This article presents the design, implementation and evaluation of performance tests of a motorized feed grinder-mixer made from local materials. The dynamic and dimensional study made, allowed the realization of a prototype of 350 liters in capacity. To assess the uniformity rate of the machine, three types of feed were used, namely: (1) starter, (2) chicken and (3) layer. In addition to food, the coefficient of variability between samples after chemical analysis was obtained for each chosen mixing time. The determination of the different optimal rational models of the homogeneity rate was made with Matlab R2017a to determine the minimum mixing time. The results of this study show that the machine developed allows the homogeneous mixing of 427 kg of feed per hour with a maximum energy consumption of 0.72 Wh/kg. The feed variability coefficient is less than 10% in 12 minutes of mixing, resulting in better homogeneity rates. The specific energy consumption is around 59%. This machine has low environmental pollution (little noise and dust), guaranteed ergonomics and stability; also, maintenance is easy. The estimated cost of developing the prototype is around 381,300 FCFA, or 568,00 USD; this machine is therefore accessible to average breeders. The results of this study also show that, compared to what exists on the Cameroonian market, this machine has several advantages for improving farming techniques and the living conditions of the populations.
Poitevin marsh is a typical example of anthropogenic activities influence on wetlands. One of the problems to be solved before considering preservation solutions, concerns the improvement of hydrogeological knowledge and water transfers between the marsh and Jurassic carbonate bedrock. This study aims to determine the hydrodynamic parameters of Quaternary and Upper Oxfordian aquifers in order to appreciate the water transfers between these aquifers and to better understand the hydrogeology of this area. Thus, pumping tests are carried out to determine the hydrodynamic parameters of the aquifers. The pumping tests interpretation carried out, allowed to highlight very low permeability of upper Oxfordian formations under Quaternary cover. As for the formations of Quaternary aquifer, obtained permeability coefficients are in the order of 10-7m/s to 10-6m/s with transmissivity values in the order of 10-6 to 10-5 m2/s and a storage coefficient in the order of 10-2. However, Quaternary formations are more permeable than Upper Oxfordian formations. On the time scale of the measurements, no hydraulic connection between Quaternary and Upper Oxfordian aquifers could be observed. The water transfers between these two aquifers would therefore be very limited.
The recurrence of droughts season in the Sahel, related to rainfall deficits and increasing anthropization, has consequences on the ecosystems production. This drought affects the production of date palms despite its great phenological plasticity (adaptability) to arid zone conditions. The aim of this study is to characterize the population of P. dactylifera L. in the Agadez region for a better knowledge of the ecology of the species and its socio-economic importance. Thus nine (9) villages were prospected on the using of systematic sampling, including three (3) in the municipality of Dabaga, four (4) in Tabelot, one (1) in Tchirozérine, and one (1) in Ingall. In each village, the forest inventories were carried out. These surveys were made along the transects in plots of 50m*50m. A total of 89 plots were prospected and 25 ligneous species belonging to 22 Genus and divided into 15 families were inventoried. The most represented families are: Mimosaceae with seven (7) species (28%), Arecaceae with (8%); Capparaceae (8%); Myrtaceae (8%); Rutaceae (8%) with two (2) species each. The population of P. dactylifera in Agadez is characterized by young trees (with the shape parameter c=3.19), a high IVI (76.71%), a density varying between 36.86 to 194.77 tree/ha, a regeneration rate of 9 to 54% for semis and 25 to 85% stump rejection. This prospective study constitutes a basis in the program for sustainable development of the Aïr palm groves.
The traveling prospecting along the M’vunzi River has collected samples of the greenstone which have been the subject of macroscopic and microscopic observations of the thin sections made in the petrography laboratory. The present study has enabled us to identify in addition to the three types of rocks previously described by our predecessors, a fourth petrographic type which is a chloritoschist. In addition, two new minerals have been identified including «garnet» and «cordierite», respectively in an amphibolite and in a chloritoschist. The mineralogical paragenesis of the different petrographic types described to date in the M’vunzi valley composed of: epidote-chlorite-quartz, epidote-plagioclase-albite-chlorite-calcite, chlorite-biotite-quartz and chlorite-biotite-albite-quartz are typically secondary mineral paragenesis and indicate that all basic lavas in the study area were affected by regional greenschist facies metamorphism which is clearly justified by the appearance of chlorite in each mineralogical paragenesis. These results allowed us to deduce that the M’vunzi valley is lined with Gangila green rocks, the main ones being amphibolites, chloritoschists, micaschists and epidotites. It is therefore, for the most part, ancient basaltic lavas very rich in plagioclase which subsequently transformed into green rocks. The latter are the products due to the regional metamorphic gradient of Low Pressure and High Temperature (LP-HT).
The drilling allows us to know the true underground geology through the information provided by the cores which reflect the geological formations crossed, based on those made in this kimberlite massif, several logging have been traced and allowed an in-depth study on the different kimberlite facies encountered. The different sections made it possible to make a geological correlation between the different formations crossed by taking into account the facies intersected by the survey. The vertical drilling represented on the cuts that had been carried out by MIBA for the estimation of reserves made it possible to position the additional boreholes well in order to be able to intersect the enclosing formations. These kimberlite facies were encountered, the green kimberlite facies and/or lithic kimberlite with hematite-goethite, ferruginous products; xenokimberlite facies with hematite – goethite, chalcopyrite; epiclastites with hematite, goethite, chalcopyrite and carbonate formations of the Upper Bushimayian.
