The study of physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, and electrical conductivity) Rivers Water (Lubumbashi and Kafubu) remains essential insofar as it allows to highlight the current status of these two streams to impose safeguards that hardly renewable resource, for its better management. Thus a transect was established on the river starting from Lubumbashi Bridge Katuba (Station A) to downstream of the Kafubu River (station E). Measures on the physico-chemical parameters of the water in situ were performed in order to determine the current state of water (quality), the use by local residents and especially to establish responsibility in relation to the source of contamination (population or society). The results of measurements on the physicochemical parameters indicate strong pressure from rivers and Lubumbashi Kafubu due partly to the presence in front of the Terril Processing Society of Lubumbashi (STL). This by the spill hot liquid effluents untreated into the river Lubumbashi would be the origin of the change in the physical, chemical and biological conditions of aquatic creatures, preventing them from achieving their optimal life cycle. And secondly to the rejection by the people of Kamalondo common, Kenya, Katuba various waste (organic waste, electronic waste, chemical detergents) in the two rivers in the study. These wastes have contributed their degradation, to changes in physical and chemical parameters of water in particular pH and turbidity. This upstream to downstream class waters of two rivers in the study of inferior quality and should be subject to special monitoring.
The study concerns the analysis of physical-chemical parameters (T °, pH, C.E, Turbidity, DO) along the river Lubumbashi to diagnose its current state. Thus, in situ measurements were carried out on the river Lubumbashi divided into two bays. The results obtained show that station B where the discharge liquid effluent from the Slag Processing Society Lubumbashi (STL), an increase of the temperature, conductivity, and a decrease in dissolved oxygen content accompanied by a acid pH. Turbidity has very high values in all stations and above 50 NTU, which indicate very cloudy water condition. This could be justified by the study period, the rains and rivers receive various wastes. These contribute to increased turbidity of river water Lubumbashi. The conductivity values are also very high especially at the station B, and are positively correlated significantly with the pH as well as the concentration of ETM (Cu, Co, Pb, Fe) analyzed in the previous study. What justifies the low oxygen levels in the stations B, C, and D impacted by the hot liquid effluents discharged by the STL, this is confirmed by Hebert and Légaré who have shown that cold water contains a greater amount dissolved oxygen than warm water. The presence of small fish, frogs in the stations A and E at the level of dissolved oxygen of 4.2 and respectively 4.5 mg / L indicates the existence of an aquatic life. Demonstrating a self-purification of the river Lubumbashi.
Katanga is one of the regions of the world, where we find abundant geochemical anomalies in most of these soils. These geochemical anomalies contain rich deposits mainly copper but also cobalt, zinc, cadmium and gold. The rich deposits of copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and gold are either in the hills or in the depths of the basement. Under these conditions these elements constituting a danger reduced to humans, plants and animals. From the time man, through its various activities (mining, metallurgical, plastic manufacturing) interrupts the strong links between these elements that begin the redistribution issues, release of these hazardous metals in the different compartments of environment: soil, water, air. They reach very high levels and become a real problem for humans.
Atmospheric fallout from the rich fumes SO2 discharged through the chimney smelter plant Gecamines contributed to the accumulation of metals in the soils of Penga Penga-tray. The digging of the Quartz and brick-making contributed to the remobilization of these metals through the landscape, soil, air, and water are a serious public health problem in this part of the city Lubumbashi.
Katanga is nowadays dominated by mining activities, due to the presence of rich deposits of copper ore mainly but also cobalt, zinc, germanium and many others. These deposits left on the Katangan Copperbelt arc attracted investment capital needed to implant metal production plants (Cu, Co,…). These plants are generally hydrometallurgical expected to use large amounts of water and generated waste in the form of large quantities of liquid effluents. Sustainable Environmental Management recommends the use of modern devices to recycle wastewater from hydrometallurgical plants; unfortunately this is not the case of the STL, which discharges into the river Lubumbashi. Its rich effluents discharged minerals in the water have contributed to the change of the physicochemical conditions of the river. contents of the increase is noted in trace metals such as Cu, Co, Pb and Fe in water, soil and plants along the river Lubumbashi, through one of the Kafubu before flowing in the watershed of the Kafubu. This places the river water Lubumbashi on the list of those subject to special treatment before being used for various needs. Unfortunately, the population ignorant and uninformed on the matter is in use in the risk of contracting various diseases.
Metal contamination of soils, following local atmospheric deposition (industrial and urban) and to different inputs (compost, manure ...) or former explains in particular the presence in surface horizons, current levels ETM such as Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb. However, despite the obvious effect of accumulation, transfer of metal to the depth is also noted, usually deducted from total contents comparisons metals in different soil horizons. Among the cited metallic elements, some are essential trace elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), but become toxic at high concentrations. Others such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic when trace. Their accumulation and transfer in the soil on the site of Penga Penga-therefore a risk to human health through contamination of the food chain but also for the environment as a whole.
