Several issues affect the delivery of care to patients, especially in rural and underdeveloped areas. Compared to big cities, issues of fewer resources, poorer access to services, limited availability of key health professionals, poorer health status, lower socioeconomic status, distance and travel mean have negative impact on health care delivery in rural areas. These differences mean that health care planning, program development and service delivery models that are appropriate for city-based communities, do not necessarily translate well into rural settings. Telehealth has proved to overcome geographical barriers, allowing the use of new technologies for health care providers to connect with each other or patients to receive care from distant providers. In this work we designed a telehealth system addressing issues related to the health care delivery in rural areas. Several use-case scenarios were designed and implemented. Data security playing a central role, a reliable telematics platform was developed with features ensuring a high data security and privacy according to the general data protection regulation of the European union. The system was applied for the cases of dermatology and diabetes care to patients in rural and remote regions of Germany and sub-Saharan Africa. During a two-month trial (2017 and 2018), 190 patients with skin disease were treated in the emergency department of the University Medicine Greifswald. The main reasons were hyperergic skin reactions 42%, bacterial, virus of fungal infections 34%, dermatitis 19%. 76% of the patients assessed the teledermatological approach as appropriate, 81% patients trusted in the treatment. 68 Subjects tested the system for diabetes management in Sub-Saharan Africa. Features of the ICT-based system together with the cross-sectoral collaboration between general practitioners, specialists and nursing services through the system, helped remedy to the shortage of medical care providers in rural areas and enhanced the quality of care delivery.
The invention consists in the construction of a water collecting prototype by means of condensation in order to study an alternative means for obtaining it. By implementing a liquid refrigerant conducted through serpentine-shaped aluminum pipes creating a temperature change between the surface of the tube and the environment. Finding that a significant amount of water can be generated with the considerable difference in temperature (ambient-prototype). With this, checking that the search for the alternative obtaining of the resource can contribute in a beneficial way to the needs of society.
Attendance control is a standard practice in every educational system. In response to this, methods used to take exam attendance are quite numerous, but emphasis keeps shifting towards automating the process. The University ULPGL (Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs) in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo does apply the traditional manual method for identification and elaboration of attendance lists in exam rooms. This manual process of verifying eligible students and counting copies of participants causes a significant delay. Moreover, in such a system, cheaters may easily take exams for others. To address these issues, an intelligent and efficient system is conceived and developed in this paper. After enrolling all attendees by storing their data along with their unique badge code and/or fingeprint, the designed system automatically takes exam attendance and check for eligibility by applying the RFID and/or fingerprint technologies and searching for a match in the created database. To enhance security, the face image of the registered student for the scanned card or captured fingerprint is displayed in order to enable the supervisor to compare that face with the present student. This process eliminates fraud and saves processing and verification time. 60 students tested the system and the success rate was 100% while reducing the average processing time to 3 and 6 seconds per student instead of 25 seconds in the traditional manual process.
In order to identify and isolate the active principles of medicinal plants with antibacterial activity in the Kisangani region (DR Congo), five medicinal plants including Anthonotha macrophyla, Azadiractha indica, Trema orientalis, Citrus limon and Ananas comosus have been used for this study. The objective of this study is to characterize phenotypically the 17 strains of Salmonella, for the identification, and the chemical study of the active principles of medicinal plants used in the treatment of typhoid in the city of Kisangani. Strain characterization and chemical screening were used for the detection of Salmonella and phytochemical groups present in our plants.
The liquid-liquid extraction made it possible to obtain the dried extracts of the major phytochemical groups after evaporation of the solvents employed.
The method of inhibiting bacterial growth by diffusion in agar medium was used to study the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi strains to extracts of medicinal plants. The results of our research reveal that the phenotypic characterization showed that there is similarity between the 17 strains of Salmonella typhi studied and the reference strain.
The chemical screening revealed the abundant presence of tannins and saponins in the leaves of Anthonotha macrophylla, Azadirachta indica and in the leaf of Trema orientalis, but traces of alkaloids in the leaves of Trema orientalis, as well as very abundant presence of sterols and terpenes as well as quinone in the bark of the Citrus limon root.
