and acidifying were isolated from sugar cane press juice and molasses from a sugar plant (grown on a solid semi-synthetic culture medium supplemented with 3 g of sucrose and incubated for 72 h at 40 ° C. the purification of the strains is verified by microscopic control after three subculture cycles in liquid medium and a passage on solid medium in a Petri dish 80 mm in diameter. the identification was carried out according to biochemical tests, physico-chemical and microscopic. These culture, purification and identification have isolated a strain which we named LES16 characterized by its temperature tolerance, which considerably increases during fermentation. This is a Candida sp which presents optimal conditions (pH 5, 3 g / l sucrose, 1 g / l (NH4) 2SO4 and 40 ° C) an enzyme activity of 4228 IU / l. has a major interest in the application of a technique primarily based on the use of a mixed starter containing lactic acid bacteria and yeast fermentation and strong acidifying power. Localization of beta-fructofuranosidase activity LES16 strain was obtained by culture on the semi-synthetic liquid medium supplemented with 3 g of sucrose. The centrifuge technology and cell lysis have produced more cell fractions to search for enzyme activity.
The singular spectral analysis, the multitaper method and the wavelet analysis were applied to the standardized average series of the temperatures in the oriental mountainous zone in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in order to determine the periods of temperature fluctuations at interannual and decennial timescales in that region. These different spectral methods reveal in the temperatures of this region a signal of four years period close. The spectral analysis by wavelet coherence was also applied to the couple made of temperature series and each principal characteristic indice of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins in order to assess the influence of these basins on temperatures over that region . This analysis shows that the phenomenon El Ninõ Southern Oscillation phenomenon and the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool are the principal drivers of the temperature fluctuations in this area on the interannual scale of 2-8 years, the coherence’s peak between the temperatures and these phenomena is located at approximately four years. The anomalies of sea surface temperatures of the tropical Atlantic Ocean also contribute to the fluctuations of the temperatures in this area on a scale 2-4 years by the means of the Atlantic Multidecennial Oscillation, the variability of the Tropical Northern Atlantic and the Atlantic Meridional Mode. The contributions of the oscillation of the North Atlantic, the variability of the Tropical Southern Atlantic and the Dipolar Mode of the Indian Ocean to the fluctuations, on interannual and decennial timescales, of the temperatures on this mountainous region are not significant.
Introduction: The uterine adenosarcome is a rare tumor, is composed of a benign glandular component and a sarcomatous stroma. It’s characterized by its rarity, difficulties in both diagnostic and therapeutic care.
Patients and methods: A retrospective review, from 1993 to 2013, of five cases of uterine adenosarcome diagnosed and treated at the institute Salah Azaeiz.
Results: Patients’ mean age was 54.4 years. Three patients were postmenopausal. Vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom. Physical examination combined with pelvic ultrasonography found a uterus increased in size. The diagnosis was made by biopsy curettage, biopsy of the polyp or study of the surgical specimen. Three patients underwent surgery. Four patients were in FIGO stage I, one patient in stage IV. Two patients benefited from adjuvant radiotherapy and one patient benefited only from chemotherapy. After a mean follow-up of 54 months, one patient was in complete remission. Pelvic local recurrence and metastasis in inguinal nodes were observed in two patients.
Conclusion: Surgery is often sufficient. Its prognosis is relatively favorable.
The regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+] i) plays an important role in many biological processes. The PMCA allows the expulsion of Ca2+ out of the cell with high affinity but low capacity. To better understand its role in the secretion of insulin we studied them in pancreatic β cell.
PMCA has four (4) isoforms whose PMCA1-4 which each comprise three (3) alternative splice sites A, B and C that will generate different splice variants. In purified β cells, in the RINm5F cells and in rat pancreatic islet cells, we identified the rPMCA1xb, rPMCA2yb, rPMCA2wb, rPMCA3za, rPMCA3zc and rPMCA4xb. Two additional isoforms have been found in the islet cells, so in non β cells of the islets of Langerhans, it is the rPMCA1xkb and rPMCA4za.
Whereas isoforms 1 and 4 are expressed in most tissues, isoforms 2 and 3 are expressed within specialized tissues. The presence of these specialized isoforms in islets indicates that the regulation of calcium homeostasis in these cells is specific and requires specialized ATPases. The β cell is equipped with a variety of PMCAs regulated differently, which gives the PMCA different possibility of regulation of calcium homeostasis.
The increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) represents a major event in the process of insulin secretion. The Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase (PMCAs) are equipped with a series of isoforms that may be tissue specific. It has been suggested that there might be a difference in activity between the isoforms and that some of them could play a fundamental role in the operation of the β cell. The PMCAs are regulated by calmodulin (CaM), the phospholipid acid, protein kinase, protease, and G protein, and by oligomerisation. CaM activates the pump and this activation effect will be limited by alternative splicing at site C that is their binding domain. Acidic phospholipids are stimulators of PMCA. But, alternative splicing at site A could therefore affect the regulation of PMCA isoforms by phospholipids by altering accessibility of phospholipids to their binding domain. In contrast, the PMCAs are inhibited by lanthanum and vanadate ions, by calmodulin antagonists, N-ethylmaleimide and derivatives of fluorescein. However, the experiments conducted showed that the suppression of the oscillations of [Ca2+] i is accompanied by an increase in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion but which continues to oscillate at a lower frequency. This allowed to say that the oscillations of [Ca2 +]i are not directly involved in the process of oscillations of insulin secretion but could intervene in its fine regulation.
Orchards for growing apples in Lebanon occupy 19% of the fruit growing area of the country, and it is the main fruit crop of the mountain areas. The varieties introduced to Lebanon since the 50's are the “Golden Delicious” and the “Starking Delicious”. At the time, all the production was sold immediately after harvest. Currently, the market demands impose a delayed sale after storage. Several diseases have appeared in storage such as the Bitter pit and scald. This has led to a loss of fruit quality and subsequently the loss of markets. Our research seeks to improve the quality of the fruits so that they become consistent with market standards while using foliar fertilizers. An analysis of the main components directly influencing the quality of the apple was conducted (malic acid, brix levels, content of calcium, nitrogen phosphorus, potassium) with the effect of these fertilizers on the Apple caliber as the criterion base in marketing. Experiments have proven that the 4 foliar fertilizers have improved the quality of fruits and have maintained their taste, sensory and physical qualities even after 4 months of storage. The economic impact of these results was assessed by estimating the expected added value that the grower will receive. The "Golden Delicious" and "Starking Delicious" orchards received an added value of 40% and 27% respectively, with a net increase in demand on the production. The Minimum Wage growth in Lebanon is 175 Euros.
The Ablo is a cereal food fermented. It is considered like a humid, slightly, salty and sugary bread, cooked steam and sold under shape of ball. The objective of the survey is to have present quantitative and qualitative data on the consumption of Ablo in Benin. The methodology adopted to consist in doing an investigation of land in some townships of the center (Abomey, Bohicon, Covè) and of the south (Abomey-Calavi, Comè, Cotonou) Benin by the consumers of Ablo. The results of our investigations showed that the Ablo is a food descended of the informal sector of street food. The consumers of Ablo are of all age and all socio-professional catégory. The consumers are of three categories to know the population, the promoters of feast and the hotels and restaurants. The Ablo is consumed to the snack for the majority and is served to hot accompanied of pimento or frying more of fish or meat fried.
A study based on liquid waste refining has been carried out on a three-basin channel (one anaerobic, one optional, and one of maturation) of microphytes lagooning at the liquid wastes refining station from the Arzèkè market in Parakou (Benin), from June to August 2014. Quality determining measurements have been used for ten weeks on samples collected following a daily frequency for some, and a weekly frequency for others. The average refining yields have reached 82.39% in MES, 86.04% in DBO5 and 86.18% in DCO. The MES supplemental concentrations of the refined effluent are positive in 50% of the used measurements following recommended rejection norms by the European Union directives (< 150 mgl/1). Elimination of the phosphor is low and unstable with a 19.75% in PO43 average yield. Azotic pollution reduction has reached 53.98% in ammoniac azote, at times going beyond 75%. Globally, the Azote and phosphor elimination is low, and the supplemental contents remain quite high compared to the accepted limit for an effluent rejection in a sensitive eutrophication ecosystem. Lowering the bacterial pollution is important, reaching 6.32 ulog in overall coliforms and 5.24 ulog for Escherichia Coli. But the supplemental contents (3, 71 ulog) remain higher than the WHO norm (< 3 ulog) for a non-restrictive re-use in irrigation. As for the salmonellas, studies have revealed that station adopt a partial refinement going from 40 to 50%.
The Aneurysm is an expansion or distension of the wall of a blood vessel, however, this study is based on the abdominal aorta, a segment of the aorta that gives rise to the celiac trunk that divides into gastric arteries, liver and spleen. We designed physical model with the software Solidwokes. This software has allowed us to visualize the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, we have noticed an increase in the diameter of the aorta where less than 50% aver the normal aorta. The mathematical models of blood flow in the abdominal aorta aneurismed were made based on the exploitation of Navier Stokes equations, for the finite difference method and that of the law of conservation of momentum. These math modes show that in the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm it has increase the upstream pressure of blood and decrease downstream.
