A study was conducted to ascertain the effect of single-based fertilizers and compound fertilizers on some minor/exotic vegetable crops cultivated for the fresh market using lettuce (var. Eden), carrot (var. Bahia), and sweet pepper (var. Yellow wonder) as reference/test crops, with the objective to determine food yield of each test crop. Done through diagnostic and field studies, Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications was used. Lettuce, sweet pepper, and carrot were tested on 71 kg, 100 kg, and 128 kg of ammonium sulphate (20.5 % N, 23.4 % S) /ha, 350 kg of NPK (15-15-15) /ha, and Control/No fertilizer application; 81 kg, 100 kg, and 138 kg of 6-24-12 NPK/ha, 225 kg of NPK (15-15-15) /ha, and Control; and on 43 kg, 71 kg, and 100 kg of 10-10-30 NPK/ha, 225 kg of NPK (15-15-15) /ha, and Control; respectively. Single-based fertilizer treatments recorded significantly higher food yield at p ˂ 0.05 when compared to Compound fertilizer treatments, and to Control. Maximum application rates (128 kg of ammonium sulphate (20.5 % N 23.4 % S) /ha; 138 kg of 6-24-12 NPK/ha; and 100 kg of 10-10-30 NPK/ha, respectively for lettuce, sweet pepper, and carrot) of the respective single-based fertilizer treatments for the different test crops recorded the highest food yield at p ˂ 0.05, portraying strikingly similar pattern of food yield changes. Higher single-based fertilizer application rates could be added in different trials to ascertain the optimum application rates since all maximum application rates recorded the highest food yield in the present study.
This study focused on the sacred forests of anthropized areas in the southeast of Far North Cameroon. These are forests from a few square meters to a few hectares. The floristic data collected from the surveys showed that the average richness is 17 species. A total of 67 plant species grouped into 27 families have been identified. Formerly preserved for ritual practices, these forests are experiencing regressive changes both in terms of specific richness and diversity of species under the combination of anthropogenic actions and climatic variability. 2/3 of these sacred forests are experiencing a deterioration. The density and specific richness of the species have decreased by 60 to 80% compared to the well-preserved sacred forests. The diversity indices are only 1.36 bit for very degraded forests against 3.85 bits for those in good condition. Species such as Mytragina inermis, Daniellia oliveri and Celtis integrifolia have almost completely disappeared with a rarity index above 80%. Faced with the current socio-economic and environmental changes, actions to raise awareness and collective appropriation through land titles in favor of local populations should be undertaken by the State.
Objective: To characterize the weed flora in the corn-growing plots and assess their harmfulness in the Haut-Sassandra region in the center-west of the Ivory Coast.Methodology and results: The weed flora of the maize crop in the Haut-Sassandra region was evaluated using the method called « field tour ».Results: The work made it possible to identify 105 species of weeds belonging to 80 genera distributed in 27 families.The dominant families are: The Poaceae (37,81%), the Asteraceae (10,48%), the Euphorbiaceae (8,57%), the Fabaceae (8,57%) and the Rubiaceae (6,67%). Dicotyledons are in the majority with 67% of species.Agronomically speaking, Croton hirtus, Porophyllump ruderale, Mitracarpus villosus, Digitaria gayana and Brachiara villosa are the most harmful weeds in the area.Conclusion and appliation of the results: This study mmade it possible to characterize the weed flora of maize. The data obtained are necessary for the development of effective control means.
Introduction: Low birth weight is a public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with it. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with low birth weight in Bukavu.Material and Method: This was a case-control study including all live and full term births during the period from January to December 2015 in the maternity wards of 3 general reference hospitals in Bukavu. The cases included all the full term newborns weighing less than 2500 grams and they were compared with control group corresponding to full term newborns weighing 2500 grams or more.Results: In full term newborns, the prevalence of low birth weight was 11.6%. Inter pregnancy interval less than 24 months, infection during pregnancy, anemia during pregnancy, high blood pressure, maternal age less than 18 years, mother schoolgirl were the factors associated with low birth weight.Conclusion: The prevalence of low birth weight is high in Bukavu. Identified factors associated, in full term newborns included short inter pregnancy interval, infection during pregnancy, anemia, high blood pressure and schoolgirl. In order to reduce the negative impact of these factors on birth weights, the current preventive strategies should be strengthened particularly the activities of the prenatal visits or supplemented by others including intensive sensitization for the use of contraceptive methods as well sex education to young adolescents.
The objective of our study is to analyse the different bacteriological profiles and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial keratites in our bacteriology laboratory at the Hassan II University Hospital in Fez.A retrospective study carried out at the bacteriology laboratory of the Hassan II University Hospital of Fez over a period of 3 years from 01/01/2018 to 31/10/2020 in patients diagnosed with infectious keratitis and who have benefited from a corneal sample + culture for bacteriological study. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, bacteriological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected.Out of 218 corneal swabs, bacteria were isolated from 123 samples (56.4%). The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (SCN) (51.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%). All gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, but methicillin resistance was found in 36.9% of CNS cases and no cases of MRSA were recorded. All gram-negative isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 20% of the gram-positive isolates.CNS, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms most often responsible for bacterial keratitis. Dual therapy using vancomycin + ceftazidime should be considered for empirical treatment until culture and susceptibility results are available in order to adapt antibiotic therapy.
