In order to identify and isolate the active principles of medicinal plants with antibacterial activity in the Kisangani region (DR Congo), five medicinal plants including Anthonotha macrophyla, Azadiractha indica, Trema orientalis, Citrus limon and Ananas comosus have been used for this study. The objective of this study is to characterize phenotypically the 17 strains of Salmonella, for the identification, and the chemical study of the active principles of medicinal plants used in the treatment of typhoid in the city of Kisangani. Strain characterization and chemical screening were used for the detection of Salmonella and phytochemical groups present in our plants.
The liquid-liquid extraction made it possible to obtain the dried extracts of the major phytochemical groups after evaporation of the solvents employed.
The method of inhibiting bacterial growth by diffusion in agar medium was used to study the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi strains to extracts of medicinal plants. The results of our research reveal that the phenotypic characterization showed that there is similarity between the 17 strains of Salmonella typhi studied and the reference strain.
The chemical screening revealed the abundant presence of tannins and saponins in the leaves of Anthonotha macrophylla, Azadirachta indica and in the leaf of Trema orientalis, but traces of alkaloids in the leaves of Trema orientalis, as well as very abundant presence of sterols and terpenes as well as quinone in the bark of the Citrus limon root.
In addition, the extraction of the active ingredients yielded respectively the following yields: 4.92% of the leaves of Trema orientalis, and 2.48% of the leaves of Azadiractha indica and 2.44% of Anthonotha macrophylla for the leaves. saponins. As for extracts of tannins, in Azadiractha indica, 22.76% and in Anthonotha macrophylla is 14.76%, while the leaves of Trema orientalis contain only 14.44%. Determination of microbial growth inhibitory activity extracts revealed growth inhibition of Salmonella typhi strains, saponin extracts and Tanic extracts of Anthonotha macrophylla and Trema orientalis were active on microbial strains tested (Salmonella typhi) with inhibition zone diameters means 13, 14 and 16mm in diameter for Anthonotha macrophylla and extracts of Trema orientalis with inhibition diameter of 14, 12, 11, 10mm. Azadiractha indica extracts showed antibacterial activity of 11mm in diameter.
This work aims to evaluate the output of two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal (M) and Thorgal (T) of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivated in the ground enriched by manure of pig under shelter with Kisangani. It was caused with an aim of contributing to the improvement of the productivity of tomato on the one hand and recycling of waste resulting from the breeding of pig (manure of pig) to fight against the pollution of the environment on the other hand. It ran out of the period of May until September 2016 in the enclosure of the Faculty of Science of the University of Kisangani.
To achieve this goal, an experimental culture of a device of the randomized blocks was carried out during which the observations and the analyses carried on the quantitative characters in particular the rate of lifting, the number of flowers, the number of fruits, the fruit weight, the index of the fruit shape, compartmental production and the output.
The results obtained showed that: Section 1: Hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal - Compartmental production: the hybrid variety F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig was more productive (10, 22 kg) compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the ground enriched by manure of pig (6, 37 kg).
- The output: the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig was high (3, 3 T/ha) that the hybrid F1 Mongal enriched by manure of pig (3, 19 T/ha).
Section 2: Hybrid variety F1 Mongal and its witness - The compartmental production was higher at the hybrid F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (10, 22 kg) compared to the hybrid pilot F1 Mongal (5, 49 kg).
- The output: the hybrid F1 Mongal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (3, 19 T/ha) was higher compared to its witness (2, 99 T/ha).
Section 3: Hybrid variety F1 Thorgal and its witness - The compartmental production at the hybrid F1 Thorgal cultivated in the amended ground of manure of pig (6, 37 kg) appeared slightly higher than at the hybrid pilot F1 Thorgal (5, 9 kg).
- The output was slightly profitable at the hybrid pilot F1 Thorgal (3, 4 T/ha) compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal amended of manure of pig (3, 3T/ha).
The test T of student applied to the production and to the output indicates that there is not significant difference between the two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal (p-been worth > 0, 05).
The whole of these results shows that the response of two hybrid varieties F1 Mongal and Thorgal is not the same one with the application of manure of pig and consequently the hybrid F1 Mongal reacts better compared to the hybrid F1 Thorgal.
As for the agronomic characterization of local and foreign varieties, the average plant sizes varied according to the forms and varieties. Round Violet, elongated Red, elongated Violet and flat Violet were characterized by the biggest average sizes (56.03-60.68 cm) within local varieties. Round Red genotype presented the smallest size (36.80 cm). For the foreign varieties, Makis and Opal presented bigger sizes than Marmande (44.00 cm), Roma (39.73 cm) and Carotina (38.93 cm).
The number of flowers produced, was numerically very high (59.33 to 62.58 flowers) for flat Violet genotypes, round Violet, and flat Red for the local varieties, and Makis (61.33 to 61.46) and Opal (37.33 to 41.86) for foreign varieties. In this variety, Marmande (28.13), Roma (29.66) and Carotina (12.06) produced less flowers. Local varieties produced more fruits (18.26 to 32.60) than the foreign varieties (5.48 to 12.45). The fruits of the foreign varieties (25.23 g to 45.88 g) weighed more than the ones of the local varieties (9.47 g to 17.35 g).