From October 27 to November 10, 2014, a study was conducted in the districts of the frontier region of Burundi following the main roads from Tanzania; routes followed by entries of new cattle breeds to the Democratic Republic of Congo. These cattle input motions are more oriented in the Ruzizi plain. These breeds of cattle are more efficient in the production of meat, dairy, with a large build, the sale gives more money per adult cattle or younger. These cattle breeds are: The hybrid SAHIWALE, Ankole from Tanzania; Friesian from Uganda, MONTEBERIALE, SWITZERLAND and BROWN JERSEY. These cattle during their imports also come with mites ectoparasites, including Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 64.9%; Rhipicephalus evesti evesti 2.8%; Hyalomma 0.17%; Boophilus decoloratus 15.8%; Amblyomma variegatum 16.9% and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi 0.01%. A species of ticks is Hyalomma truncatum recently introduced following the inputs of these new breeds of cattle.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of the elevation of the hepatic enzymes and factors associated at people living with the VIH - AIDS followed to the CTA PHARMAKINA BUKAVU.
Methods: A retrospective transverse study has been led on 171 files of PVVIH having frequented the CTA of the Pharmakina Bukavu during the active period of 2006 to 2013. The data in relation with the biologic state of the PVVIH and the factors of risk of the elevation of the transaminases have been collected and have been analyzed by means of software Ear Info version 3.5.1. The test of Chi-Square and the Odds ratio have been used and the doorstep of significance has been fixed to a p value <0.05.
Results: Prevalence of the elevation of the GOT transaminases and GPT were respectively of 66.7% and 47.4%. The GOT transaminases and GPT were raised at the aged PVVIH, of feminine sex, co infected by the viruses of B hepatitis and C, under ARV consuming the alcohol and tobacco.
Conclusion: The prevalence of the GOT transaminases and GPT being raised at the PVVIH investigated, a good hold in charge, the non-consumption of alcohol, of tobacco and a regular control of the biologic parameters as the dosages of the hepatic enzymes, the serodiagnosis of hepatitis B and C could reduce the effects hepatotoxicity by our PVVIH.
Recently Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has turned into a popular matter of research area, because of its flexibility and dynamic nature. It is proven that the clustering technique, as a multi objective optimization, is the most effective solution to have minimum energy consumption. The goal of the clustering technique is to divide network sensors into clusters each of which has a cluster-head (CH) responsible to collect, aggregate and send sensed data to the base station (BS). The recent researches shown that such multi objective optimization in WSNs can be solved through well adapted an evolutionary algorithm. In this paper an improved k-mean clustering model powered by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. This is called Link-aware PSO, LSPO. The proposed model utilizes two-phase optimization by applying different fitness function. At the first phase, it selects Primary Cluster-heads based on improved Intra-Cluster Distance metric as fitness function in PSO algorithm to give primary CHs. In the second phase each primary CHs selected are evaluated by link quality and energy metrics to select the best ones as final CHs. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms LEACH and PSO-C algorithms in term of performance, prolonging network lifetime and energy saving.
Twenty maize varieties were evaluated in southwestern savannah of DR. Congo during two years for their grain yield potential under optimum and water deficit conditions. A factorial experimental design with three replicates was adopted. Grain yield obtained under optimum was considered as yield potential (Ri) while the one in water deficit conditions was considered as yield performance under stress (Rs). Six stress tolerance indexes, including Stress Tolerance Index (STI), the Sensitivity to Stress Index (SSI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (MGP), the stability index Performance (ISR) and stress tolerance (TOL) were used to identify genotypes tolerant to drought. Linear regressions were done between Ri and Rs yields and between six stress tolerance indexes. High positive correlations were revealed between Ri and Rs yields and indexes STI, MP and MGP. Furthermore SSI and TOL indexes were highly correlated positively and negatively to SRI at Rs. High significant correlations were observed between STI, MP and MGP while SRI, SSI and TOL are highly correlated, and are slightly or not correlated with STI MP and MGP. Varieties ranking based on STI, MP and MGP is similar to that based on the combination of the two rankings prepared on Ri and Rs. For maize, ranking varieties based on SSI and TOL is in the opposite direction of that obtained according to the Ri and Rs yields. The selection of lines based on the index can be more effective by combining high values of STI and MP at low to moderate values of SSI and TOL.