The objective of this research was to study the relationship between fatalistic beliefs, level of study and risk-taking of Cameroonians vis-à-vis COVID-19. Indeed, this pandemic that appeared in China towards the end of 2019 causes thousands of deaths around the world. In Cameroon, despite the many measures enacted by the Government, statistics indicate an evolution in the number of cases (nearly 20,000 cases, MINSANTE, 2020). Using the simple random sampling technique, 219 participants aged 18 to 63 were asked to complete a composite questionnaire (fatalistic belief scale, Shen et al., 2009; Protection Motivation Theory Scale, Rogers, 1973, sociodemographic variables). The results from the analysis of variances, correlations and regressions confirm our hypotheses. Overall, it is observed that the level of study influences fatalistic beliefs (F (2.115) = 5.83, p =.004) and risk-taking (F (2.115) = 9.29, p =.001). On the other hand, fatalistic beliefs explain the risk-taking vis-à-vis COVID-19 [r (219) = 0.175, p < 0.01; β = 0.175, t (217) = 2.613, p = 0.010, F (2.217) = 6.826, p = 0.010)]. Such results show the place of certain socio-demographic variables and fatalistic beliefs and the need to take them into account when addressing the issue of safety behavior.
The new coronavirus due to its rapid spread and its numerous victims represents a real public health problem and requires great resilience in individuals. Since then, confinement has been recommended or even imposed on populations despite the large literature on its negative psychological effects. The study explores the experience of confinement through its psychological consequences and the strategies that teachers adopt to improve their subjective well-being and get out of it. From a composite questionnaire administered online between April 30 and June 08, 2020, based on three tools, we measured perceived stress, anxiety and depression on 244 teachers. The results show that 66.0% of the participants experienced continuous stress during confinement compared to 56.5% who indicated a moderate/severe level of anxiety and 21.7% for a moderate/severe depression. Finally, they indicate that after being supplied with basic foodstuffs, the teachers engaged in learning activities during confinement. The study suggests the need for the adoption of reassuring communication, producing meaning in the eyes of third parties and stakeholders but also the need to keep contacts between teachers and learners/relatives by technological means.
Throughout the year, the population of the right bank (Niamey) is confronted with the diseases and nuisances of culicidae. This study aims to make a systematic inventory of mosquitoes, to study their abundance and their specific richness. Mosquito larvae were collected using the dipping method, over the period July 2021 to June 2022, in Lake Lamordé and the rice fields of Kirkissoy. Stage three and four larvae were sorted and deposited in transparent tubs containing bedding water and fed. Emerged mosquitoes were counted, identified morphologically with a binocular loupe and a culicid identification key. During this study, 3947 larvae were collected of which 3033 evolved to the adult stage, i.e. an emergence rate of 76.84%. The genus Anopheles is more abundant in the lake (n=1238). In the rice fields, the genus Culex dominated (n=402). Statistical analysis showed that the mosquitoes were not evenly distributed in space and time. The taxonomic study identified 11 genera and species at the two sites. These were Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles pharaonsis, Anopheles squamosus, Anopheles rufipes, Anopheles nili, Anopheles funestus, Culex tritaenyohinchus, Culex decens, Culex aurentapex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. These results show that mosquitoes proliferate over a long period of the year and that appropriate control measures must be taken to prevent diseases and avoid nuisance caused by them.
The unprecedented proliferation of Small and Medium Enterprises has been witnessed in Goma. This is the reason for our subject on «Impact of Small and Medium Enterprises on the reduction of household poverty in the city of Goma.
Our concern was to assess the impact of SMEs (Small and medium Enterprises) on household poverty reduction in the city of Goma.
After our research, the study reveals that investments based on income from SMEs increase the chances of households to reduce their poverty, own their own housing and improve their nutritional condition by taking at least a balanced diet. This indeed increases the possibility of the household to improve the living condition and pay the taxes and duties related to the income-generating activity initiated. This allows its sustainability. On the other hand, expenses related to the education of children and health care on the basis of the sole income of the SME, give the manager of the SME less chance of lifting the household out of extreme poverty and increasing the income of the SME. It should be noted that investments in human capital remain commendable in the long term.
These results led to the definition of economic policies oriented towards the consolidation and development of small and medium-sized enterprises with a view to the economic development of the city of Goma.
