The study of physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, and electrical conductivity) Rivers Water (Lubumbashi and Kafubu) remains essential insofar as it allows to highlight the current status of these two streams to impose safeguards that hardly renewable resource, for its better management. Thus a transect was established on the river starting from Lubumbashi Bridge Katuba (Station A) to downstream of the Kafubu River (station E). Measures on the physico-chemical parameters of the water in situ were performed in order to determine the current state of water (quality), the use by local residents and especially to establish responsibility in relation to the source of contamination (population or society). The results of measurements on the physicochemical parameters indicate strong pressure from rivers and Lubumbashi Kafubu due partly to the presence in front of the Terril Processing Society of Lubumbashi (STL). This by the spill hot liquid effluents untreated into the river Lubumbashi would be the origin of the change in the physical, chemical and biological conditions of aquatic creatures, preventing them from achieving their optimal life cycle. And secondly to the rejection by the people of Kamalondo common, Kenya, Katuba various waste (organic waste, electronic waste, chemical detergents) in the two rivers in the study. These wastes have contributed their degradation, to changes in physical and chemical parameters of water in particular pH and turbidity. This upstream to downstream class waters of two rivers in the study of inferior quality and should be subject to special monitoring.
The study concerns the analysis of physical-chemical parameters (T °, pH, C.E, Turbidity, DO) along the river Lubumbashi to diagnose its current state. Thus, in situ measurements were carried out on the river Lubumbashi divided into two bays. The results obtained show that station B where the discharge liquid effluent from the Slag Processing Society Lubumbashi (STL), an increase of the temperature, conductivity, and a decrease in dissolved oxygen content accompanied by a acid pH. Turbidity has very high values in all stations and above 50 NTU, which indicate very cloudy water condition. This could be justified by the study period, the rains and rivers receive various wastes. These contribute to increased turbidity of river water Lubumbashi. The conductivity values are also very high especially at the station B, and are positively correlated significantly with the pH as well as the concentration of ETM (Cu, Co, Pb, Fe) analyzed in the previous study. What justifies the low oxygen levels in the stations B, C, and D impacted by the hot liquid effluents discharged by the STL, this is confirmed by Hebert and Légaré who have shown that cold water contains a greater amount dissolved oxygen than warm water. The presence of small fish, frogs in the stations A and E at the level of dissolved oxygen of 4.2 and respectively 4.5 mg / L indicates the existence of an aquatic life. Demonstrating a self-purification of the river Lubumbashi.
Katanga is nowadays dominated by mining activities, due to the presence of rich deposits of copper ore mainly but also cobalt, zinc, germanium and many others. These deposits left on the Katangan Copperbelt arc attracted investment capital needed to implant metal production plants (Cu, Co,…). These plants are generally hydrometallurgical expected to use large amounts of water and generated waste in the form of large quantities of liquid effluents. Sustainable Environmental Management recommends the use of modern devices to recycle wastewater from hydrometallurgical plants; unfortunately this is not the case of the STL, which discharges into the river Lubumbashi. Its rich effluents discharged minerals in the water have contributed to the change of the physicochemical conditions of the river. contents of the increase is noted in trace metals such as Cu, Co, Pb and Fe in water, soil and plants along the river Lubumbashi, through one of the Kafubu before flowing in the watershed of the Kafubu. This places the river water Lubumbashi on the list of those subject to special treatment before being used for various needs. Unfortunately, the population ignorant and uninformed on the matter is in use in the risk of contracting various diseases.
The lack of modern equipment management and recycling of waste from the enrichment process metals made the Hydrometallurgy Lubumbashi is the cause of high concentrations of metals found today in the waters, soils and that plants, due to liquid effluent discharges untreated out of Copper and Cobalt production sites. Transects were established along rivers (Lubumbashi receiving effluents Society Terril de Lubumbashi (STL), and Oven Electric Lubumbashi (FEL) and Naviundu which it receives Chemical Of Africa (CHEMAF) in the to determine the levels of Cu content, Co, Pb, Fe in the samples of water, soil and Plant to highlight the potential risks of humans living in such an environment. The results of study indicate a critical environmental problem in view of the values obtained after laboratory analysis performed on water samples, soil and plant harvested on the ground.