Said local political power to traditional chiefdoms of the North Kivu is changing in response to colonial issues conveys modernity and traditionalism of the conservative spirit in the post-colonial DRC.
Migrants and economic hegemony stimulating population growth and economic progress are an important asset to the Hutu and Tutsi immigrants newly acquired citizenship since 2006 and other majority populations such as YIRA (Nande) to reform the local traditional power often said that customary holders and their congeners living glaring disparities vis-à-vis these majorities. The number of complex breakdown of parental organizations by life sharing fears and habits, the consolidation of the customary power opposite that of democracy based more on the number and land expropriations in favor of individualism and deeds of real estate securities, sponsorship patronage for some local leaders remain in power longer have reinforced the erosion of those local authorities whose protection is affirmed by certain texts without practical arrangements to protect holders whose terror ended with the disintegration is confirming leaks, assassinations , dismissals, the rejection of pensions system, the radicalization of the conquest by the Tutsi HUHU and without any real solidarity with the Nande to weaken the BUHUNDE and bring sclerosis.
These abuses mentioned above are adequate to the realities of chiefdoms BUHUNDE, Bashali Bwito and current Sectors OSSO and Katoyi without forgetting the impacts of Chiefdom Bukumu (Territory of Nyiragongo and the Southeast Territory of Walikale.
Nowadays, organizations operate in more and more complex and changing environments. Therefore, they are constantly forced to develop their human capital. Accordingly to this challenge but also to this opportunity, many Moroccan organizations are trying to set up a training device enabling them to develop theirs human resources skills. In this regard, we accomplished a study that aimed to evaluate a Moroccan bank management training process in order to identify its strengths and the points to improve. In short, this study allowed us to conclude that the institution success in term of human capital valorization was not only relying on its training process performance. But that this success depended on the adoption of an integrated skills development system affecting the different human resources management aspects.
The length of the vocal tract is correlated with body size which can be determined by using formant frequencies in speech. The interconnections between vocal tract length and formant frequencies are explored here. Recorded and computer-synthesized vowel sounds are used to gauge the vocal tract length of a speaker under consideration. Vocal tract length assessment may play an important role in ‘vocal tract normalization’, which is crucial for speech perception and language acquisition. Vocal tract length is analyzed by applying two methods namely linear predictive coding (LPC) and vocal tract constriction (VTC). Speech signal is produced by the convolution of excitation source and time varying vocal tract system components. These excitation and vocal tract components are to be separated from the available speech signal to study these components independently. To reduce the complexity of deconvolving the given speech into excitation and vocal tract system components the ‘Linear Prediction analysis’ is developed. The VTC evidence gives a measure of the very low frequency component present in the signal and hence gives different range of frequency values for different types of sounds. Zero frequency filtering (ZFF) is used to give an approximate measure of vocal tract constriction in terms of the low frequency component present in the speech signal.
In this work, we present the study of the complementarity of solar and wind energy in order to evaluate the profitability of a renewable energy system that can be installed at both sites; one located in the city center and the other in the southeast of the city of Agadir. The results show that the studied sites do not present an interesting complementarity between the two forms of energy but rather an important dominance of the solar potential relative to the wind potential.
Les établissements d’enseignement supérieur et universitaire dans la ville de Goma connaissent une mévente liée à l’absence de la coopération entre eux. La coopération a vite cédé place à la compétition sous-jacente au sous-développement du système éducatif supérieur. Cette note problématise cette compétition et explique les facteurs à sa base ainsi que son impact sur la qualité des produits des établissements d’enseignement supérieur et universitaire. Il se démontre que ces établissements connaissent, d’un côté, une pénurie criante d’équipements, de matériels didactiques spécifiques et de ressources humaines spécialisées et compétentes selon les domaines de leurs vies, et de l’autre, la culture ethniciste qui s’érigent en obstacles à leur coopération. Il faut donc que les établissements travaillent dans la complémentarité en vue de la formation d’une élite à la hauteur des défis des sociétés contemporaines et à mesure de compétitionner sur l’échiquier international avec les produits d’autres systèmes éducatifs supérieurs.