International migrations are of great economic and social importance in Africa and affect millions of people every year. However, the lack of statistical data makes it impossible to assess the real extent of the phenomenon and to determine the main characteristics of these migrants. The aim of this article is to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the itinerant shoemakers in the city of Lomé and the impact of this profession. The methodological approach used was based on documentary research, participant observation and field surveys of a sample of 123 itinerant shoemakers in the Togolese capital. The results of the investigation underline that the target population is mainly from the West African sub-region: Ghanaian nationality (46.30%) followed by Burkinabé (19.50%) while Beninese and Ivorians are much less represented. The respondents are all male and are mainly young adults (66.60% are between 25 and 39 years old). The respondents have a low level of education (52% primary school, 17.10% uneducated). They work more than 10 hours a day and sleep in bus stations (23.90%) or, at best, in overcrowded housing (44.50%). In spite of these uncomfortable living conditions, the job is quite remunerative as more than half of them claim to earn at least 35,000 FCFA per month and 65.90% are already doing some work in their home countries.
In order to know the origin of the resistance in order to develop a control strategy that respects the environment and human health, this study was initiated. More specifically, it should make it possible to determine the reaction of wild strains of Mycosphaerella fijiensis to systemic synthetic fungicides in areas of intensive cultivation of dessert bananas for export in Côte d'Ivoire. Samples of leaves from dessert and plantain banana trees affected by Black Leaf Streak Disease at stages 3 and 4 were taken at a distance of at least 10 km from the industrial plantations and then transported to the laboratory for fungicide sensitivity tests on agar medium according to the method proposed by Van Den Berg Loridat in 1989 and modified by Kobenan and al in 2008. These tests revealed remarkable efficacy of all fungicides on all wild conidia of Mycosphaerella fijiensis regardless of their origin. For the triazoles the inhibition rates ranged from 67.45% to 75% for tebuconazole, 67.34% to 79.41% for epoxyconazole, and 70% to 80.14% for tebuconazole. As for methyl thiophanate, germination rates were between 0 and 11%. For azoxystrobin, germination rates were between 0 and 20 %. However, the same tests carried out in industrial plantations revealed losses in the effectiveness of certain fungicides of the triazole family in certain areas. This loss of efficacy observed in plantations regularly treated with fungicides is due to the repeated use of these fungicides without any real alternation (of the different families of active ingredients), which would have eliminated strains sensitive to these active ingredients and facilitated the proliferation of non-sensitive strains.
The present examines the persistence of inequalities among women in certain aspects: at the cultural, social and economic level which constitutes a great constraint and lock in the development process. It is carried out using the statistical method with interview, interview, direct observation and documentary techniques. The use of the hypothesis test and analysis of variance of monthly expenses and income led us to confirm 95% that women are not only sexually exploited, but also for economic and commercial purposes; for the benefit of pimps, responsible for brothels in the city of Bukavu, by the fact that they earn an income that does not cover their basic vital needs. The repercussions of this exploitation produce the perverse effects observed by juvenile delinquency, marginalization, poverty and vulnerability.The law, however, hinders women and gives this practice a form of modern slavery. The absence of legal texts that promote women are all ills to which the legislator must remedy through egalitarian legislation favorable to women.
Background: Extramedullary plasmacytoma is an immunoproliferative monoclonal disease of the B-cell line that originates from malignant transformed plasma cells. It’s a rare variant of plasma cell tumor involving organs outside the bone marrow, found in 13% of cases. Urinary bladder involvement remains a location rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of bladder extramedullary plasmacytoma revealing multiple myeloma. Case report: A 49-year-old man presented to the urology department with an acute obstructive renal failure revealed by renal colic and dysuria gradually evolving over 2 months. The renal ultrasound and the pelvic abdominal CT scan revealed a bilateral ureter hydronephrosis with a locally advanced bladder tumor. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor and the histopathology study of surgical specimen showed an infiltration of the urothelial mucosa by abnormal plasma cells. The bone marrow aspirate established the presence of 59% of abnormal plasma cells and rouleaux formation of red blood cells, serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal peak in the area of gamma globulin, and the conventional radiography of the axial skeleton objectifies lytic spine lesions. The diagnosis of a multiple myeloma associated to an extramedullary bladder location was retained. The outcome was unfavorable and the patient died of severe pulmonary embolism before initiating any therapy. Conclusion: Secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma is a marker of poor prognosis in both newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma patients. Bladder location remains a rare entity, the clinical presentation is nonspecific and management constitutes a therapeutic challenge even in the era of new agents.