In addition, the extraction of the active ingredients yielded respectively the following yields: 4.92% of the leaves of Trema orientalis, and 2.48% of the leaves of Azadiractha indica and 2.44% of Anthonotha macrophylla for the leaves. saponins. As for extracts of tannins, in Azadiractha indica, 22.76% and in Anthonotha macrophylla is 14.76%, while the leaves of Trema orientalis contain only 14.44%. Determination of microbial growth inhibitory activity extracts revealed growth inhibition of Salmonella typhi strains, saponin extracts and Tanic extracts of Anthonotha macrophylla and Trema orientalis were active on microbial strains tested (Salmonella typhi) with inhibition zone diameters means 13, 14 and 16mm in diameter for Anthonotha macrophylla and extracts of Trema orientalis with inhibition diameter of 14, 12, 11, 10mm. Azadiractha indica extracts showed antibacterial activity of 11mm in diameter.
The impact of debarking, a common practice in Parakou, is little known to the general public. This study, which focused on khaya senegalensis, Parkia biglobosa and vitellaria paradoxa, aims to determine the impacts of debarking on biodiversity in the municipality of Parakou in 2019. The methodological approach was based on the documentary research, interviews, ethnobotanical surveys, floristic and dendrometric surveys, data processing and analysis of results. The non-probability sample with exhaustive recruitment of the different types of actors in the study area consists of 116 people. The floristic and dendrometric surveys were made through six (06) 900 m² (30 × 30) plots installed in the reforestation area of Parakou. A total of 17 species belonging to 17 genera grouped into 7 Families are listed. The Parkia biglobosa is 36% the most exploited species in the town followed by khaya senegalensis (33%) and vitellaria paradoxa at 31%. The barks (45.43%) and the leaves (29.83%) are the most used organs (seven (07) categories of use). The scarcely diversified perimeter has experienced significant deterioration. Destruction of habitats, reduction of species, vulnerability to bad weather and attack by pests, are among the impacts of debarking on biodiversity. Knowledge of the processes and factors that govern the regeneration of these species is one of the perspectives to be taken into account in terms of their protection and conservation.
The objective of this study is to test the approach of heterodox economists that household food insecurity reduces agricultural productivity. It covers 240 agricultural households in the communes of Kérou and Boukombé, chosen by the quota method, where at least eight (08) agricultural households out of ten (10) suffering from food insecurity. The theoretical basis of this study is focused on the causal relationships between agricultural productivity and food security. Heterodox economists postulate the hypothesis that food insecurity reduces the agricultural productivity of the household by the reduction of the productive capacity of the household. The estimation methods are done using ordinary least squares and the fractional regression model. The results showed that apart from the determinants of agricultural productivity, the food insecure household decreases by 0.0977 the level of agricultural productivity reached by the household at the critical threshold of 1%. The policy of increasing agricultural productivity becomes effective when the household is food secure. The transfer of zero hunger policy in 2030 should contextualize by identifying the causes and factors of its realization in Benin. The orthodox approach to food security would be analyzed in another paper.
Concerns, contempt and indifference, forms of social interaction objectifying, among other things, the difficulties that societies face, are exported today through social media. Digital consubstantial with social life also becomes a fertilizer for the expression of social phenomena such as worry, contempt, indifference and violence of all kinds. Faced with the difficulties they create, the victims develop many adaptation strategies in the city of Cotonou. This research aims to analyze the adaptation strategies of actors to the "worries, contempt and indifference" linked to new media in the city of Cotonou. To achieve this objective, a qualitative methodological approach based on the ethnomethodological approach is adopted. 75 resource persons were contacted by reasoned choice and snowball techniques.
New forms of worry, contempt and indifference are produced through social media in the city of Cotonou. Their changes are linked to the individualization of socio-digital trajectories and the poorly regulated hyper-accessibility of new media. However, several adaptation strategies are developed by the actors according to their representations. With the persistence of deviance, the challenge of responsible digital education deserves to be taken up more.
Floods and extreme droughts, characteristic of the hydro climatic rhythm in the commune of Ouassa-Péhunco, influence the various agricultural productions and cause the occupation of the shallows. The objective of this study is to analyze the hydro-climatic rhythm of farming in the shallows of the commune of Ouassa-Péhunco. The qualitative and quantitative data used and processed by the statistical method made it possible to characterize the climate on the one hand and agricultural yields on the other.