One of the main objectives of structural geology is to describe the different microstructures, to understand the origin and distribution of the forces that generated them on the spatio-temporary level. Building on this momentum, a structural study was carried out on geological formations of Proterozoic age in the locality of Mpumbu, Lupatapata territory, Kasai Oriental province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This area is mainly crisscrossed by sedimentary formations belonging to the Bushimay supergroup. This sedimentary sequence is unaffected by regional metamorphism while highlighting two distinct successive components: sedimentary and metamorphic. The locality of Mpumbu is full of the following formations: sandstone, dolomitic limestone and shale. Brittle and planar deformations affect the majority of rocks and attest to the compressive stresses typical of this terrain. We solved the problem using Win-tensor software. Two preferential orientations of breaks have been exposed: North-South and East-West. The stress study revealed that the main stress initiating the observed deformations is oriented N57° and is inclined by 3°. Apart from the deformation, a chronological study was revealed: the breaks oriented preferably East-West intersected or often offset by a North-South oriented detachment prove their anteriorities compared to the last. Finally, a slight tilt to the north or northwest of different Mpumbu formations indicates that the region has undergone a certain inclination to the tertiary during the kimberlite intrusion of the various kimberlites in the perimeter of Bakwanga.
Rocks in the Earth’s crust can be characterized by measurable physical properties such as magnetic susceptibility, density, electrical resistivity. Geophysical methods are appropriate for measuring the contrast of these properties inside the earth. This contrast represents, among other things, a variation in the structural. The development of new geophysical data acquisition tools and techniques makes it possible to considerably increase the quality/quantity of data and, on the other hand, to reduce operating costs and implementation time. These data, beyond their quality, however require adequate processing to be usable in geological interpretation. The geological map depicts a window into the internal structure of the earth. It is the first tool used in the exploration of natural resources. Since the majority of the earth’s surface is covered by sediments and vegetation, it is important to develop other technologies that can map geology through this cover. We processed airborne magnetic data to interpret the geology of the study area. The aim of this research is to process the airborne magnetic data on Kabimba to identify anomalies, then confirm the lithological cause of each by core drilling. This determines the lithostratigraphic at the points of the geophysical anomalies. The drilling declines the true underground geology through the information provided by the cores which reflect the geological formations crossed. Two kimberlite occurrences have been highlighted in this site. They have a pipe-like structure and contain green to red kimberlite under a carbonate casing topped by Cretacic sandstone and Kalahari sand.
This study questions the place of women in the activities of the fight against soil degradation in the rural commune of Simiri. Its specific objectives are to assess the types of interventions that are carried out in the rural commune of Simiri, determine the role of women in these activities and assess the contribution of these activities to the productive status of the beneficiary women and to the gender relations. Quantitative and qualitative survey tools are used, in particular questionnaires, interviews and direct field observations. The results highlight a strong involvement of women in the activities, a strengthening of their participation in the material support of the household and in the decision-making process within the family.
In an area, the spatial and temporal variation of the various units of LULC of is the response of natural and socioeconomic factors and their spatially usage by human. This LULC differs from one type to another. The LULC change affect negatively the natural resources because the process is irreversible. Thus, the analysis of monitoring and quantitative of the changes in land use over time and identification of landscape pattern variation related to growth modes in different periods are essential. Change in land use is one of the difficult that exacerbate environmental problems. The complex and dynamical land use/land cover change at different scales has environmental implications. Previous studies investigated mainly the basic socioeconomic drivers of LULCC.
Remote sensing is a central tool for making Land use and land cover maps via the classification from satellite images. For correct image classification, there are factors that could be considered which are: the accessibility of Landsat imagery quality and secondary data. Moreover, the accurate classification and the experiences from the users and expertise in the procedures are required. The chief aim of this work was to evaluate the land-use/land-cover change of the study zone from 1990-2016 applying remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. This work comprises two parties (1) Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) classification and (2) the evolution of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the diverse units of LULC over the study area. The Envi 4.5 Software coupled with Arcgis was used to make the supervised Classification of Land Use Land Cover. Five dominant LULC classes, bareland, cultivated land shrubby savannah, herbaceous savannah and degraded savannah, were recognized in the catchment. The outcomes showed that the ration of cultivated land augmented to 14.9 % and bare land increased by 23.5 % however, the savannah classe decreased: degraded savannah by 10.32%, herbaceous savannah by 24.4%, and Shrubby Savannah by 3.6 %. The evaluated coefficient of kappa (K) was classified satisfactory with a range from 82% to 91 %.
Savannah areas in studied catchment is converted to agricultural land and urban area due to human activities. The knowledge of the variation in terms pf time and space of the LULC change could be a management resources tool for the decision makers and prevent the natural risks. The results of this current research could help to well understanding the different water cycle components within the Koda catchment under a changing LULC.
Lotoko is a traditional drink obtained from the distillation of mash resulting from uncontrolled spontaneous fermentation of cassava and malted corn; it is heavily consumed by a large section of the Kinshasa population, generally proletarians. This study conducted in Kingabwa, a district of Kinshasa Limete was intended to contribute to the statistical analysis by ANOVA and PCA of the physico-chemical characteristics and metallic trace elements of Lotoko. From this study, it appears that the specific density of Lotoko between 0.9691 and 0.9788 is statistically similar in all production units, while the pH (below 4.0), alcohol (15 to 16% by volume), turbidity (3.70 to 46.70 NTU), iron (0.06 and 0.18 mg/l), lead (0.10 and 0.20 μg/l) and copper (less than 0.01 mg/l) were not. During the principal component analysis (PCA) of different samples of the drink under study, the first two dimensions were retained because they represented 85% of the information contained in the database. The first dimension revealed a first link between alcohol, pH and iron, explaining 61.4% of the total variance; another between density, turbidity, accounts for 26.1% of the variance. The second dimension revealed that two producers are close to each other by pH and all three others are different. No variable weighs on all the other variables, nor does it influence them.