The study on the state of the ideology of the genocide, twenty years after the genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi in 1994 in Rwanda, underlies causes which are at the origin of the obstinacy of its ideology. It also redraws the ways by which this ideology is propagated. So the current state of the genocidal ideology was assessed /evaluated within the Rwandan society to show its fatal impact. This study is very important because, twenty years after the genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi in 1994, there are still concrete cases of demonstrations of the genocide ideology through the all country. So, we find organizations in Rwanda which are dominated by an identical group, the threats, the hurtful words and the murders bound of the ideology of the genocide against the witnesses of the prosecutions and against the survivors of the genocide during the gacaca juridiction. To prove the obstinacy of the ideology of the genocide in the Rwandan community, an exploratory research approach of documents: parliamentary reports and qualitative analysis of the data and the interviews were used. To sum up, with the aim of warning and fighting against the ideology of the genocide, the prevention strategies of its spread were adopted.
The purpose of this research was to satisfy the customer by listing customer voice and to response positively on their demands. The software is designed for a system or to assist a system, the software development process is based on the analysis phase the next phases are design, code and testing. The system acceptability and usability teaches people to demand more that is why changes occurs during the developing cycle and after the delivery of product, so if change is not managed properly then it can affect the software overall performance and workload on the development team that have no benefit. To reduce these problem development team needs an effective change control model that have defined set of rules to implement change. The current study has been based over change indicators and their role in the general software change development. In this research an effective change control model is proposed, this model is based over the classification of the change, that model calculates the impact of a change and reduce time and cost of maintenance process. This model makes the software more customizable and adaptable moreover it increases the customer confidence on the software development team.
The Argan tree in southwest Morocco is characterized by fragmentation of its forest area and by its adaptability to all types of soils, which disrupts its spectral response. Owing to the complexity in these areas, mapping of the Argan tree facing serious problems when applying methods based on spectral information and ignore spatial information. In this paper, we examine the performance of the object -oriented approach with two satellite images of different spatial resolution (high and medium resolution). Next, we compare the results of object-oriented classification with those produced by the pixel approach. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the object-oriented classification with respect to different segmentation levels. This study shows that object oriented classification is more performance compared to the pixel approach for high spatial resolution images. The results obtained proved also that the object-oriented classification depended on the segmentation scale.
The increase in migration into urban cities in Nigeria has posed a challenge to the Nigerian government. This study access the causes of rural-urban migration in major cities in Nigeria of which Enugu Urban is a case study. There are several factor responsible for rural-urban migration which influence the migrant's migration status. The study attempts to find answers to research questions by using survey design and sampling techniques to collect data from 210 (153) respondents with the aid of a 10-item structured questionnaire and personal interview. The respondents comprise of heads of household of migrants' (remove this) in the study area. Data for this study were edited, coded and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that majority of the migrants migrated to continue their education rather than in search of employment as concluded by a lot of past studies. It also revealed that the impact of out-migration in the area includes: absence of youths to assist parents in their profession, lack of work force to work on farms, and desertion of the area by the youths as it affects the aged and children. The study recommends measures to limit rapid increase in urbanization, as well as strategies to reduce rural-urban migration and also profound ways of making the rural areas (include) comfortable for rural dwellers. Through government's support in the development and funding of small and medium scale rural enterprises, government should promulgate policies that will provide basic amenities in rural areas and finally higher school (tertiary institutions) such as polytechnics (include this) and universities should be sited in rural areas.
The present work was to study the diet of Lamprichthys tanganicanus, a new species observed in Lake Kivu. Fish were caught from 12 to 13 August 2007 and 23 January to 22 March 2012 in the coastal of Bukavu basin during a 24-hour cycle using gillnets and beach seine. Stomach contents were analyzed and identified. The index of occurrence, abundance, volumetric and food were calculated. The results obtained indicate that L. tanganicanus feeds to 99.4% of zooplankton (Copepods, 86.54%, Cladocera-11.43% and Rotifera-2.03%), to 0.25% of phytoplankton (Diatoms), to 0.13% of insects and to 0.22% of prey unidentified. Zooplankton constitutes the major prey (IA=53.59%) although its degree of importance varies according to gender of L. tanganicanus (male: IA=48.81% and female: IA=57.72%). Other preys are of secondary importance (IA˂ 10). This fish is zooplanktivorous giving it a diet similar to that of Limnothrissa miodon.