As the human being is curiously fascinated by the domination, more particularly; the scientists use the mathematics so as to provide an intrinsic description of the universe and why not making the related forecasts. The obtained results from the application of the mathematics in the physical world are wonderful; nonetheless, the mathematics theories are separately developed from the real world. It is therefore the agreement and disagreement between a discipline created by the human though regardless of any experience and the real world, that will be reviewed and attempted to be highlighted, in accordance with the vision of the philosopher mathematicians who had marked the history of the mathematics via the brilliant interventions either on philosophical or mathematical fields. To this end, this paper will be devoted to explain the intellectual conflict between the intellectual and the sensitive world from mathematical side.
Demographic change is responsible for the degradation of wetlands Douala. The overall objective of the study is to analyze the impact of uncontrolled human impact on the lives of people and vegetation located in the neighborhoods of Kambo and Longmayagui rivers (Douala). Interviews with heads of district and surveys of the local population have been made. In total 1 314 boxes were counted (125 boxes in Kambo and 1 189 boxes in Longmayagui). Seventy-five people were surveyed in Kambo (60 %) and 450 people in Longmayagui (37.84 %). The local population is mainly originally from western Cameroon. The main reason she moved into these areas is poverty. She practices mainly agriculture on the banks of Longmayagui and Kambo rivers and dump all their waste into rivers. The plants are invasive and regularly cleared it. These plants are useful to local residents for food and traditional medicine. The management of these areas is not a matter for policy makers but each riparian without any help is doing in managing its space. The interviews and surveys have highlighted the complexity of interactions between actors. Respondents are aware: they identify the environmental, social, political and territorial raised by the management of risk areas.
The determination of the impact of the Natural Regeneration Assisted on the avifauna, which is very good indicating of transformation of the landscapes, requires proceeding to its inventory.
The present study carried out in the village of Dan Saga in the months from September 2014 and 2015 which a site par excellence of the RNA were for the first time the object of an inventory in order to see the contribution of the Natural Regeneration Assisted on the return of the avifauna. In this direction it was preceded, with an inventory of the avian biodiversity by the combination of the methods of line and not transects. Thus, eight transects were traversed during the two programs of census.
It comes out from this study that the village of Dan Saga has a good avian diversity, represented by 29 species of which most frequently observed are pass griseus, Bubalornis albirostris and Petronia dentata. These species set out again in 20 Families.
The Kilometric Index of Abundance (KIA) were much more important on Transect of North-West (TNO) and Transect of North (TN) where Faidherbia albida are important; on the other hand Transect of East (TE) presents the weakest IKA.
Finally we can say that assisted natural regeneration supports the maintenance and the blooming of avian fauna.
Cefuroxime was evaluated for the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in 8 healthy volunteers, Bolus i.v. injections of cefuroxime 750 mg b.i.d. or 750 mg once daily were given to the patients depending on the degree of renal impairment. The concentration of drug in urine was measured during treatment, and pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated; Drug elimination half-life increased from 4.2 h (creatinine clearance 23.0 ml/min) to 22.3 h (creatinine clearance 5.0 ml/min) with decreasing renal function. The apparent volume of distribution ranged from 11.6 to 17.9 . A linear correlation was found between the total and renal clearance of cefuroxime and the creatinine clearance; the extrarenal clearance was 8.24 ml/min. Concomitant treatment with furosemide did not impair renal function and no evidence of nephrotoxicity was found. The clinical efficacy of the drug was good. Symptoms of infection subsided after 3-4 days and the isolated pathogens were eradicated. No relapse or episodes of reinfection were observed in a following-up period of 3 months. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects or changes in haematological or biochemical values were seen.
This study aims to present the benefits of a new methodology based on geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques for the identification and classification of Mediterranean landscapes. The approach has been applied to a coastal region of South East Tunisia: the Zarzis region. It is based on the combination of different satellite Landsat-8 image processing, namely supervised and unsupervised classifications and calculation of radiometric indices. Thematic maps and validation of results by Google Earth images have permitted, in a second step, to offer a touristic destination and geolocation of few stations encompassing representative of the area landscapes. This study presents an innovative methodological approach based on remote sensing and GIS to map the types of landscapes in Zarzis region. This approach may be useful in landscaping projects and as an efficient tool to develop a touristic destination by highlighting each type of landscape.
