Milking as practiced in farms without devices ensuring hygienic measures in the highlands of Mulume-Munene in South Kivu drew our attention to study the hygienic quality of milk according to milking mode. Hand milking in most cases in an open kraal or barn is prone to many risks of microbial contamination. The results show that despite the existence of total coliforms, faecal coliforms, staphylococci and streptococci below the average threshold in gross value, especially less than 1x106 and 1x102 / CFU, there is no tuberculosis bacillus. Note that this milk is directly consumed fresh or marketed after processing into curd, That is "Mashanza".
The causes of animal organ seizures at the Ruzizi II public slaughterhouse (ELEKAT) and their biological consequences are a major global concern (veterinary-biological-financial-social), which attracts the attention of more than one researcher and for which a record of considerable losses of meat, but also silver remains unknown until now. This in fact led us to carry out a retrospective study over a period between 2013 and 2015.
To this end, our working methodology was based on the survey carried out at the public abattoir Ruzizi II of Bukavu, commonly known as Elekat (Katanga Breeding) during the aforementioned period.
The results obtained are as follows:
- 20 different causes of meat seizure were inventoried, most of which are diseases. Among these causes, Distomatosis (or Fasciolosis) is dominant.
- The actual beef losses amount to 6256 Kg for the period of study from 2013 to 2015. The Liver is the most seized organ, of the order of 4388 Kg for 4 reasons including Distomatose, Echinococcosis, Cysticercosis and Hepatic Abscesses.
- Heart and Spleen have small weights in meat seizures of 0.5 kg each, and for a single cause (Pericarditis for the Heart and Abscess for Spleen)
- Purchase of meat inspected by the veterinary service
- Sensitization of butchers on the cleanliness of their equipment, including clothing, in order to avoid contamination of the meat.
- The continuation of the study in the other slaughterhouses and killings of the city and which, moreover, are more archaic, for the progress of science and veterinary public health.
- A mini laboratory is essential to the slaughterhouse to improve the detection of seizures and to count down the epidemiological situation of the provenance areas, as the region is part of the overall context of the Great Lakes subregion ( CPEGL).
The environment in the country is threatened particularity in Sud-Kivu in different aspects and one of them which must be taken with care is the pollution made by plastics. Over their presence in dumps, there plastic rubish are found everywhere in roads, streets, avenues even in roads which lead to villages. In addition, these rubbish are being found in the fields and pastures. After having observed most of beasts with the presence of strange plastics, an hypothesis given by some farmers is that there were plastics covered with oil and salt according to their opinion. Surely, scientifically we wondered if humanly speaking that is possible whereas these farmers provide cows to butchery. There farmers make their cows swallow plastic materials in order to bring them elsewhere to be bred. This study was done in order to comprehend exactly what is taking place and the consequences of plastic rubbish and ingested clothes. With the sample of 1270 beasts slaughtered in the four slaughterhouses, we got 179 beasts having strange elements : 13,4% at Mugogo, 12,1% at Mudaka, 14,7% at Beach Muhanzi and 22,5% specialy for little ruminant at Beach Muhanzi/ Kachoma. During the research of diagnosis protocol on an animal living emaciated, the reductions approved of ruminating constitute presumptive elements in our area deeply polluted. The scarcity of farming lands and the one of forage (lack of integral agriculture) situation which render beast to be vulnerable on pica (sickness of flesh). From there primary results, 24 beasts were diagnosed and confirmed after "laparotomie" in investigation followed by a "rumenotomie". A experiment of healing by administrating beer "coca-cola" in its selling states destined in human beverage does not give any result as it is the case of "emollients" and "laxactifs". This drink doesn't affect these plastic rubbish in vitro conditions of dose in the mixture of a rumenal sac and coca-cola diluted rate of 50%.
Causes of mortalities observed in caviaculture are badly known even ignored by breeders in Sud-Kivu precisely in Walungu area. Thus, we contemplated to have a study in order to characterize ectoparasitosis in this breeding by emphasizing on their symptoms, the identification cutanous scratching and harvest of crust and hair of guinea-pig submitted on the laboratory analysis, suggesting some recommendation especial hygienic adapted to the small breeders in the peasant area by taking into account a test of heal with palmist oil associated with kerosene. All that in order to manage the risks of infestations which can harmer even human beings, because these sicknesses are wellknown as zoonoses. Our study was applieds in this center of Walungu area where we have first isolated the sick guinea-pig on which we took away cutanous scratching product and hair on animal met and having symptoms of scabies wiich guinea-pigs constitute the fist pattern. The second lot constitutes the hair harvested on guinea-pigs in the pilot farm, in order to characterize ectoparasites by identifying in laboratory where we have put our emphasis of ectoparasits Sarcoptes scabei and Demodex sp type but as well their frequency which vary according to different farm, ages and sex. Notice that the breeding system which remains traditional is at the origin of dissemination of these ectopasasits mainly if some hygienic rules are not respected. They are the purchasing in the market or in the farms infested, the donation followed by sudden introduction of guinea-pigs in inhurt breeding without quarantine at fist and lack of heal application of these parasits which attack human being. The sanitary care taken for in a mix of 70% of oil and 30% of kerosene renew heath of beasts.
A retrospective study on the reasons of seizures of organs of animals done at the public slaughterhouse of Blessed has been led on one period of five years since 2007 till 2011. To shortcoming an analysis of its results we look for results to seizures meats characteristics whose energetic value should have suved the cellular metabolism, it has been noted a number very important of carcasses on which have been achieved of the partial seizures. A total of 3077 cases that corresponded to 2835,75 kg of meat seizure have been observed during the study; cattle covered the biggest proportions. The losses in animal proteins were therefore real. Being about the spoil types, fifteen motives constituted the reason of seizure of one or the other of the organs on the whole in the species bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine. The bad bled, the distomatose, the pulmonary emphysema, the cysticercose, the caseification, the abscesses, the adhesions, the dotted liver, the tuberculose, the blow up spleen, the angiocholite, the kidney stones, the hydronephrose, the metastrongylose and the verminous nodules. Among the four studied species, the bovine was the most interesting for which one noted 2197 cases, either 71,4%, in case of pig, 722 cases (23,46%). Among the small ruminants, the goat covered 3,37% and sheep only achieved 1,75%. According spoil frequencies, there are no differences statically. Considering the category of meats seized, it is useful to signal that most came from the red viscera. In a general manner, the yearly averages were respectively of 29,4cas and 47,5Kg, numbers that are spectacular enough on time where the needs in meat are increasing.