Sugarcane is an important food and cash crop in Benin. In order to gather information that will help preserving its diversity and to identify best performing varieties that could meet the needs of both producers and consumers in Benin, fifty-two (52) villages were surveyed. The survey focuses on diversity inventory and varietal preferences, two key elements for breeding programs. Subject to synonymy, a total of 89 sugarcane accessions were collected in the villages surveyed. The number of accessions ranged from 1 to 5 (2 on average) per village. The analysis of the distribution and extent of the farmers’ named varieties revealed that only one variety is cultivated by many households on large area. The average rate of varietal loss loss was 45.90% and the reasons reported by farmers were either of agronomic (61.88% of responses), economic (23.76% of responses) and technological (14.36% of responses) nature. The participatory evaluation of 66 varieties recorded (subject to synonymy), revealed a variation in the number of performing varieties according to the parameters considered. Eleven varietal preference criteria that can be used for breeding programs were identified and prioritized. Agronomic trials and biochemical analysis were proposed to confirm the performance of the varieties identified.
This paper proposes a single stage current source inverter based photovoltaic system with single axis automatic sun tracking system. The system consists of transformer less single stage conversion for tracking the maximum power point which is maintained by a fuzzy logic controller. The Hardware system presents the fuzzy logic control based sun tracking system using an Arduino controller. To improve the power quality and system efficiency, a double-tuned parallel resonant circuit is added to eliminate the 2nd and 4th order harmonics at the inverter side. A Stepper motor aids in tracking the sun axis and keeps the panel in line direction with sun all day long. The efficiency of the solar cells has been enhanced by the proposed design system. The proposed fuzzy logic controller has been implemented and tested using MATLAB Simulink environment. Moreover, the said sun tracking power generation system has been tested in real time using an Arduino controller.
The reduction of the size of forming exploitations under the influence of the demographic pressure at Djakotomè has led some formers to call into question some given away fields especially by donation or sale. That situation is source of conflict which has been brought to the court of conciliation.
Some collected opened and analysed experiment information according to a structural, functional and representative fashion have permitted to come back out the contribution of the court of conciliation to the regulations of disagreement related to fields at Djakotomè.
The nature of the conflicts and the various protagonists’ interests don’t facilitate the conciliation. The minutes of conciliation or non-conciliation have been transmitted to the court of the first authority’s President of Lokossa in order to be the subject of sanction or summons at the court of the first authority.
The plants of two strawberry varieties ‘Fortuna and Festival’ were inoculated with two isolates of Verticillium dahliae ‘VFF and VDS’, isolated from strawberry fields lacated in the Gharb region (Morocco). The monitoring of the symptoms evolution of the Verticillium wilt, in fuction of time, on the inoculated plants has allowed to note different types of symptoms: Early yellowing followed by necrosis, stunting, wilting and death of plants especially in plants of the Fortuna variety.
Calculated severity indices and the coefficients of infection, seven days after inoculation of strawberry plants are respectively about 13.5 and 11.5%. After four weeks, they reached respectively 66 and 86% for plants of the variety 'Fortuna' and 31.45 and 44.62% for those of variety 'Festival'. After six weeks, the severity indices and the coefficient of infection are respectively 77.44 and 106.8% in the 'Fortuna' plants inoculated with 'VFF' isolate. Comparisons between indices of severity and coefficients infection in inoculated plants of both varieties have shown that this is the variety 'Fortuna' which is most sensitive to isolate 'VFF', which showed pathogen also against the 'Festival' variety. Both tested isolates 'VFF and VFS' were re-isolated from all levels of plants: roots, collars and leaf petioles.
Twenty five (25) taxa of bryophytes (mosses 12 and 13 hepatics) were harvested from the cork oak forest in Gharb (Ferjane Canton: Atlantic Morocco). Two are hepatics new for Morocco, Riccia bifurca Hoffm. and Riccia bifurca var. subinermis Heeg, three (3) mosses are new to the forest of the Gharb (Canton Ferjane): Pleuridium acuminatum Lindb; Aloina aloides (Koch ex Schultz) Kindb and Entosthodon fascicularis) and a species considered rare, Riccia canaliculata. In this study a description and illustration was given only for new taxa for Morocco.
