Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the leading cause of fatality. The course of COPD is followed by episodes of acute deterioration in respiratory health, referred as 'exacerbations'. Acute exacerbations of COPD contribute substantially to the morbidity and mortality due to number of infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, or both. Therefore, we planned a case control study to know the association of respiratory viruses especially HRSV genotype with acute exacerbation of COPD, if any. This is a prospective case-control study with two groups of patients (AECOPD and stable COPD). Nasopharyngeal aspirate were tested for the detection of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus; Influenza Viruses; Human Metapneumovirus; Adeno Virus; Human Boca Virus and Parainfluenza Virus 1,2,3,4 by real time PCR. Respiratory viruses are more often found in case group (AECOPD patients) 45/ 234 patients (19.23%) than in control group (stable COPD), 8/100 patients (8%; P=0.0330). In case group HRSV was detected in 7.6% (18/234) and was most commonly detected virus followed by INFV-A (11/234; 4.7%), INFV-B (10/234; 4.2%), HMPV (2/234; 0.8%), and ADV (4/234; 1.7%). In control group INFV-A was most commonly detected (4/100, 4%), followed by ADV (2/100, 2%) and HRSV (1/100, 1%). No patient tested positive for more than one virus. Among respiratory viruses, HRSV-A is the most prominent group associated with AECOPD patients. Present study concluded that respiratory viruses play an important role in exacerbation.
In many workplaces, we need to carry some heavy stuff along a fixed route, in order to reduce the workload of staff, this paper proposed a kind of small freight robot based on single chip microcomputer. In this design, we use AT89S52 chip as the main control chip, design the electromotor drive circuit use L298N chip. The robot is driven by gear motor, using black and white line sensor, infrared photoelectric switch and wireless transceiver etc. to achieve the following functions: automatic tracing, sound and light alarm, obstacles avoidance, remote control and so on. At the same time, the freight robot can carry about 100 kg weight and has the characteristics of low cost and easy to maintain. The design is suitable for the transportation of small amount of goods, such as a workshop, airport and quick distribution station. It is flexible and the transportation cost is low, so it has a broad application prospect.
Predicting the relationship between the flow rate and the pressure drop performance in the reservoir is very important for continuous production optimization in the field. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) describes the relationship between the flow rate of the well (q) and the following pressure of that well (Pwf). Different inflow performance relationship correlations exist today in the petroleum industry with the most commonly used models are that of Vogel and Fetkovich. Gas condensate reservoirs are primarily gas reservoir but when reservoir pressure declines below dew point pressure the liquid begins produced. The goal of this work is to develop a new model to predict the inflow performance relationship curve for gas condensate reservoirs. This new correlation was developed using about 200 data points were collected from different Middle East gas condensate reservoirs. The development model was tested by comparing its accuracy with that of the most common inflow performance relationship models such as Vogel, Fetkovich and Wiggins models. The results of this comparison showed that the new developed model gave the best accuracy with an average absolute error of 11.38% while the other common model, Vogel, Fetkovich and Wiggins, gave an average absolute error of 69.39%, 22.65% and 45.75% respectively.
Surveys were realized in Kénitra city have allowed to observe brown to black lesions on leaves of Morus sp.; ornamental tree of some avenues in this city. This responsible agent was isolated and identified as Drechslera australiensis. Koch's postulate was verified that this pathogen showed the ability to infect healthy leaves of Morus sp.
The present study was conducted to find out the comparison between the visual perceptual ability of children with intellectually disability having ADHD problems and without having ADHD problem. On the bases of literature review it was hypothesized that visual perceptual ability will likely to be more disturb in children with intellectual disability co morbid ADHD problems as compare to30 intellectual disable children without ADHD problems. A sample of 47 children already diagnosed in which 30 intellectual disable children co morbid ADHD and 17 intellectual disabled children without ADHD were selected from special school and hospitals of Karachi. Their age range from 6-10 years, and belongs to middle socioeconomic class. Draw A Person (DAP) test used to confirm the IQ to assess visual perceptual abilities was administered by Good enough (1926) was used for the IQ evaluation was used to assess the visual perceptual abilities. Bender Gestalt Test (BG) by Koppitz (1963 was administered. It was found that there was a significant difference in the visual perceptual ability in intellectually disabled (ID) children with Attention deficit disorder ADHD disorder then intellectual disabled without ADHD.(df =45 t=-5.517p<.000). Recommendations for future avenues are also suggested.