The results indicate that the rainy season begins from May to October with a peak in September and the dry season from December to April. With a late onset of rain, the shallows of the town of Ouassa-Péhunco flood from August to September according to the respondents with an alternation between rain and drought. The scarcity or availability of water resources impacts agricultural production in the lowlands through a drop in yield. Faced with this situation, adaptation strategies have been developed by the populations.
This study aimed at determining the effect of cooking time on nutritive characteristics of Justicia galeopsis leaves. J. galeopsis leaves were collected from cultivated farmlands located at Abobo, commune of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire) and boiled at 100 °C respectively during 30, 45 and 60 min. Then, nutrients and antinutrients compositions were investigated using standard methods. Some molar ratios between antinutrients and mineral were also calculated to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. The results revealed that longer time of cooking (higher than 30 min) led to 5-14% drop in protein level, 21-36% in ash, 95-97% in vitamin C, 4-42% in polyphenol, 19-63% in flavonoids, 18-59% in tannin, 10-46% in oxalate and 12-34% reduction in phytate content in J. galeopsis leaves. However, cooking also improved lipids contents to 12-13%, carbohydrate 6-11%, fiber 13-44%, and the mineral bioavailability with iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium molar ratio respectively [Phytate]/[Fe] (0.04-0.06), [Phytate]/[Zn] (0.17-0.22), [Phytate]/[Ca] (0.00), and [Oxalate]/[(Ca + Mg)] (0.11-0.13). Furthermore, J. galeopsis leaves boiled during 30 min had the highest residual contents in proteins (13.33%), lipids (2.24%), ashes (12.33%), carbohydrates (72.09 %), phosphorus (16.83 g/kg), potassium (314.75 g/kg ), calcium (30.66 g/kg ), magnesium (5.20 g/kg), sodium (10.58 mg/kg), iron (458.98 mg/kg), polyphenols (79.91 mg EAG/100 g), flavonoids 13.39 mg EQ/100 g), tannins (54.44 mg EC/100 g). These results suggest that the recommended cooking time of J. galeopsis leaves must be less than 30 min in order to contribute efficiently to cover the deficit of nutrients of Ivorian population.
A study was conducted on the Ivorian South-East shoreline, from January 2014 to December 2015, to improve the knowledge of Coastal Birds. Bird counts using the transect transect method identified 140 birds species belonging to 44 families of 16 orders. Nine species are newly observed in this environment. The stand also includes seven species on the IUCN International Red List of Threatened Species, 15 species endemic to the Guineo-Congolese forest biome and two species endemic to the Sudano-Guinean savanna biome. From a biogeographic status point of view, the species are of diverse origins, with 76 resident species, 38 migratory species, 34 of which are Palearctic and 26 are mixed species. At the level of preferential habitat, the stand has a preference for wetlands (57 species) and open habitats (57 species). Twenty-one species are secondary forest birds while 5 species are primary forest birds.
The 'ûd instrument is a musical material element that brings with it a diverse artistic, cultural, civilizational, intellectual, epistemological, accumulations and mutations. As a result, the Arabic music has merged with the occidental civilization which has resulted in several transformations in the Arabic culture. This has created new artistic trends according to certain artistic and perceptive measures. In addition, these recent musical trends have contributed in creating a modern and practical framework for 'ûd which had an impact on the artistic and social status.
This cultural integration has contributed in the development and the enhancement of the musical writing of the instrument and has adopted it in new musical styles. This brings us to study these different musical trends and their adequacy with the particularities of the Arabic speech. In this article, we provide a technical musical classification which deals mainly with modal character determination criteria of innovative works of 'ûd through a critical and analytical approach in which we tackle the musical trends problem. This article focuses also on the study of the art work position and its adhesion to the identity element in general as well as to the musical intonation in particular, from new concepts that define the art work identity without considering the specificity of approved norms, thus, it is an attempt to propose more complete classification of the art work which exceed the limits of approved norms.