The lack of modern equipment management and recycling of waste from the enrichment process metals made the Hydrometallurgy Lubumbashi is the cause of high concentrations of metals found today in the waters, soils and that plants, due to liquid effluent discharges untreated out of Copper and Cobalt production sites. Transects were established along rivers (Lubumbashi receiving effluents Society Terril de Lubumbashi (STL), and Oven Electric Lubumbashi (FEL) and Naviundu which it receives Chemical Of Africa (CHEMAF) in the to determine the levels of Cu content, Co, Pb, Fe in the samples of water, soil and Plant to highlight the potential risks of humans living in such an environment. The results of study indicate a critical environmental problem in view of the values obtained after laboratory analysis performed on water samples, soil and plant harvested on the ground.
Analysis of physicochemical parameters (T°, pH, EC, ORP) and ETM along the Naviundu channel on the water and the sediment was made to establish a diagnosis of the state of surface water of the river downstream of the plant hydrometallurgical Chemical of Africa (CHEMAF). Thus, samples were taken from nine stations in the rainy season. In view of the physic-chemical parameters measured on water samples, it is easy to conclude that it is of poor quality and can be of no use without prior treatment.
Laboratory results on water samples show extremely high values for Cu, Co and U 9903, respectively, 29,758 and 0,016 mg/L at the exit of effluent CHEMAF factory, station 1. The Pb and Cd were also high levels exceeding the WHO standard in all stations although they decrease with increasing distance from the CHEMAF factory. The iron in the sediment comes from the soil geochemical background and presents correlations with ETM especially in remote stations of the plant while Cu and Co have a higher content of the guidelines of the sediment quality.
The presence of high concentrations of Cu, Co, U, Cd and Pb in water and sediment at the first station (SW1) adequately demonstrates that the effluent from the metallurgical activities CHEMAF plant does not undergo treatment before to be discharged into the river Naviundu whose self-purifying capacity is limited.
Hydrometallurgical Plant Chemical of Africa (CHEMAF) is causing high concentrations of ETM found today in soils and water wells, due to its liquid effluent discharges out of its site. Indeed, two transects were established at district summers Tshamilemba to collect soil and water samples in the wells distributed along the two transects. The first has 7 GW1 point, GW2, GW3, GW4 GW 11, GW12, GW13 and the second six points GW5 GW6, GW7, GW8, GW9 and GW10. Laboratory test results indicate the presence of high concentrations of trace elements in the water with 4.112 mg/L at 13 wells, 90.551mg/L in well 1 for lead. These values exceed the WHO limit value of 2 mg/L (Cu) and 0.1mg/L (Pb). Cd presents 5.234 mg/L in 1, while the threshold value is set to 0.003 mg/L. In soil, there are also copper grades ranging from 140.8mg / kg in point 11, 945.2mg/kg in 3, these values are higher than the limit value of 100 mg/kg. Copper in high contents are encountered in the sample wells on the first transect nearby CHEMAF plant. The high contents of Cu, Pb, Cd are therefore responsible for the extinction of some plant families of different skin and respiratory diseases encountered in many people (especially young people) living in this area and especially Tshamilemba pollution Environment.
The main objective of this study is to determine the levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) and Cadmium (Cd) translocated into the leaves of Amarante, cabbage and spinach grown on the soil of the river Lubumbashi, rich in metals trace elements (MTE). Mining (industrial and artisanal), movement of vehicles, increased metallurgical based activities, domestic and agricultural activities in the city of Lubumbashi remain the causes that contribute to entry, mobility and the transfer of MTE in Environmental compartments: water, soil, sediment and air. These have nowadays very high MTE contents, creating severe malfunctions for human life, plants, soil, aquatic beings. The results obtained showed that spinach has accumulated a significant part of all elements studied and analyzed in the shoots, he accumulated more Cu (T0: 15ppm and T1: 31ppm). These levels far exceed the threshold set at 10 ppm in food. He has accumulated a lot of Co (T0: 10ppm; T1: 12ppm) that Amarante (T0: 1.8ppm) and cabbage (T0: 2.3ppm). The CD shows an opposite situation on the ground of the experimental field (T0), it is found to 7.8ppm Amarante, 14ppm: Cabbage and 9ppm: spinach. Leaves of consumption (spinach, cabbage and Amarante), grown on the soil of the river Lubumbashi rich MTE and having accumulated a lot of ETM in their aerial parts (edible) could create risks of food poisoning on the human health.