Nous nous sommes assignés de mener une étude d’identification des viandes de brousse vendues dans la ville de Kindu.
Notre problématique avait tourné autour des questions ci-après : quelles sont les espèces les plus vendues aux marchés de la ville de Kindu ? Quelle est la forme des viandes de brousse la plus présente aux marchés de la ville de Kindu? Les vendeurs des viandes de brousse de la ville de Kindu participent-ils à la conservation de la faune sauvage du Maniema ?
Pour mieux cerner les différentes problématiques de notre investigation, nous avons formulé les hypothèses selon lesquelles : les espèces les plus vendues aux marchés de la ville de Kindu seraient les singes ; la forme la plus présente des viandes de brousse aux marchés de la ville de Kindu serait la forme boucanée ; les vendeurs des viandes de brousse ne participeraient pas à la conservation de la faune sauvage du Maniema.
Pour atteindre nos objectifs, nous avons utilisé la méthode rétrospective s’appuyant sur la technique documentaire et la méthode prospective, qui avait porté sur la technique d’enquête par questionnaire, effectuée en trois étapes dont une pré-enquête, le choix d’échantillonnage et le dépouillement. L’échantillonnage a été déterminé en interrogeant 77 vendeurs de la viande de brousse choisis au hasard dans la ville de Kindu.
Après analyse, nous avons obtenu que : les singes sont les espèces les plus vendues aux marchés de la ville de Kindu avec 45% ; 83,1% des enquêtés disent que la forme fumée (boucanée) est la forme des viandes de brousse la plus présente aux marchés de la ville de Kindu; 61% de nos enquêtés vendeurs des viandes de brousse s’approvisionnent sur l’axe Lokando, cela nous a amené à confirmer qu’ils ne participent pas à la conservation de la faune sauvage du Maniema, car l’axe Lokando mène au Parc National de la LOMAMI.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and to detect the presence of kdr mutations in two peripheral agricultural sites in the city of Mouila. The study was conducted during the rainy season in 2017. Anopheles were collected at the larval stage by the "dipping" method and reared in the laboratory until the adult stage. Susceptibility tests were performed on the F0 generations according to the protocol recommended by WHO. The insecticides used were alphacypermethrin (0.05%, 0.25%, 0.50%), cyfluthrin (0.15%, 0.75%), etofenprox (0.5%, 5%) and bifenthrin 0.20%. The individuals of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from the tests were identified by the PCR technique. The survivor and dead mosquitoes were used to detect kdr mutations via PCR. The members of the An. gambiae complex of the study sites were composed of two species, An. gambiae s.s and An. coluzzii, with a predominance of An. gambiae s.s. The test results showed a resistance to alphacypermethrin (0.05%, 0.25% and 0.50%), cyfluthrin 0.15%, etofenprox 0.5% and bifenthrin 0.20% in both study sites and a suspicion of resistance to etofenprox 2.5% in the Moutassou site. Populations of An. gambiae s.l were susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.75% in these study sites (≤ 98%) and etofenprox 2.5% in the Mboukou site (100%). These two insecticides could be used for vector control after resistance has been observed to permethrin and deltamethrin (at low doses).
This paper presents the results of the detailed petrographical analysis of sandstone samples from three wells from the offshore Ivorian Basin. The study reveals the presence of three types of sandstones in the Albian – Cenomanian succession, namely subarkoses, arkoses and lithic arenites, with dominant detrital minerals comprising quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments. The main authigenic minerals comprise calcite, siderite, silica, kaolinite and pyrite, while the key diagenetic events include compaction, dissolution and recrystallization of feldspar, neoformation and replacement of feldspar, and finally cementation. Primary pore spaces are reduced or occluded by calcite, silica, siderite and pyrite. Secondary porosity was created locally from the dissolution of feldspars but has been partly reduced by authigenic kaolinite. The presence of illitized kaolinite overgrowths and dissolved feldspars, together with significant quartz and the mainly concavo-convex and stylolithic contacts between quartz grains, suggest that the Albian-Cenomanian sandstones of the Ivorian Basin have reached an advanced stage of diagenesis. These diagenetic processes affect petrophysical values which varied as a function of depth.
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a complex pathologic entity requiring adequate management and surveillance to prevent and diagnose patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) early. causing a major myometrial invasion leading in rare cases to uterine rupture, reporting in this article a case of uterine rupture on GTN, this is one of the rare case published, we present the case of 25-year-old patient, followed for GTD moving to GTN, chemotherapy was started according to the FIGO score which classified her at low risk, she consulted in a state of shock, the diagnosis of hemoperitoneum was made, emergency laparotomy revealed uterine rupture requiring haemostatic hysterectomy.