This study was carried out with the aim of demonstrating the application of vertical electrical sounding (VES) method of investigation in the exploration for groundwater in University of Abuja, Permanent Site and Environs. A total of 12 VES points were probed in the area with AB/2 of 1 – 250m and covering a total area of 6.75km2. ABEM SAS 300c tarrameter was used to generate the data using schlumberger array method. The data was interpreted using computer iteration methods (IPI2Win). Isoresistivity of topsoil, isoresistivity of weathered layer, isoresistivity of basement, weathered layer thickness and a 3-D of weathered layer thickness were also generated using surfer software. The result reveals five curve types (A, H, HA, HK and QH) and it shows variation in the layers available in the study area, some with four geo – electric layers: top soil, lateritic clay, weathered basement and fractured/fresh basement while some with three geo-electric layer: topsoil, weathered and fractured/fresh basements. It also shows variation in the groundwater potentiality of the study area i.e. good (VES 1, 5, 7, 9), moderate (VES 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12) and low (VES 3, 10). The good potential area is suggested for drilling of boreholes.
The effect of degradation caused by ion leachate migration in the soil of Gosa dumpsite was investigated with reference to water and soil from dumpsite located at Idu Industrial area- Abuja. This was done to determine the health and environmental pollution status caused by heavy metals concentration present in the dumpsite and its effect to inhabitants within the settlement. Soil samples collected during dry and wet season were pretreated and digested using hotplate. The heavy metal concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The samples were analyzed for concentration of lead (Pb), cupper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Control soil samples were taken 300m away from the dumpsite. The dumpsite was divided into four cardinal points including the centre from which samples were collected for analysis. Water samples were collected from three wells to test for physiochemical properties of PH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), Hardness, Conductivity and Alkalinity. The result showed significant difference in concentration of these metals in the dumpsite and control. The dumpsite was found to contain significant amount of toxic heavy metals. The analytical results indicates that in both dry and wet season, most of the metals concentration were above the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) standards, which is a major concern as these metals pose threats to human life, agricultural productivity and unsafe for the inhabitants.
Income is an indicator and one of measurements used in the studies of poverty. Poverty in rural areas covers deep disparities according to social characteristics' (gender, education, occupation…) of the household head. This work aims to contribute to the studies on the poverty dynamics in rural area. Its main goal is to analyze the variability of incomes according to social profile of the households head in rural area in Katanga. Methodologically, 123 households taken in a random way were surveyed in 3 villages of Kipushi namely Kanyameshi, Makwatsha and Mimbulu. Five types of households are identified according to their professions (farmers 54%, craftsmen 11%, tradesmen farmers 18%, civil servants 5%, and farm labourers 12%). There are the agri tradesmen who earn more income (1320$) per year and 25% of the farmers, of the farm labourers, civil servants and the craftsmen realize nearly similar incomes. The marital status did not influence the income but the widowers have low income (703$) per year and 25% of them do not reach 465. 6$.As for the education, a significant difference is observed between the levels (p=0,011).If the academics have higher incomes followed by the illiterates, however, 25% of the latter have less of 450$ per year. Being given that the rural incomes seem to be fluctuating and liable to several risks, to increase them surely, these results plead for a rural development which passes first of all by an agricultural development, sector of more opportunities.