Throughout «Allah n'est pas obligé», «Les Étoiles écrasées» and «L’Ecart», Kourouma, Nkashama and Mudimbe raise the issue of epic inking in the contemporary Negro-African novel whose web of events is tinged with the orifice and the writing of the social absurd. From this scriptural collision results a profusion of materials of which the epic inspiration of our corpus, from comparative and narratology, constitutes the crossroads.
This paper argues that COVID-19 has indeed accelerated a number of events in the international arena. Events that should happen over time. The rise in level of US-China competition is one of them. It has come through the word war that it [COVID-19] has caused. A war that focuses on mutual accusations and suspicions about the origin and management of COVID-19, and in other decisions and actions of each other during this pandemic. “Global communication" is at the center of its stakes. And "soft power" prevails for this communication. A war that is moving the world. A world that is divided into two camps: "conservative" and "progressive", respectively dominated by US and China. The different corners of the world and countries are already increasingly giving the positions of their choice and belonging to one camp or the other. On that note, there is no need for panic and rush, nor passion, emotion and feeling for Africa. And also no need for it to fall again into the past’s mistakes. Africa should seek to play its cards right.
This article discusses the legal and tax issues surrounding the conclusion of an electronic contract involving people domiciled in two or more countries. It is a question of clearly treating the conclusion of the electronic contract in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The results observed in relation to this problem have revealed that in the Democratic Republic of the Congo there is no legal text which organizes the contract concluded via the Internet. The Congolese tax system does not manage to control the commercial or professional operations which are carried out on the Internet, favoring excessive tax evasion. From where we appealed to the rules of the decree of July 30, 1888 relating to contracts or conventional obligations. With regard to the application law, we have noted two principles, that of objective connection and subjective connection. This type of contract raises conflicts of jurisdiction; hence the solution was given in accordance with articles 147 and 148 of the organic law of April 11, 2013 which make the Congolese courts competent to hear disputes related to the electronic contract. Doctrine and comparative law emphasize that in the event of a conflict, two solutions are given. The first is in favor of recognition of the jurisdiction of the receiving country when it comes to the delivery of goods. The second is favorable to the jurisdiction of the issuing country. Without a railing system, this one is even more risky.
The job market is becoming increasingly competitive and demanding these days. Question of making a judicious choice between one's vocation and social constraints in order to avoid a conflict against oneself (self-satisfaction) but also to meet societal requirements.
In the DRC, at least each province has a medical training institution, if not more. Thousands of new students are recruited each year, while hundreds are poured into the job market, which is apparently saturated.
A survey of an exhaustive non-probabilistic sample made up of 52 learners from the midwifery sector at the Gemena istm revealed some reefs between vocation and social constraints which govern the choice of option by the learners and to establish a reconciliation between the two. Our life, our professional career is sometimes completely sealed by the choice we make.
This work aims to evaluate the output of two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal (M) and Thorgal (T) of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivated in the ground enriched by manure of pig under shelter with Kisangani. It was caused with an aim of contributing to the improvement of the productivity of tomato on the one hand and recycling of waste resulting from the breeding of pig (manure of pig) to fight against the pollution of the environment on the other hand. It ran out of the period of May until September 2016 in the enclosure of the Faculty of Science of the University of Kisangani.
To achieve this goal, an experimental culture of a device of the randomized blocks was carried out during which the observations and the analyses carried on the quantitative characters in particular the rate of lifting, the number of flowers, the number of fruits, the fruit weight, the index of the fruit shape, compartmental production and the output.
The results obtained showed that: Section 1: Hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal - Compartmental production: the hybrid variety F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig was more productive (10, 22 kg) compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the ground enriched by manure of pig (6, 37 kg).
- The output: the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig was high (3, 3 T/ha) that the hybrid F1 Mongal enriched by manure of pig (3, 19 T/ha).
Section 2: Hybrid variety F1 Mongal and its witness - The compartmental production was higher at the hybrid F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (10, 22 kg) compared to the hybrid pilot F1 Mongal (5, 49 kg).
- The output: the hybrid F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (3, 19 T/ha) was higher compared to its witness (2, 99 T/ha).