This study was designed to characterize the most cultivated and consumed yam (Dioscorea) cultivars within the Ghanaian yam germplasm based on their rheological properties in order to assess their potential alternative food and industrial processing applications. Matured yam varieties grown and harvested under the same climatic and edaphic factors were obtained from the Roots and Tuber Conservatory Division of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, Bunso Ghana. Samples were processed into flour and the pasting characteristics along the length of each variety were determined using Brabender Visco-amylograph (Brabender Instrument Inc. Duisburg, West Germany) equipped with a 700 cmg sensitivity cartridge. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed among the yam varieties for their pasting characteristics. However, no significant differences were observed in the pasting profile along the tail (T), middle (M) and head (H) regions of each tuber. Pastes from flours of D. rotundata had high maximum and final viscosities (333.5-384.5 BU and 343.5-404.0 BU respectively). Breakdown viscosity was low (<10 BU) in all the studied varieties, except D. dumetorum (54-71 BU). The findings from this research will be relevant to yam producers and processors in programmes aimed at developing new food/industrial processing applications using Ghanaian yams.
An investigation conducted to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among school children was carried out in Bauchi State Nigeria. Six hundred 600 urine samples were collected and examined in the rainy and the dry season each. Sedimentation method was used for the investigation of the Schitosoma haematobium. Six hundred (600) questionnaires were distributed in order to determine their knowledge and perceptions about urinary schistosomiasis in relation to their community. The overall prevalence of 423 (35.3%) was observed during of the period of study 314 (26.2%) males and109 (9.1%) females. The difference between the infection rate in males and females was statistically significant (p<0.05). Prevalence rate was also noted to be higher among age groups between 13-14 years 206 (17.2%) followed by 11-12 years 139 (11.6%), 9-10 years 66 (5.5%) and 7-8 had least 12 (1%). This was also tested statistically and was not significant (p<0.05). The prevalence rate in the rainy season was 235 (39.2%) and 188 (31.3%) in the dry season. This was statistically significantly. The study showed that there is prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the study area. Poor knowledge of causative agent of the infection and subsequent means of transmission has contributed to the high prevalence recorded. Proper health education, provision of portable water especially in the rural areas as well as raising the standard of primary health care clinics to facilitated correct diagnosis and treatment of the cases is all recommended for the eradication of the disease in the study area.
An epidemiological study was carried out in 2015 in five regions of southern and central Côte d'Ivoire. It aimed to determine the profile of gastrointestinal parasites of goats bred or sold in this area. Ninety six (96) digestive tracts were examined (8 per month); and 1344 stool samples were analyzed (112 per month). Seven (7) genera of parasites have been identified: Oesophagostomum sp (with a prevalence of 72,92 %), Haemonchus sp (71,88 %), Trichostrongylus sp (70,83 %), Bunostomum sp (61,46 %), Trichuris sp (48,96 %), Moniezia sp (43,75 %) and Strongyloides sp (13,54 %). The mean parasitic intensity of Trichostrongylus sp (PI = 30 104) is much higher than that of other parasites. The stool examinations allowed the identification of eggs of strongyles (prevalence = 91.15%), of Whipworms (0.59%) of Moniezia (1.04%) and coccidia oocysts (95.83%). The prevalence of each parasite species varies significantly from one region to another. Younger animals seem more infected than adults.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and identify risk factors among children between 0 and 59 months year old witch were in consultation at the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) for a post crisis period.
To attend this objective, a prospective anthropometric survey descriptive type was made. The survey was held in 2013 from August the first to September the 30th.
Although, we found a relative increase in the prevalence of malnutrition during the post-crisis period compared to a result of previous work, the most important factors of the increase of malnutrition were still the age of dietary diversification and the socioeconomic level of the family. Indeed, children who have been subjected to dietary diversification before the age of six months and those who leave in households with lower economic level were the most affected by malnutrition.
It will be useful to practice exclusively breastfeeding during the first six months of children life. After six months, food diversification should be progressive.
Medical follow-up of children born in the post-crisis period would be welcome to optimize their physical and intellectual development.