Though the national Kahuzi-Biega Park be necessarily covered with a forest of well distinguished canopy; it also possesses disturbed areas. This work aims at studying the floristic composition of Ferns and Fern Allies to assess vegetation disturbances in the mountain forests (ranging from 1250 meters to 3000 meters) within the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Comparisons of vegetation features were made both in disturbed and non-disturbed habitats. Data were collected within 24 plots differently located following the 3 vegetation altitudinal ranges (submontane, montane, afro-alpine) taken into account. In each plot, 4 sampling units of 1ha each were established. Collected data included abundance and dominance features of plant species (both Ferns and their Allies, as well as woody species), tree diameter (DBH), and canopy height, the average of vegetation cover per forest layer (stratum) as well as floristic patterns and species richness. We referred to CANOCO and R (version 2.10.1) softwares to perform our statistical analyses. Results showed that the 3 altitudinal ranges offer differences in their floristic composition. The considered plant features (height, diametric structure) also express variations when disturbed and non-disturbed habitats are taken into consideration. This is for example illustrated by significant differences (results based on a t-test, p-value = 0.007) when one considers the occurrence of Ferns and their Allies. Within stable habitats, Ferns and their Allies particularize themselves by rich and much diversified communities. However, disturbed habitats (following various causes of permanent aggression) face major changes into the floristic composition of their major canopy tree species.
This study talks about the crucial question of the function of the mayor in a democratizing society. In the context of decentralized local management of development activities, the Niger authorities had opted in 2004 for a system of decentralization instead of federalism claimed by the Tuareg rebellion. Decentralization involves the election of a mayor who chairs the City Council in order to achieve development actions. In his function, he is both state representative, representative of his political party and vector of local development. This is a source of conflict and may block the normal operation of this territorial level called to create the foundations for its own development. The analysis was based on a documentary work, interviews with elected mayors and with resource persons at the 3rd and 4th municipal districts of the city of Zinder. The municipal district is a dismemberment of the special status commune which it receives delegation of powers and resources. It is a decentralized administrative structure of the municipality with special status and no legal personality. It is clear that the City Council is the lowest level in administrative devolution but this function must be understood in order to achieve the planned development activities.
This study is located in the sub-basin of the Lwiro. The method of thornthwaite and statistical method were used. The values of monthly evapotranspiration have been estimated 60 mm for the months of June to July and 70mm for the remain months. A simplified outcome of the rain compared with the evapotranspiration for the period of 15 years (1999-2013) has showed that our sector of study is in its whole humid... About the 15 years of our observation period, 8 years have been qualified «dries», and 7 have been qualified «damps or humid». According to the data on the easily reserve usable as well as that of the effective filtrations, the right interval of time to the identification and to the catching of water's springs intended to supply the population in drinking water has been situated between the end of the month of May and August. The minimum pluviometric module in the sub-basin has 95 chances out of 100 so that it shall be included between 1291.98 mm and 1921.98 mm or although 5 chances out of 100 so that it shall be out of this interval. For the annual maximum pluviometric module in the sub-basin, there no chance for the interval of 50 years so that it being taken back. Then, for the civil engineering works, it agreed to take this pluviometric module value of 2182.0 mm like the minimum capacity of collectors. Nevertheless, it will be maximum value in case of technical or financial problems.
Damage due to fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis in orchards (mainly mango and citrus) is high but nothing is known about the fruit fly species involved in the South Kivu region. The tephritids flies were identified at the Research Centre in Natural Sciences (CRSN / Lwiro) and when identification was unsuccessful specimens were sent for identification to the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA, Tervuren, Belgium).Ceratitis fasciventris was the dominant Ceratitis species captured during the entire experiment, biweekly. The former had pest dominant Ceratitis fasciventris and six Ceratitis individuals was found such us Ceratitis anonae (Graham), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis punctacta (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis rosa (Karsch).