Granulosa tumors of the ovary are among the rare ovarian tumors, and included in the sex cord-stromal tumor category. They have a low degree of malignancy and have a good prognosis. Their clinical presentation is sometimes suggestive. Some biological markers (serum inhibin B and AMH) may be helpful for diagnosis, though their sensitivity is not perfect. Preoperative imaging diagnosis remains challenging due to the wide variability in morphology and lack of epidemiological data in the literature. These tumors are accompanied by high levels of estrogen. This state of hyperestrogenism is responsible for a broad spectrum of endometrial pathology from simple endometrial hyperplasia to the development of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Through this clinical observation of tumor of the adult type granulosa, we will discuss the main clinicopathological characteristics and histogenesis of this association to improve treatment of these tumors.
The fibrothecoma ovarian tumors are rare tumors representing less than 4% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors are observed in elderly and postmenopausal patients. The diagnosis is difficult because they are often mistakenly diagnosed as uterine fibromas or malignant ovarian tumors. Their diagnostic approach is guided by the clinical and Para clinical elements, but it is mainly based on histopathological evaluation. Conservative surgery is the treatment of choice in young women. Radical treatment is reserved for patients in perimenopause or postmenopausal period. We report two cases of this tumor, which were presented as advanced ovarian cancer, to identify diagnostic and therapeutic features. These are tumors with a good prognosis and a final recovery after surgery.
Pelvic tuberculosis accounts for 6% to 10% of tuberculosis cases. Tubal damage is the most frequent, followed by cervical and endometrial location. Ovarian tuberculosis is less common; presented as a clinical, biological and radiological form highly suggestive of ovarian tumor. Several factors contributed to the increase, mainly including related immunosuppression syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. We report one case in a 24-year-old woman, single, followed for systemic lupus the initial interpretation of which, based on pleural and peritoneal exudate, showed suspected lateral uterine mass and significant elevated serum CA 125 level, mimicking disseminated ovarian carcinoma. Only after exploring laparotomy with biopsy was ovarian abscess tuberculosis identified, thus correcting the diagnosis. Its symptomatology was left after 2.5 months of antituberculosis multidrug. This is a rare disease whose diagnosis is histological and prognosis is dominated by the sequelae infertility.
The lack of modern equipment management and recycling of waste from the enrichment process metals made the Hydrometallurgy Lubumbashi is the cause of high concentrations of metals found today in the waters, soils and that plants, due to liquid effluent discharges untreated out of Copper and Cobalt production sites. Transects were established along rivers (Lubumbashi receiving effluents Society Terril de Lubumbashi (STL), and Oven Electric Lubumbashi (FEL) and Naviundu which it receives Chemical Of Africa (CHEMAF) in the to determine the levels of Cu content, Co, Pb, Fe in the samples of water, soil and Plant to highlight the potential risks of humans living in such an environment. The results of study indicate a critical environmental problem in view of the values obtained after laboratory analysis performed on water samples, soil and plant harvested on the ground.
Abrasive Water jet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. Major part of this technology is a very high-pressure beam of water and abrasives, which is used for machining. Abrasive water jet drilling of material involves the effect of a high velocity jet of water with entrained abrasive particles on to material to be drilled. This technology is widely used in industry for drilling, difficult to machine materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials, cleaning contaminated surfaces, etc. In the proposed work , the process parameters on surface roughness (Ra) which is an important drilling performance is measured in abrasive water jet drilling of AL6061 . Experiments will be conducted in varying, nozzle traverse speed, abrasive mass flow rate and standoff distance for drilling AL6061 alloy using abrasive water jet drilling process. The effects of these parameters on surface roughness will be studied based on the experimental results and useful recommendations will be given in order to select the suitable process parameters in abrasive water jet drilling of AL6061 alloy.
Laser beam welding is a non-conventional welding process with high applicability to produce quality welds. An attempt is made to weld TI6AL4V (Ti) and AA2024 (Al) dissimilar sheet metal joints and studies have been made to analyze the structure in the weldment. Structural studies such as macrostructure and micro studies are undertaken. The extend of a metal mix in the fusion zone is also studied using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Micro studies using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that higher weld speed brings grain refinement leading to the enhanced strength. SEM and EDS analysis further reveal that laser beam focusing from Ti side instead of Al side brings good quality weldment.