A study was conducted to assess the performance of surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems using different irrigation water levels on water distribution in soil and wetting pattern and in order to establish relationship of moisture content, distance and depth relationship. The field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil from October, 2014 to May, 2015 in the farm of University of Rwanda (UR) Nyagatare Campus. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications to study the effect of depth of placement of drip lateral and different levels of irrigation water.
The treatments are three levels of depth of laterals i.e. at surface, 10 cm depth from surface and 20 cm depth from surface. Soil moisture content at 0, 20 and 40 cm distances from emitter, and depths at 0 - 15, 15 - 30 cm depths was determined every 30 days before and 24 hours after irrigation to estimate soil profile moisture depletion. Based on wetting pattern radius, a linear equation was developed to evaluate relationship at the surface drip irrigation and subsurface drip irrigation at two considered depths (10 cm and 20 cm). For Vertical wetted depth, they were: Y (0 cm) = 0.217X + 5.2203, R2 = 0.9532 (surface drip), Y (10 cm) = 0.2996X + 5.8946, R2 = 0.9647 (subsurface drip, 10 cm depth) and Y (20 cm) = 0.2927X + 6.7402, R2 = 0.957 (subsurface drip, 20 cm depth). In case of horizontal wetted radius, the obtained equations were: Y (0 cm) = 0.217X + 5.2203, R2 = 0.9532 (surface drip), Y (10 cm) = 0.2996X + 5.8946, R2 = 0.9647 (subsurface drip, 10 cm depth) and Y (20 cm) = 0.2927X + 6.7402, R2 = 0.957 (subsurface drip, 20 cm depth). All these values of regression coefficients indicated that the variation of vertical wetting front and horizontal wetted radius was highly correlated to the time increase.
In a variety of situations that require the administration of human beings, it is necessary that decisions be taken after some form of election has been conducted. This is particularly relevant in small and medium organizations such as boards of companies, senates of institutions of higher learning and in various arms of government. In these situations voters indicate their preferences by casting either yes or no votes. Indecisions can be handled after collating these two types of votes. The machine described here was built around a microcontroller that was appropriately programmed to accept inputs from switches which represent the voter’s preferences. The collation and display of results are done automatically as soon as a voter casts his vote. The experimental machine has been designed to handle 255 voters but the hardware and the firmware are easily upgradeable to handle more voters.
The work presented here aims to establish, from the bibliography, inventory of endomycorrhizal species reported in the rhizosphere of the date palm. 89 fungal species have been reported across the world (Egypt, Oman Soltanat, Soutern Arabia, India, London, and the Arabian Peninsula). Morocco is represented by 29 species, reported in the regions of Tafilalet and Zagoura. The Glomus genus was the most represented, with 34 species followed by Scutellospora with 21 species and species of the genus Acaulospora, with 11 species. It then comes the genus of Entrophospora (5 species), Gigaspora (4 species) and Diversispora (3 species). The Rhizophagus genera are each represented by two species. By cons, a single species has been cited for each Sclerocystis, Septoglomus, Paraglomus, Ambispora, Funneliformis, Claroideglomus and Archaeospora genera.
Through an experience of researchers in the area of game Badminton biomechanics, they found a vulnerable for the squad Diyala University badminton in accuracy of and directing crushing blow, is illustrated by through an ease of response to the overwhelming blow faced by the our players, and in the areas be close on the opponent and in places of is inaccurate, plus other fitness requirements, , And the goal is identify some variables points Kinematic body noted by the crushing performance the beating skill, And also to identify the relationship between some variables AlKinematic accurately crushing the beating performance. The of researchers adopted on the descriptive approach and great number of players four, statistical data was processed on system (SPSS), The most important conclusions is a relationship were not significant correlation between some variables AlKinematic and accuracy crushing blow and of higher body mass center of moment beating, hat variable angle Milan trunk, significant impact on increasing the speed the racket peripheral speed badminton.
The difficulties of access to drinking water in the municipality of Kandi are especially related on the unequal distribution of the hydraulic infrastructures and the frequent breakdowns of some of these works. This bad spatialization of the hydraulic works, added to under information and the low-income of the households decrease the accessibility of the majority of these households to the sources of water of required quality.
The objective of this research is to study the accessibility of the populations to the hydraulic works in the municipality of Kandi. In a specific way, it was a question of inventorying the types of works available, of mapping them and of analyzing their spatial distribution.