Childhood Obesity has come across as one of the rampant health concern in United States. The causes engendering to childhood obesity are multifactorial but food companies are often criticized. Particular attention has been focused on the aggressive food marketing stunts adopted to lure children. Comprehending these marketing strategies is of major importance in combating this problem. Employing a comprehensive literature review on marketing food to children and their impacts create the crux of this article The tactics embraced by companies include advertisements through Television, Internet and Advergaming, In-school marketing; these strategies influence children's dietary consumption, eating preferences and purchase requests. A lot of emphasis needs to be given on self-regulations, policy implications and government intervention to demonstrate stealth advertising and promote healthy lifestyle amongst children. Although a large body of research advocates the direct connection between food advertising to children and obesity but nothing has been grounded so far.
Learning, teaching, and research can be effectively achieved when there is very great extent of availability of documentary sources of information resources in the library of unified community. The purpose of this study is to know the extent of availability of documentary sources of information resources in Kogi State University Library, Anyigba, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The instruments of data collection are questionnaire and personal observation. The questionnaire consists of four (4) tables which are based on research questions. Twenty-four (24) copies of questionnaire were administered to the library staff that works in the university library understudy in their various offices. Data were analyzed by use of Likert response rate of 2.50 as criterion mean where ≥ 2.50 is significant (considerable response) and < 2.50 is not significant (inconsiderable response). It was discovered that out of 22 categories of itemized documentary sources of information resources Very Great Extent has 0 (0%); Great Extent has 2 (18.2%); Low Extent has 18 (81.8%). Among the identified challenges are poor budget allocation to the library; insufficient funds; poor donation of documentary sources of information resources to the library; lack of gift on documentary sources of information resources to the library; university management not respond to library needs; absence of standard policy on acquisition of documentary sources of information resources. Recommendations were proffered to ensured very great extent of availability of documentary sources of information resources in University Libraries.
The essential oil isolated from western Moroccan Citrus aurantium L. var. amara peel, by hydrodistillation, is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen compounds representing 99.86% of total oil are identified. The predominant components in the essential oil are limonene (90.90%), linalool (2.52%), myrcene (1.51%) and β-pinene (1.41%). Being both dietary and biologically active compounds, flavonoids have attracted much attention of investigations as potent species capable of affecting various biological processes in living organisms. The total flavonoids contents of aqueous and methanolic extracts of bitter orange's peel were found to be 1.43 and 14.82 mg Equivalent Quercetin/g respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of bitter orange's peel is measured using free radical scavenging method with DPPH•. In addition, a preliminary study of the antibacterial activity of extracts of bitter orange's peel is tested against three bacterial stains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Analysis of physicochemical parameters (T°, pH, EC, ORP) and ETM along the Naviundu channel on the water and the sediment was made to establish a diagnosis of the state of surface water of the river downstream of the plant hydrometallurgical Chemical of Africa (CHEMAF). Thus, samples were taken from nine stations in the rainy season. In view of the physic-chemical parameters measured on water samples, it is easy to conclude that it is of poor quality and can be of no use without prior treatment.
Laboratory results on water samples show extremely high values for Cu, Co and U 9903, respectively, 29,758 and 0,016 mg/L at the exit of effluent CHEMAF factory, station 1. The Pb and Cd were also high levels exceeding the WHO standard in all stations although they decrease with increasing distance from the CHEMAF factory. The iron in the sediment comes from the soil geochemical background and presents correlations with ETM especially in remote stations of the plant while Cu and Co have a higher content of the guidelines of the sediment quality.
The presence of high concentrations of Cu, Co, U, Cd and Pb in water and sediment at the first station (SW1) adequately demonstrates that the effluent from the metallurgical activities CHEMAF plant does not undergo treatment before to be discharged into the river Naviundu whose self-purifying capacity is limited.