Laser beam welding of light weight and high strength Ti and Al alloy is very attractive for aerospace and automotive industries. The development of dissimilar welding is having a bearing on maximum temperature at the weldment and heat transfer rate in heat affected zone. Also grain coarsening may cause if the thermal cycle is not properly checked. For maintaining good mechanical properties of the weld joints, phase transformation during rapid thermal cycles is required. Such cycles occur during welding of Ti/Al sheets and heat treatment after welding. Ti and Al alloys are sensitive to heat due to their high difference in melting temperatures. This may cause changes in microstructures infusion and heat affected zones. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in the microstructures, heat affected zones of the TI6AL4V (Ti) and AA2024 (Al) alloy thin sheets welded joint using SEM and EDS analysis of different variants before and after precipitation hardening. Test results reveal that laser arc, focusing on Ti side gives better-refined age hardened structure than from Al side, and EDS analysis is also supporting the view.
Food and feeding habits of Hippopotamyrus psittacus (Boulenger, 1897; Pisces: Mormyridae) of Congo river has been undertaken from February to July 2007 by the stomach contents analysis. 44 H. psittacus ranging from 55 to 320 mm of length were captured in the Congo River (Wagenia Falls and Kikongo beach). The total length, the standard length and height of the body were measured with a ribbon meter and weighed using both bood scales of 0- 3000gr. Afterward, stomach contents were taken and conserved in the Laboratory for future analysis. Stomachs contents were examined using a binocular magnifying glass LEICA WILDHEERBRUGG Mg model with a magnification of 10 to x50. The stomachs contents analysis showed that H. psittacus is a carnivorous with an insectivorous tendency by feeding mainly on aquatic insects and other animals remnants. On the other side, the food regime of H. psittacus appeared more diversified during the relatively dry season periods. On the same way, the average stomach contents weight indicates that the feeding activity is more or less different during different season periods with an increasing feeding activity during the relatively dry season periods.
A study was conducted on the food ecology of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis of Biaro River and its Yoko tributary in the Yoko Forest Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It took place over a period of one year: from September 2008 to August 2009. The size and weight of 98 specimens of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis Giltay, 1930 sampled varies from 3.6 to 31.5 cm, with an average of 21.5 cm for the first parameter and of 14-364.4 g, that is, an average of 77.4 g for the second measurement. The analysis of 68 full stomachs of Ichtyoborus besse congolensis Giltay, 1930 under a dissecting microscope shows the dominance of animal origin preys with more or less 6 taxa against some traces of plant fragments. The composition of the diet according to seasonal periods, showed that during relatively dry seasonal period, males appeared to be fish (OCC = 9.6), Heteroptera (OCC = 3.2), Ephemeroptera (OCC = 3.2) and plant fragment eaters (OCC = 3.2), while the trace of molluscs is observed only in females (OCC = 33.3). Shrimps, fins and scales were found in both sexes, but in different proportions, because the large proportion of shrimps was observed in males (OCC = 83.9) while those of fins and scales were dominant in females. More, the emptiness rate was significant only in males. On the other hand, during the rainy season period, females become more opportunist in fish (OCC = 50), shrimps (OCC = 100), fins (OCC = 25) and scales (OCC = 50) than males with respectively 16.6 %, 76.6%, 6.6% and 36.6% of occurrence, and the rate of emptiness is higher in females. The food index (FI) and index of relative importance (IRI) of the main categories of preys; preys with high percentages are respectively fish (44%), shrimps (29%), animals fragments (26%). All the other categories of associated preys represent only 1%. It is the rainy period which offers many favorable opportunities for a good growth of fish species.
Through the paper on Laplace transformation integration published in CERIGO Journal N°2 pp. 75-86, senior lecturer David BYAMUNGU has shown basis actuality and the importance of Laplace transformation integration of some functions that do not accept usual methods integration such as integration of part and variable change; these notions being considered as one of most important mathematic theories.