The present study was carried out to detect the effect of two Auxin namely dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on callus induction from cotyledon and hypocotyledon explants of cassia senna sp. Two explant from in vitro cassia micro plant were used for Callus induction on Murashige and Skoog media (MS) media, as basal media (control) or supplemented with different concentration of 2, 4, - D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). On MS basal media (without growth regulators) no callusing obtained. Cotyledon and hypocotyls explants obtained callusing on MS media supplemented with NAA and 2, 4-D at all concentration . Callus growth percentage of cotyledonary leaf segments is varied from 60% to 100%, while the callus growth percentage of hypocotyl segment explant is varied from 75%-to 100%. Highest percentage of callus (100%) was observed in medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l of the both NAA and 2.4-D. The both explant induce compact callus with all treatment .For callus color , cotyledon explant produced yellowish callus with the both auxin , on the other hand hypocotyls explant produced green to light green callus The highest callus degree (2.55±0.11) was obtained in MS media supplemented with 2.5 mg/l NAA by cotyledon explant , followed by (2.45± 0.15) induced in MS media fortified with 2.5 mg/l NAA(the same treatment) from hypocotyl explant, during same period of time(14 day).
The objective of this work was to carry out a financial profitability analysis of truck farmings especially those of cabbages of China and headed cabbages in Lubumbashi in order to encourage the truck farmers to invest in these cultivations. The studied parameters relate to the socio demography, the production costs, the surface, the output, selling the prices, the incomes and the profit margins. The results showed that there are 86, 7% women in the production of cabbage of China and 53% men for headed cabbage. The main production cost of cabbage returns to the agricultural inputs, respectively 78% and 84,5% for cabbage of China and headed cabbage. The occasional paid labour presents 22% and 15,5% successively for cabbage of China and headed cabbage. On a surface of 15m2, the headed cabbage generates a benefit of 23,1±2,4 $ whereas the cabbage of China gives 13,6±1,7 $ of it. Each dollar invested for cabbage of China and headed cabbage brings back respectively 2,3 and 2,7$. The headed cabbage appears profitable because it translates a financial rate of profitability of 275% ˃230,5% for cabbage of China. Nevertheless; the possibility of producing cabbage of China 3 or 4 times a year makes it competitive. The limit of this study is that we cannot assess land cost, cost of agricultural materials and family labour because of the phenomenon of mutual aid at the truck farmers
As part of the management of weeds common bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a study of the effects of two methods of weed control on grain yield of 3 varieties of common bean was conducted at the research station INERA Kipopo. The experimental design was a split-plot design with 3 replications and 3 blocks, as the main factor varieties and secondary modes weeding, observations were: the number of days to flowering; number of days to pod; number of days for the filling of pods; number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod; weight of 100 seeds; the yield of the crop. The results obtained revealed that only the variety is distinguished from APN130 Kapira D6Kenya and share his great influence on the number of pods per plant; number of seeds; 100 seed weight and yield. No interaction of two factors was observed in wholes settings, however weeding methods have influenced the performance of which the highest was obtained by manual weeding with APN 130, two manual weedings are sufficient for the mastery of weeds. For cons, the dose of 3 l / ha basagran did not provide good control of weeds which 7 were resistant. However the combination of basagran to another active ingredient would be desirable to ensure better management.