Hydrometallurgical Plant Chemical of Africa (CHEMAF) is causing high concentrations of ETM found today in soils and water wells, due to its liquid effluent discharges out of its site. Indeed, two transects were established at district summers Tshamilemba to collect soil and water samples in the wells distributed along the two transects. The first has 7 GW1 point, GW2, GW3, GW4 GW 11, GW12, GW13 and the second six points GW5 GW6, GW7, GW8, GW9 and GW10. Laboratory test results indicate the presence of high concentrations of trace elements in the water with 4.112 mg/L at 13 wells, 90.551mg/L in well 1 for lead. These values exceed the WHO limit value of 2 mg/L (Cu) and 0.1mg/L (Pb). Cd presents 5.234 mg/L in 1, while the threshold value is set to 0.003 mg/L. In soil, there are also copper grades ranging from 140.8mg / kg in point 11, 945.2mg/kg in 3, these values are higher than the limit value of 100 mg/kg. Copper in high contents are encountered in the sample wells on the first transect nearby CHEMAF plant. The high contents of Cu, Pb, Cd are therefore responsible for the extinction of some plant families of different skin and respiratory diseases encountered in many people (especially young people) living in this area and especially Tshamilemba pollution Environment.
This study was conducted to examine factors affecting economic integration in the East African Community (EAC) with a special focus on the effects of lack of political will on the economic integration of EAC. Other specific objectives included assessing the effect of leadership on economic integration, evaluating the effect of coalition of the willing on economic integration and assessing the effect of sensitization on economic integration in East Africa Community. The study was conducted in Arusha Region, the headquarters of EAC in Tanzania. The units of analysis were EAC secretariat and others stakeholders from EAC partner states attending different meetings and forums at the EAC headquarters during the study period. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire covering respondents from all five EAC. A total of 89 respondents were obtained though stratification based on country of origin and departments, and later randomly selected from each stratum for interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were employed in the analysis. It was established that the economic integration in EAC is mainly impinged by factors resulting from political will of EAC leaders. Most agreements and establishments agreed at secretariat level were found not to be effectively implemented by political leaders of EAC partner states. It was realized that most articles in the Treaty established EAC are not effectively being adhered to. There is no free movement of people, goods and services in EAC. Poor progress as revealed in relation to free of people, goods and services implies lack of political support of the whole integration process. This also implies that political leaders in the EAC member states are not performing as required and the secretariat lucks strict means to enforce the implementation agreements by political leaders. Lack of trust among EAC people, different economic setups and fear of losing sovereignty in respective states was found to politically affect the integration process. The creation of the ‘coalition of the willing’ was found to have resulted from the notion that some EAC partner states lack political will in implementation of the agreements towards economic integration of EAC, while on the other hand, it was found to have negative impact on the economic integration. Lack of political will among EAC partner states was found to affect fund remittance of EAC. The main challenges in remitting were established that some countries were not remitting funds as required and that some member states do not have enough funds to support own budget. It is recommended EAC leadership at state level and secretariat show revise, monitor and evaluate the implementation of agreements geared towards economic integrations at all levels. Likewise, EAC leadership in each member state need strengthen internal sources of funds so as to fully support EAC with own budget. There is also great need to harmonize the country policies and strategies and legal framework in line with EAC strategies.
The Greeks were the main cocoa traders in South-Cameroon during the colonial period. They arrived in small groups to be employed as prospectors, then commercial agents on behalf of the major treaty trade companies as the Paterson Zochonis (PZ), the Company of Haut Ogooué (SHO), the French West Africa company, R.W. King or John Holt, the small colony of Greek commercial agents of Cameroon has embarked on building a commercial destiny which the main beam remained the marketing of annuity products including cocoa. This article examines the role of the Greeks in the development of trade in agricultural products for export in Cameroon and more specifically in the chocolate products rich region of Nyong and Sanaga, located in the centre of the territory of Cameroon. The Greeks have, thanks to their proximity to the major colonial corporations, taken the measure of the opportunities offered by the market of the agricultural products for export in colonial Cameroon and more specifically in Yaoundé, administrative capital and main town of the region of Nyong and Sanaga. Then, they launched their commercial assault in the surrounding communities of: Sa' a, Akonolinga, Mbalmayo, Obala, etc. Among the most active traders, there were for example, Kritikos, Mikes, Demetropoulos, Gaetanos, Trianfilides, Pollakis, Papadopoulos and Mavrommatis. Thus, in less than half a century, Greek traders have, from the cocoa trade, transformed many bush markets in the region in real centres of trade in the territory.