The adopted methodological approach is based on the one hand on the data collected starting from data sheets of the regional service of hydraulics of Alibori and an investigation of ground having allowed to collect the geospatial data bound to the works. On the other hand, the polygon of Thiessen was generated from the software Arc Gis 10.3 to arrest better the spatial cover of its hydraulic infrastructures.
The obtained results allowed to appreciate the degree of accessibility of the populations to the hydraulic infrastructures in this municipality.
Self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) is well-known as one of internal factors as well as the amount of time spent for learning that can certainly be used as a predictor for the success of the learning process in which student learning will result in a satisfactory academic achievement. This study analyzes the relationship of SDLR to the medical student’s achievement, the relationship of study time towards the student’s academic performance of medical students. This study conducted in July 2016 which involved 88 respondents of third level medical students. Data were analyzed using independent t test. There is a correlation between self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and academic achievement with t value of 0,505 and p value of 0,615 and also there is a correlation between study time and academic achievement with t value of 2,267 and p value of 0,027. In overall, there is significant relationship between self-directed learning readiness and study time on academic achievement of medical students with F : 2,930 and R: 0,254.
In the district of Tanguieta, the rise of temperature, the change in rain occurrence and extreme meteorological scales, have an impact on the different components of the pastoral system. Mountains confer each area, each valley a particular identity, giving the biodiversity additional dimensions. The present research work contributes to a better apprehension of the impact of the climate variability on the pastoral activity in the district of Tanguieta. The methodology used here goes through two steps: in the one hand, it is concerned with the literature related to the climate change issue, and its impacts on the pastoral activity in mountain area; in the other hand, it deals with investigations carried out with people working in the area about the impacts of the climate change on that pastoral activity, together with the spontaneous adaptations made by the breeders. This methodology has been completed by the PEIR analysis. Analysis of the climate parameters shows the global lowering tendency of rains with a series of exceeding or watery years (1950-1969) and a series of shortfall or dry years (1970-2010). Then, a global tendency of increased temperature and a growing wind speed is recorded. Finally, the early drying up of water and the lack of natural fodder have provoked some disease vectors in animals, and pastoring problems to the breeders.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo alone possess about 181 species of ophidians belonging to 59 genera and 7 families. Kisangani city and surrounding area are a "hot spot" of several zoological groups already studied; while the biology and ecology of ophidians remain unknown in this ecoregion. From the perspective of dominance we got 0.1136 for all species with a high value in the species Boaedon olivaceus followed by the species such as Dipsadoboa viridis and Hapsidophrys lineatus while other remaining species: Atractaspis irregularis, Causus sp, Grayia ornata, Boulengerina annulata, Telothornis kirtlandii, Bitis nasicornis and Naja melanoleuca are less represented in our sample. The representativeness in the total number of individuals collected, the taxa, genera and families were respectively 25; 14; 13 and 4. The family of Colubridae is best represented with 65% of species followed by the family of Viperidae and Elapidae each respectively with 14% of species while that the family of Atractaspididae is less represented 7% of species. The Simpson index gives us 0.8864; the probability that two individuals from the sample are randomly of different species; Shannon Wiener index is 3.4831, which stipulates that the drill Basukwambula is very diversified in species; the equitability value is 0.2328. This index shows a statistically insignificant value; because some species of Ophidians captured in Basukwambula forest are represented by only one specimen in our collection.
The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the physiognomy and structure of major forest types found at UMA. To achieve this study, 40 floristic inventories plots (of 0.25 ha each) were considered and all individuals with dbh ≥10 cm were identified. A total of 3882 trees were identified: 696 (348 trees/ha) for trees stand at Limbali on white sand, 657 (325.5 trees/ha) for trees stand at Limbali on ground hydromorphe, 731(365.5 trees/ha) for monodominant settlement of transition on sandy soil, 887 (443.5 trees/ha) for the heterogeneous population disturbed on clay soil and 991 (455.5 trees/ha) for the heterogeneous population on soil shallow and rocky. They represent a basal area of 32.85 m²/ha, 25.08 m²/ha, 25.56 m²/ha, 30.86 m²/ha and 31.67 m²/ha respectively. The difference in density and basal area was significant between tree stands in all compartments. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference between populations for species diversity, and Shannon index (stratum A2), Simpson index, Fisher index (Alpha) and equitability (strata E+A1 and A2) but there was not any difference in (E + A1) stratum according to these biodiversity indices. There was floristic similarity between monodominant and heterogeneous stands transitions but no floristic similarity between heterogeneous tree stands and disturbed stands monodominant trees. So these two stands of trees are different. The heterogeneous transition stands is therefore only monodominant forest Julbernardia seretii the interior of what Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae) came to replace Julbernardia seretii (Fabaceae) in the stratum (E + A1).