Carrying on the validation instrument measuring Interactional profile of teachers through the teacher-pupils relation in the classes of sixth years primary of Isiro, this study want propose a tool of measure of the main-pupils relation in our schools. It is while basing us on the Trainee's Profile Interactional (PIS) that we constructed and arranged the structure and the items of the questionnaire. This instrument is composed of 30 items regroup in four measurements.
All main tests for a plausible factorial solution used at the time of two analyses proved to be satisfactory. Is our KMO value of 0.80, is the test of sphericity meaningful (Chi square = 5560.15 to p = 0.00< 0.05). Also, the value of α coefficient (0.68) is acceptable. These results indicate the validity of constructs of our questionnaire.
Taken into consideration these results, we reached our objective, the one to construct a psychometric instrument from our model of the departure to measure the quality of the Teacher-pupils relation in the classes of sixth year’s primary of Isiro. The final structure of this instrument (Interactional Profile of the Teacher) is constituted of four factors and 30 items.
The quality of higher and university education is currently, in DR Congo and in several countries of the world, a theme addressed in the various educational policies. Due to the attention given to this question by practitioners of education and other partners who are interested in examining and evaluating the efficiency of higher and university education, we have evaluated the impact of the organization and the planning, the delivery, and the evaluation of teaching inputs on the learners’ performances by using a pre-experimental approach.
To this end, we used the multiple regression on the results of 2022 students in ten learning form levels. We show here the possibility of predicting students’ performance by globally appreciating the contribution of three dimensions (planning and organization, delivery, and evaluation of learning inputs) in the total variation in the students’ performance.
The results obtained for the different level forms show that the multiple regression coefficients found are not significant, since the associated probabilities are ≥ 0.01. Thus, planning and organization, delivery and evaluation are not good predictors of students’ performance regardless of the learners’ promotion. Their contribution to improving students’ performance is minimal.
This study aims to see if student gender can influence academic success in the first cycle of study at Kisangani University.
To verify the existence of an association between the sex of the students and the modalities of the success, we resorted to the test of chi-square of the independence. It allowed us to accept the null hypothesis of the independence between sex and success in the two promotions of the 1st and 2nd graduates with a slight superiority of the students in the modality of receipts. The observation is similar in 3rd graduate with a superiority rather of students.
ICTs are gaining more and more areas. Education will not be the rest. But introducing ICT into a college or high school in a developing country like Chad is a complicated process because the operating conditions of ICT components are not always met. In this work, we will examine different possibilities and difficulties faced by these secondary schools in the process of introducing ICT into educational activities in Chad. We propose some ways to address these situations; and finally we provide some advices to the main actors of the education system.
The study investigates the spatial and temporal variation in water quality parameters at nine different locations in Mé, Bété and Djibi Rivers as well as Aghien Lagoon near Abidjan city for twelve consecutive months. Physicochemical parameters concerned are pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Dissolved heavy metals analyzed are Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The assessment of physicochemical parameters shown the deteriorate of water quality with significant changes particularly in the Djibi River with high mean concentrations of total phosphorus (0.51 mgP.L-1) and total nitrogen (7.60 mgN.L-1). Nevertheless, the overall mean concentrations of heavy metals in water Cu (1.43 µg.L-1), Cd (0.06 µg.L-1), Pb (0.2 µg.L-1), Zn (9.16 µg.L-1), As (0.3 µg.L-1), Ni (2.77 µg.L-1) were lower than WHO Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Dissolved heavy metal percentage indicates that the order of concentrations was Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to group the different sampling sites on the basis of spatial similarities and classification, based on contamination sources and origin of pollutants in rivers and lagoon. In conclusion, this study clearly infers the fact that the cause of pollution in this region is mainly due to domestic and industrial effluents, agriculture and finally natural source.
The demographic evolution of the megalopolis of Kinshasa leads to an occupation of lands subject to agricultural uses. The subdivision on agricultural land causes conflicts between developers, new land occupants and farmers on these lands.
A spatial analysis and a socio-economic survey on land occupation, land conflicts and their management in the Funa Valley in Kinshasa were carried out with the aim of highlighting the level of occupation of the Funa Valley and the different issues related to this occupation. The results of the analyzes show that:
- The spatial analysis of the occupation of the valley shows a strong evolution of the anthropic presence on its slopes as in the valley bottom.