In the same way, the present paper brings about and exhibits the importance of scientific interdisciplinarity showing that from transformational calculation of Laplace we can resolve problems linked with solution to problem of interdisciplinarity happening to show how transformational calculation of Laplace plays a very basic role in Mathematics (Analysis), Physics, electronics and other branches of science.
This paper aims at making an inventory of some new words that are already introduced and being used in the Kiswahili of Bukavu. Some native speakers are likely to fail understanding the meaning of some of the new words that are introduced in the language if they were not in the milieu at the introduction or birth of a new word. Those words can be used with the same meaning as in the original language or change the meaning. The different political conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo brought new words in the Kiswahili of Bukavu. I do not say that this work is a dictionary of the Kiswahili of Bukavu but a way of showing how the Kiswahili has undergone changes in Bukavu. This is due to new words which are taken here and there by people in their every day speech.
This study aims to improve knowledge on discharges of industrial effluents and their effects on receiving waters. It focuses on the analysis of physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, COD, BOD5 and SS). Water samples were taken at three industries (cosmetics, pharmaceutical and brewing) in the city of Kinshasa. The results showed high levels for the parameters measured in the majority of the stations. In addition to pH and temperature, the contents of COD, BOD5 and SS of the effluent is much higher than the limit values set by WHO for industrial discharges to receiving waters. This could be major health risks for the population of the study area.
This article presents a numerical study on natural convection heat transfer of nanofluid (Cu-water) in a square enclosure having a cold obstacle. The transport equations were solved using the finite difference formulation based on Alternating Direction Implicit method (ADI method). The method used is validated against previous works. Effects of various design parameters such as the height of the obstacle (0.125≤H≤0.5), Rayleigh number (〖10〗^3 ≤ Ra ≤ 〖10〗^6), and nanoparticles volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2) on the heat transfer are investigated. The results show that the heat transfer rate inside the enclosure increases by increasing the height of the cold block, the volume fraction of nanoparticles and Rayleigh number.
This project is part of the logistics control strategy implemented by the company mainly logistics costs represent a substantial percentage in its turnover.
This study is to control logistics costs plenty Company BIMO in order to have a follow-up of the latter.
In terms of results, the values found by the management control department (2616 Kdh) and what we assume ugly to the daily calculation tool (2624Kdh) is not critical, a difference of 8 Kdh; a difference measured at + 0.28% of the actual cost of which is the return of non-compliant commands, these results confirm that the implementation of the tool we developed control and monitoring of reliable and efficient logistics costs.
Boosting is the general method which converts any weak learning algorithm into strong learner in order to improve the accuracy. The limitations in boosting is overfitting on the training data and filtering out the correct data in the subsequent function since boosting concentrates on regions not predicted well by other learners. So, the cluster based boosting (CBB) approach is used to address limitations in boosting. In this paper, initially X-Means algorithm is used to cluster the data and the clusters are selectively boosted based on the additional structure information provided by clusters and previous function accuracy on the member data. To apply Cluster Based Boosting to the high dimensional data, dimensionality reduction technique is performed. In this paper, we apply Global Redundancy Minimization frame work which considers the redundancy of the feature with all other features. The selected features will contribute more mutual information for prediction. This frame work can be used with any other feature selection technique. We provide experimental results on various dataset. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Global redundancy framework and also effectiveness of Cluster Based Boosting with Global redundancy minimization framework than classifier with global redundancy minimization framework.
The question of leadership is a reality today in Africa. Proceedings are multiform and orientations are sometimes erroneous following feelings with which one deals this question. Can we say that man is indeed selfish and doesn't want to feel the woman in the domain of the management of politics? Is one able inversely to think that women themselves doesn't want or are they reticent to make their engagement in the politics? Are as much questions that could put himself.
To understand the sense and the level of engagement of a Congolese woman in particular and African in general, in the domain of the political management, the African tradition will be able to illuminate us. Thats why we will make some considerations about image that the African tradition made of the woman. This image that one makes about woman in africa, is it again able to hold in this century where the parity makes its resonance further "to free the captive of masculinity "? We think that in a State of right, everybody, man and woman, must bring his contribution through his expertises to really build a democratic State. And the woman must be from there really conscious and the society must prepare her to this new expertise that was previously out of preoccupation.