Section 3: Hybrid variety F1 Thorgal and its witness - The compartmental production at the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (6, 37 kg) appeared slightly higher than at the hybrid pilot F1 Thorgal (5, 9 kg).
- The output was slightly profitable at the hybrid pilot F1 Thorgal (3, 4 T/ha) compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal amended of manure of pig (3, 3T/ha).
The test T of student applied to the production and to the output indicates that there is not significant difference between the two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal (p-been worth > 0, 05).
The whole of these results shows that the response of two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal is not the same one with the application of manure of pig and consequently the hybrid F1 Mongal reacts better compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal.
The Kom-Sanctuary National Park complex at Gorilla de Mengame located in South Cameroon precisely along the border between Cameroon and Gabon. It has an important exceptional biological biodiversity and is part of the Ngoyla-MINTOM forest massif. In order to improve knowledge on the state of poaching, a survey study was carried out between May and June 2019 with 70 people. Although the results of the study confirm the presence of poaching activity in the area, subsistence hunting is the predominant activity (79%). Three types of stakeholders were identified: primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders. The respondents find that the most targeted species are duikers (Cephalophus silvicultor, Cephalophus dorsalis, Cephalophus monticola) (59%), pangolins (Manis gigantea) (16%), monkeys (Cercopithecus spp.). Hunters use home-made firearms for small-scale hunting and war weapons for large-scale hunting. The analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats revealed that cross-border poaching and lack of logistical/financial resources are the main threats. The improvement of the population's standard of living through the creation of income-generating activities (IGA) and the involvement of the population in all conservation processes are two essential axes to overcome this problem.
The study deals with farmers’ perception of climate variability and its risks on natural resources in order to analyze and assess the adaptation strategies of local populations to this variability and climate change in the National Park of Upper Niger. To this end, we surveyed 150 heads of households in five villages (Beindou, Kourasambouya, Yèrèdou, Sidakoro and Niako) and conducted focus groups with certain structured groups in these localities. The results of these participatory surveys were compared with climate data to assess the level of accuracy of this perception. For the analysis of climatic factors, daily rainfall data from the Faranah meteorological station for the 1961-2013 series were used. Also, the identification of future climate risks, a projection of average temperatures and precipitation by 2025-2050, was analyzed. The perception of populations on the climate converges with the results of the analysis on rainfall. The major climatic risks are drought, strong winds, shortening of the length of the season, the longer and more frequent dry sequence. The main resources impacted are crops, water resources, vegetation and soil. The different strategies have been put in place to deal with it. This aspect is developed in a second article.
This research takes into account caricature as an effective tool aimed at a heterogeneous audience. Its primary aim is to affirm the importance of this satirical design as a semiological sign used to communicate. Second, it attempts to induce its receiver to clearly locate the range of questions to be asked from it. To achieve this goal, we will first carry out an analysis of the components of the (political) cartoons extracted from the Moroccan daily newspapers. Then, we will make a description of these from a semiological perspective by highlighting the techniques used to produce this visual message that is both fast and effective.
The general downward trend in rainfall in West Africa since the 1970s has favored long periods of drought. The rainfall decrease has not only caused the depletion of water resources, but has also led to a disruption of the runoff regime of rivers. The objective of this study is to carry out a spatial and temporal characterization of the rainfall regime in the Bagoé watershed over the period from 1928 to 2000 in order to analyze its influence on the rivers runoff to better predict adaptation solutions. Statistical approaches and a GIS were used to characterize the rainfall variability which was then analyzed in relation to the runoff regime of rivers over the period from 1961 to 1986. The average annual precipitation recorded is 1397.04 mm with two dry periods (1928-1949 and 1976-2000) which frame the only wet period (1950-1975). A secondary rainfall rupture in 1949 and a principal rainfall rupture in 1975 were highlighted. The principal rainfall rupture in 1975 suggests a significant drop in precipitation from 1976 to 2000 marked geo-spatially by the predominance of 1100 mm and 1200 mm isohyets during the decade 1991-2000. This drop in rainfall led to a decrease in the water flow of rivers, also due to hydraulic activities in the basin. Adaptation solutions should therefore be found in the planning of development projects.