Causes of mortalities observed in caviaculture are badly known even ignored by breeders in Sud-Kivu precisely in Walungu area. Thus, we contemplated to have a study in order to characterize ectoparasitosis in this breeding by emphasizing on their symptoms, the identification cutanous scratching and harvest of crust and hair of guinea-pig submitted on the laboratory analysis, suggesting some recommendation especial hygienic adapted to the small breeders in the peasant area by taking into account a test of heal with palmist oil associated with kerosene. All that in order to manage the risks of infestations which can harmer even human beings, because these sicknesses are wellknown as zoonoses. Our study was applieds in this center of Walungu area where we have first isolated the sick guinea-pig on which we took away cutanous scratching product and hair on animal met and having symptoms of scabies wiich guinea-pigs constitute the fist pattern. The second lot constitutes the hair harvested on guinea-pigs in the pilot farm, in order to characterize ectoparasites by identifying in laboratory where we have put our emphasis of ectoparasits Sarcoptes scabei and Demodex sp type but as well their frequency which vary according to different farm, ages and sex. Notice that the breeding system which remains traditional is at the origin of dissemination of these ectopasasits mainly if some hygienic rules are not respected. They are the purchasing in the market or in the farms infested, the donation followed by sudden introduction of guinea-pigs in inhurt breeding without quarantine at fist and lack of heal application of these parasits which attack human being. The sanitary care taken for in a mix of 70% of oil and 30% of kerosene renew heath of beasts.
Different studies have been done in different parts of the world in regard to performance and employment of youths, yet little has been done on factors influencing career choices in tertiary institutions. As such, the study set out to investigate factors influencing career choices in tertiary institutions in Bungoma County. Based on the study, this paper examines how gender issues determine the choice of careers by students in tertiary institutions in Kenya. The study was limited to fifteen youth polytechnics in Bungoma County with an assumption that the respondents would be willing to give their views freely. The study used a survey design in which descriptive statistics was employed. The target population was 15 youth polytechnics, with 1340 students of which a sample population of 140 students was selected. The study used a questionnaire for collection of data. The study results showed that gender issues influence the choices of career among students in youth polytechnics. The study recommends some measures to be undertaken to reduce the current problems caused by poor career choices in tertiary institutions. These include advising Ministry of Education to set up bridging courses, workshops and seminars in tertiary institutions to help students project on careers which would march with the job market the time they complete their studies. The study is significant as it can benefit the youths to understand the careers to choose and help the government come up with strategies to help young people make right career choices in institutions of learning.
A retrospective study on the reasons of seizures of organs of animals done at the public slaughterhouse of Blessed has been led on one period of five years since 2007 till 2011. To shortcoming an analysis of its results we look for results to seizures meats characteristics whose energetic value should have suved the cellular metabolism, it has been noted a number very important of carcasses on which have been achieved of the partial seizures. A total of 3077 cases that corresponded to 2835,75 kg of meat seizure have been observed during the study; cattle covered the biggest proportions. The losses in animal proteins were therefore real. Being about the spoil types, fifteen motives constituted the reason of seizure of one or the other of the organs on the whole in the species bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine. The bad bled, the distomatose, the pulmonary emphysema, the cysticercose, the caseification, the abscesses, the adhesions, the dotted liver, the tuberculose, the blow up spleen, the angiocholite, the kidney stones, the hydronephrose, the metastrongylose and the verminous nodules. Among the four studied species, the bovine was the most interesting for which one noted 2197 cases, either 71,4%, in case of pig, 722 cases (23,46%). Among the small ruminants, the goat covered 3,37% and sheep only achieved 1,75%. According spoil frequencies, there are no differences statically. Considering the category of meats seized, it is useful to signal that most came from the red viscera. In a general manner, the yearly averages were respectively of 29,4cas and 47,5Kg, numbers that are spectacular enough on time where the needs in meat are increasing.
The ability of actinomycetes to produce extracellular antifungal metabolites against fungal strains causing damages in the wood of the old Medina of Fez has been investigated. Two Streptomyces sp were screened for the inhibition of wood decay. Screening for antifungal activity of actinomycetes was performed with dual methods: the method of disk diffusion and the method of agar blocks. The result indicates that the crude extract of Streptomyces sp had a broad spectrum against fungi causing wood decay and inhibits their growth for more than 15 weeks; therefore it's could be an interesting source of antifungal bioactive substances.
The objective of this contribution is to study the effect of different concentrations of a systemic herbicide Cossack on some antioxidant activities among the durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The results indicate the existence of an oxidative stress generated by the herbicide on the varieties studied, proportional to the concentration used. Faces of the stress present, plants of wheat mobilize antioxidant systems different from one variety to another allowing you to determine the response and the degree of tolerance of each cultivar.