In this paper threats comparison, student-t distribution approach: A case study of Ibrahim Babangida library of Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, We identified three threats; human threats, Technological threats and Natural threats. Data on threats were obtained using questionnaire and personal interview; the data obtained were analyzed using Analytic hierarchy Process (AHP) and studet-t distribution. The results obtained revealed that human threats effect is greater than technological threats and technological threats effect is greater than natural threats effect associated with IBL activities at 5% level of significance. We recommended that the management should invest more resources to mitigate human threats than other threat.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept and the drivers of the vulnerability of a supply chain through a review of the main theoretical and empirical studies dealing with these notions. In order to formalize the analysis of supply chain vulnerability, we develop propositions based on theories and prior literature. Especially, Normal Accident Theory and Resource-Based Theory provide the theoretical foundations for the analysis of supply chain vulnerability drivers. We have particularly drawn on these two theories and on prior literature to develop a number of propositions.
The potentials of dead neem leaves for the production of the biogas was investigated as key measure to reduce the deforestation mainly caused by firewood cuttings in the Far-North Cameroon. Biomass collected was allowed to undergo biological pretreatment to facilitate its hydrolysis during anaerobic co-digestion with the cow dung. Samplings of dead neem leaves were taken after 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days of pretreatment. Collected substrates from the pretreatment unit were used to feed 1.5L micro-bioreactors in three doses namely 5%, 15% and 25%. The gross volume and flammable gas produced was evaluated. The pH of the various treatments was measured. Data on production were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software at 5% level of significance. It appears from this study that the pretreated leaves supplied biogas just as from 4 days after digestion, while those which did not undergo this pretreatment started producing biogas after more than 3 weeks. In terms of the amount of the generated biogas, the15 days pretreated substrate produced 3158 ml which was 22%, 35% and 94% higher than those of non-pretreated leaves, mechanically pretreated leaves and cow dung respectively. With regard to the change in pH within the bioreactors, pH dropped to 4 during the co-digestion of non-biologically pretreated leaves. At the same time in bioreactors where the substrate was biologically pretreated, the pH was more stable and appropriate for the biogas production and varied around 6 and7.
Little is known about perceived interactivity's effects on commercial web sites' experiential value. The present investigation considers this ambiguous relationship. S-O-R model and flow theory illuminate many facets of it. A quantitative research within 385 subjects consolidate the theoretical dissertation. Results demonstrate that perceived interactivity composed of reciprocity; receptivity, perceived speed and non verbal information play a considerable role in predicting cognitive and affective web user's responses. Accordingly, some managerial implications are proposed. Companies have to improve the interactive qualities of their commercial web sites in order to favor utilitarian and hedonic gratifications. Ensuring more control, convenience, less effort and a high level of efficiency seems to be a priority. They should also put consumers at the heart of managerial decisions to build effective e-marketing strategy and achieve profitability goals.
This study investigated the susceptibility pattern of coliform bacteria isolated from sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis. This was done by determining the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp and their antibiotic susceptibility profile using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. A total of Five hundred (500) samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brands of sachet water and boreholes were obtained from water dispensers in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Results of biochemical analysis revealed that out of the 311 confirmed isolates, 138 (55.2%) were from sachet waters while 173 (69%) were from borehole waters. The susceptibility profile of the isolates to ten antimicrobial agents indicated that majority of the isolates showed little susceptibility and was highly resistant to the following antimicrobial agents (nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, norbactin/norfloxacin, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin). This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important coliform bacteria. None of the water sources met the WHO microbiological standards for drinking water and thus pose a serious health risk to its consumers and users if not properly treated. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria in sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.