The current study aimed to examine the performance of some sand media filters supplied in an intermittent manner and which were filled with crushed shale, laterite and granite for the removal of orthophosphates from wastewater. These materials were selected based on their physicochemical properties and their potential for phosphorus removal. For this purpose, a series of sand filters shaped like a ‘’U’’ was carried out for domestic wastewater treatment. This filter system was made of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe and contained three compartments. Each compartment was composed of two columns with one of them filled with filtration medium (inlet filter) and the other containing the water (sedimentation zone). The influence of the type of the media and their grain size upon the kinetic of phosphorus removal in this system was investigated during two months. Results showed that for all the media filters the phosphorus removal yield increased when the medium grain size decreased. Concerning the type of filter media, filters filled with laterite (FGC) and shale (FGS) showed the best removal yield of orthophosphates and total phosphorus. However, it can be conclude that filters filled with laterite are more suitable for the phosphorus removal in a long time period.
The concept “branding” has drained major attention from researchers. Consumer behavior influence by the components of branding that are price, quality, and country of origin, status symbol, and family & friend’s reference. Today there are a variety of branded products. Therefore, keeping rapidity with this propagation of diverse brands in the market has become terrible for the simple consumer. Buyers view a price of the product’s as high, low or reasonable, which eventually effects on consumer behavior to buy the product. The consumer gives high importance to high quality products. Label of the country and the first choice of customer influence the purchase intention. People feel satisfaction when they recognized in society, friends and family in connection of specific brands, which is mostly used by a person. Now people want to have everything branded from the food they eat, clothes they wear to the decoration of their homes everything. The consumer behavior is also influenced by the group. It is argued that the important reference group of consumers is the friend & family, which affects their behavior and attitude towards brands and the selection of brands.
The customer’s behavior is to meet the needs and demands of him/her. Consumer behavior includes the selection of products and consumption of goods and services. The current literature demonstrates that all of the variables present in this paper have a relationship with consumer buying behavior.
This research undertaken in the town of Bukavu in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (RDC) tries to include/understand the motivations of the choice of the high-risk sites by the households and analizes the social, environmental and medical problems of the households living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu as well as the solutions under consideration by the latter. To collect the data, of the investigations by questionnaire near 390 households were realized. Software SPSS version 18.0 and analyzes it of contents were used to analyze the data. The results show the choice of the high-risk sites by the households on the high-risk sites is explained by the crisis of housing in the town of Bukavu, related on the deficiency of space face a demographic explosion, the growth the rural migration and on the exorbitant land price and the permissiveness of the administration. The populations living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu test serious problems of which the risk of slip of the grounds, the risk of the crumblings of the grounds, the risk of the floods, the risk of the accidents in the home, the risk of the falls, the risk of the depression of the grounds, the risk of the shocks. It is also observed on the high-risk sites with Bukavu, a high frequency of pathologies of which paludism, influenza, the typhoid fever, diarrheal diseases and respiratory diseases. These problems are due to the expansion of illegal human establishments where almost all the social, environmental and medical conditions are not met. It appears clearly that the majority of the solutions under consideration by the households living on the high-risk sites with Bukavu are not effective.
In this research a process model is proposed for software companies to overcome scrum process issues with the combination of agile model and appropriate lean principles without compromising its benefits and evaluate its success in five different software development companies. Scrum is widely used agile development method that put prominence on the cross functional and self-organized teams working in small items called sprints to regularly construct entire increment of product. It heavily depends upon the people and project due to flexibility in requirement change. Moreover, Software development managers, project managers and team lead engineers unsure how to apply agile methods with lean principles, how to minimized developer and team management overload and how to promote interest in team members. Many organization fail in getting success and proper benefits from scrum as it is difficult to handle large and complex project that involve weak value flow, team level and multiple team level issues. In software development to much developer overload due to extra features makes the project heavy weight. No proper model is yet introduced which implement lean principles in Agile model, If proper eliminate waste principles are used in scrum process it will provide better and light weight improved process.