Une enquête ethnobotanique a été menée dans la cité de Kenge et ses environs (Province du Kwango), auprès de tradipraticiens, femmes et hommes ayant des connaissances approfondies sur les plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Elle nous a permis de recenser 22 espèces de plantes médicinales différentes utilisées tantôt dans le traitement de nombreuses pathologies comme les troubles sexuels, la stérilité, etc. et tantôt comme fortifiant par les habitants de cette entité. Ces 22 taxons sont distribués dans 18 familles et 21 genres. Les familles les plus représentées en espèces sont : Zingiberaceae (13,63% d’espèces), Euphorbiaceae et Fabaceae (9,09% d’espèces chacune). Toutes ces plantes sont aphrodisiaques; cependant, les plus prisées sont : Mondia withei (16,4% de citation), Landolphia lanceolata (9,2% de citation), Pentadiplandra brazzeana (8,0% de citation), Canarium Schweinfurthui, Hymenocardia acida, Jatropha curcas, Quassia africana et Zingiber officinale (5,48% de citation chacune). Les feuilles (25,3%) constituent la partie la plus utilisée tandis que la décoction est le mode de préparation médicamenteuse le plus utilisé (54,7%). La voie orale est la voie d’administration la plus utilisée (82,7%). Milletia drastica, Mondia witheii, Pentadiplandra brazzeana, Landolphia lanceolata, Hymenocardia acida and Zingiber officinale displayed high value of usage value agreements (VUAs).
According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the population in Africa resort to traditional medicine to solve the primary problem of health. In the present study, an ethno-botanical survey was carried out in six markets of the district of Lukunga according to principles' included in the declaration of Helsinki. The ethno-botanical data collected were then supplemented by information concerning the plant ecological types. The results from this study revealed that 39 species belonging 37 genera and 25 families were inventoried in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga in Kinshasa city. These plant species treat 31 diseases; however the best consensus emerges between inquired only for the treatment of malaria and diabetes mellitus (ICF ≥ 50%). While according to the value of use agreement, only two plant species: Annona senegalensis and Quassia africana displayed interesting result (VAUs ≥ 0.15). Our study revealed that the use of the medicinal plant species is a current practice among the age ranging from 22 to 67 years with prevalence at the old people of 43-49 years. The majority (66%) of the medicinal plants users have a level of secondary studies. The maceration (32%) is the most use mode of preparation while the root is the most used plant part. According to ecological studies, the phanerophytes as well as the Guinean species are prevalent in the medicinal flora of the District of Lukunga. Lastly, the chemical screening revealed the presence in the two selected plant species of the secondary metabolites of biopharmaceutical relevance such as total polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins. It is thus desirable that advanced phytochemical and pharmacological studies are carried out on the two plant species for the scientific validation of their bioactivity (conversion of the traditional knowledge into scientific culture) on the one hand, but also with an aim of both revalorizing and preserving/using them for sustainable development according to the convention on biological diversity on the other hand.
Congestion in mobile radio network has been a great challenge due to increase in demand by the mobile users on the limited available channels. Dynamic channel assignment technique was employed in this work to minimize congestion in the network. Twelve base stations were studied and analyzed using some telecommunication traffic Key performance indicators (KPI) such as Call Completion Rate (CCR), Grade Of Service (GOS) and Channel Utilization Percentage (CUP). The result of the analysis was compared with the Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) regulatory standards. It was discovered that call completion rate (CCR) of all the Base Transceiving Stations (BTSs) investigated were not in accordance with NCC standard. Math lab program for Erlang B model used to evaluate the call congestion and call blocking probability on the network was developed and used in observing the system. The result of analysis of the system based on simulation of Erlang B model showed that the call congestion probability in some BTS were approximately equal to zero while the others were highly congested with higher probability of calls being blocked when fixed channel assignment technique was implemented. The model for the chosen technique for this work (Dynamic Channel Assignment Technique ) was used to simulate the 12 base stations investigated. The result showed lower probability of call congestion when compared with those BTSs with higher probability of call congestion. Thus congestion was minimized and more calls accommodated when compared with fixed channel assignment technique. Algorithm for implementing the technique was developed and modeled using flow graph.