- 61% of occupants in the valley own the land;
- 52% of occupants of the valley, in one of its slopes, Block A, have a time of installation in the valley of 5 years and that this time of installation in the valley is strongly linked to its blocks;
- The majority of occupants in the valley have permission to build and the types of documents in their possession are strongly related to the blocks of the valley;
- 50% of occupants in Block A do not practice farming and 50% of occupants in block C practice of agricultural activity. The practice of activity in the valley is not linked at all to its blocks.
Several land conflicts are cited in the valley such as: the illegal sale of parcels by customary chiefs, illegal occupation of agricultural land by non-market gardeners, etc. Of these conflicts, the most concerned are the customary chiefs. The management of these conflicts is often referred to the district chief and the justice ministry.
The differential psychology shows us that people are different from one another. Confronted to the theories developed by Legrand and Garanderie and to the reality of the teaching land in teachers of schools the situation of this theory becomes the contrary. Thus, having assessed that the mental procedures of the child can be original and different from their teachers, the author wants to impregnate himself if really teachers are informed of the existence of this mental and procedural difference at some as for their pupils. How do they proceed to discover this originality of thought? Does he exploit which technique of teaching? What teaching techniques does he exploit? The spoken reflection or he teaches in the total ignorance of this? The results of the study indicate that in general teachers accuse a notorious ignorance in this domain of the pedagogy of the mental management and the differed pedagogy.
The franchise remains one of the most effective privileged ways to develop even in a national and international territory. It has been in the long-term since its appearance in the 1970s in America, then in Europe, and has spread to emerging and even developing countries. Its persistent character and the success of its formula known as "win-win" push a most of companies that operating in different sectors to integrate.
This article provides a general overview of franchise, notably its definitions and its theoretical foundations, by presenting the different theories that explain this phenomenon. So the objective is to discuss the literature in this context and identify the different forms of franchises.
The present research aims at showing the residential logics of the inhabitants of the precarious settlements in Lomé and Kara and to try to propose perspectives to get out of the indecency of the precarious dwellings in the Togolese cities. To achieve this, she combined three approaches: document analysis, direct observation and in-depth individual interviews with 33 inhabitants of precarious settlements. The research has highlighted the rise of precarious habitats caused by the rapid growth of Togolese cities; then, it identified three main types of perceptions of precarious habitats: precarious housing as a shelter, precarious housing as a symbol of urbanity and finally as a transplantation of rurality in the city, thus reflecting the unfinished nature of Togolese cities. The precarious habitat option is a strategy of keeping in the city. In addition, by questioning private housing on the one hand, and rental housing on the other, notably through the case study of the Katanga slum in Lomé, the article shows the system's failures. Before concluding that, in Togolese cities as in other African cities, residential occupancy responds to forms of urban transactions oscillating between indigenous traditions and modern import. Finally, the research proposes to address three main challenges to get out of indecency, including the strengthening of the regulation of land and rental lease and the promotion of social housing.
Wild neglected fruits as are known for their beneficial effects on health and the fight against malnutrition. This is the case in Senegal of the fruits of Saba senegalensis wich are consumed more and more in the form of nectar whose nutritional and organoleptic qualities must be preserved. The objective set by this work is to optimize the pasteurization of the nectar in order to preserve its whole quality.The minimum pasteurizing value (VP) is determined and then different pasteurization scales to obtain this VP are tested. The vitamin C of the obtained nectars is monitored for 60 days at 4; 20; 30 and 37 ° C. A 50-minute VP gives microbiological stability for two months at 4 ° C and retains the nutritional qualities of the nectar. Thus, the optimal 73 ° C / 16 min scale is used for this fruit nectar because it preserves 63.38% of the vitamin C. The use of the Ball, Arrhenius and Eyring models during the tests makes it possible to predict adequately the losses of vitamin C. The 73 ° C / 16min scale better retains the nutritional and organoleptic qualities of the nectar of Saba senegalensis.
With the aim of searching clays that can be used to produce aluminosilicate refractory bricks, characterization studies were carried out on several clays of the region of Abidjan (Ivory Coast) with refractory potential. These studies concerning the chemical, geochemical, mineralogical and thermal characterization showed that clays of Alepe and Anguededou are very rich in kaolinite and have high alumina, and less proportion of melting alkalis and colouring oxides to be refractory clays. The use of geochemical AB diagram of La Roche adapted to clays indicates those Alepe and Anguededou would have a refractory character. These clays after the various characterization tests have also presented interesting chemical and physico-thermal aptitudes to be used in the elaboration of refractory bricks for the manufacture of ovens, blast furnaces, incinerators etc...