The present study aims to analyze the effects of agricultural systems around the KBNP on the floristic and faunistic richness of the latter.
In addition to the documentary technique, direct observations and field surveys were conducted. Data analysis was carried out using Excel and R software.
The main activities carried out by the farmers are agriculture, livestock, wood exploitation and hunting (poaching).
Taking into account the agricultural parameters (agriculture and livestock) that were the subject of our study, the results on agriculture prove that soil restoration inputs are poorly used by farmers and that measures that could improve and maintain soil fertility are less considered. The livestock farming system practiced is of the extensive type with a divagation mode resulting in a decrease in the condition of the pastures.
Due to the poverty of the riparian population and the precariousness of the agricultural methods used in their farms, the threats weigh on the natural resources of the PNKB.
Motivation is considered the heart of the learning process that is affected by many factors, among which there is gender. Therefore, the researcher conducted a quantitative research method to investigate the relationship between gender and motivation sub-themes while using problem-based learning. Nine female students and eleven male students of the second baccalaureate level participated in the current research through using the convenience sampling technique. The quasi-experimental research design, a quantitative research method, is used to conduct this study to analyze cause-effect relationships between the variables being studied. Then, the participants were given a five-point Likert scale questionnaire to fill in. The SPSS software was used to analyze data. The findings demonstrated that there was a positive relationship between gender and students’ achievement and motivation sub-themes.
Diffuse splenic small cell red pulp lymphoma (SDRPL) is a rare type of indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma composed of small B cells that involve the red pulp of the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. It was included in the 2016 revised WHO classification as splenic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia, unclassifiable.
We report through this observation the case of a patient in whom the SDRPL was revealed by an autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and whose study of the blood smear made it possible to suspect an initial diagnosis, consolidated secondarily by the results of immunophenotyping.
The water of the Issia reservoir is used to supply drinking water to the local population. Unfortunately, the various anthropogenic pressures in the Lobo watershed threaten the quantity of water flows entering the Issia reservoir. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the combined actions of anthropization and climate change on the water flows entering the Issia reservoir. The approach implemented was based on the coupling of remote sensing and agro-hydrological modeling with SWAT. The diachronic analysis of Landsat 7 ETM+ (2008 and 2013) and Sentinel-2 (2019) images through the method of supervised classification by maximum likelihood has allowed to discriminate five (05) classes of land use that are: forest, degraded forest, habitat and bare soil, crop and fallow, and water bodies. The overall accuracies obtained for the 2008, 2013 and 2019 classified images are 90%; 92% and 95.33% respectively. The Kappa indices of the confusion matrix for the three classified images are 0.88; 0.9 and 0.94 for 2008, 2013 and 2019 respectively. From 2008 to 2019, dense forest, degraded forest, and crops and fallow had overall regressions of 13.70%, 10.49%, and 1.29% respectively. In addition, bare soil and habitats and water bodies increased by 75.50% and 57.09% respectively. The graphical and statistical criteria of the SWAT model (NS and R2, greater than 0.5) showed good model performance for both calibration and validation. The water balance analysis for the 2050 time horizon indicates that water flows into the reservoir will decrease by 52% compared to current flows. This decrease could constitute a real threat for the population of the Issia locality in the years to come.
Introduction: For thousands of years humanity has been struck by epidemics, scourges. Schools determine in part the health and well-being of children by providing them with a healthy or unhealthy environment. In South Kivu, the population is confronted with insufficient drinking water, inadequate sanitation facilities, including public latrines, garbage cans, public dumps. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study involving 401 respondents including 384 students and 17 heads of schools. Data collection was done using the survey questionnaire and an interview guide. The data analyses were done with SPSS v23 software. Results: The level of hygiene and sanitation practice is low (46.4%). This would be significantly associated with lack of access to water in schools, insufficient handwashing kits, non-drinkability of water used at school, absence of garbage cans and health days, non-washing of hands with soap before consuming food, non-participation in cleaning and maintenance, absence or poor quality of urinals in some schools, the non-separation of latrines for girls and boys, ignorance of the dangers of lack of hygiene and basic sanitation at school, poor construction of latrines, and non-washing of hands with soap after toilet (p<0.05). Conclusion: The practice of hygiene and sanitation remains weak and this must involve a collective awareness to find life-saving solutions in the training schools of executives.