This study consists to evaluate the comparative insecticidal activity of aqueous total extracts of 13 plants used in bean seeds conservation. Currently the yield fall of alimentary foodstuff is not only due to enormous losses which take place before harvest period, but in post-harvest period too. However insecticides, chemical products are inaccessible, expensive and dangerous to be handled by farmers. According to the literature, some insecticide plants, their achievement about the reaction against the devastator insects of foodstuffs in stock, notably: Cedrela sp, Cypress cupressus, Cymbogon citratus, Chenopodium ugandae, Haumaniastrum galeopsis folium, Lantana camara, Lantana trifolia, Mentha aquatica, Rannuculus multifidus, Tagetes minuta, Tephrosia vogelli, Tetradenia riparia and Titonia diverfolia has been evaluated. In fact, the total extracts of Tephrosia vogellii plant have shown a high insecticide activity about 75% of dead insects at a low concentration about 0.0266g/ml. Cedrela sp, Mentha aquatica, Tagetes minuta have shown a low insecticide activity compared with aqueous total extracts of other plants either 0% of dead insects for a low concentration about 0.266mg /ml; but increasing the concentration of the aqueous total extracts of these three plants to 0,28mg/ml, their insecticide activity appeared to 100% of dead insects. The lethal doses or lethal concentrations DL50 and DL90 have been determined for the aqueous total extracts of each plant and the results are found in the table annexed.
This paper is on improving medium wave signal transmission using a flexible impedance matching unit. The system is T arrangement of impedance network that provides impedance matching between the transmitter and antenna. The parallel feeder used in the medium frequency ground wave signal transmission gives rise to a mismatch between antenna and the generator (transmitter). This network is a lumped reactance that effectively matches the transmitter to the antenna. The vertical antenna used in this range of frequency require a radial wire earth to achieve good ground; with effective connection to the matching network a good path to ground was achieved and noise associated with the transmission line was highly reduced.
DC to AC Converters generate discrete output wave forms. Mostly, neither the voltage nor the current have the desired wave forms and also produce harmonic, power losses and high frequency noise. The non-sinusoidal wave form will make the electronic equipment to burn early. The loss of power will make the system uneconomical. All this include the poor performance of the existing DC to AC converters. In this paper, pure sine wave with voltage control for nonlinear load applications is presented for single phase full bridge inverter. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technique is used to control voltage while pure sine wave obtained by using two techniques one is through band pass filter (as high value inductor are rarely available and also difficult to build thus combination of high pass and low pass filter used) at output and other is by DAC (Digital to Analog Conversion). Moreover, the proposed controller used for output voltage control is PID. It works as voltage controller for inverter control to eliminate the steady state error under heavy load applications. The better sine wave output and reduce steady state error will make this inverter both efficient and economical in terms of energy savings. The experimental results verify the simulation results obtained using Matlab® Simulink and Proteus®.
This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for green house tomato nurseries and develop the easy use compressed coco peat pellets mixed with fertilizer for nurseries of tomato. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one, three types of different particle sizes were used; namely fine (≤0.5mm) (T2), medium (3mm-0.5mm) (T3) and coarse (4mm<) (T4) with normal coco peat (T1) as treatments. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage, number of leaves per seedling, seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5% probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media (sieve size 0.5mm -3mm) of coco peat was the best particle size for tomato nursery practice, when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of fertilizer and mixing rate of fertilizer; Yara mix fertilizer was better than Albert’s solution. However type of fertilizers and diameters of the pellet, were not significantly affect for germination, but pellets which 32mm in diameter with mixed 5.5g/kg Yara mix fertilizer combination was shown significantly high vegetative growth.