Les tiques et surtout leur mode de reproduction par espèces ont fait l’objet de notre élevage, nous référant a de l’expérience de l’institut zoologique de Neuchâtel en Suisse en 1980. Le présent travail a pour objectif de faire un approfondissement de connaissance sur la bio-écologie des tiques du Kivu : Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (NEUMANN 1901), Boophilus decoloratus (KOCH 1844), Haemaphysalis leachi leachi (AUDOUIN 1827) et Hyalomma truncatum (KOCH 1844), cela pour nous permettre de connaitre comment faire leur capacité de reproduction selon les espèces enfin de prévenir la lutte. Dans l’ordre de leur ponte nous avons successivement : Haemaphysalis leachi leachi donne 4921 œufs, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 3508 œufs, Hyalomma truncatum donne 2743 œufs et Boophilus decoloratus donne 1801 œufs. Les œufs ont des colorations beige mais qui évolue vers beige foncé vers la maturité.
The problem facing the ego as a subject in the world is existential. Posed from a phenomenological point of view in Fichte, this problem is not only likely to make the self a subject in the sole intension of distinguishing it from the object, from the nonego, from the world, but to show that there is a position originating from the self, from the world and from what has already been posited. Thus, any synthesis obtained from the self goes beyond any gaze of the given, of the being in order to grasp it in the experience of the identity of the subject and the object. The synthesis of this identity highlights the need for philosophy to have the basic principles on which it now rests as a new way of philosophizing after Kant. Thus, the modalities that contribute to this way of philosophizing will make of the ego, especially from Fichte, the backbone in the reflection on the correlation conscience-world. It's about making me a subject in the world, an absolute subject.
Nowadays the use of metals or even amalgam in dentistry is still relevant in some countries. These materials, widely used for making crowns and bridges placed in the mouths of our patients, are responsible for local and general adverse effects. In order to respect the principles of energetic dentistry and to meet the esthetic expectations of patients of our time, all-ceramic rehabilitations must be included in the therapeutic arsenal of any practitioner concerned with preserving the overall health of his patient. The aim of this work is to illustrate a modern clinical and technical decision-making approach, respecting the illusion of the natural and the morpho-functional project in order to achieve a fixed prosthetic rehabilitation looking for the fusion between neuro-musculo-articular balance, equilibrium smile and overall health of the patient.
Corneal neovascularization is defined as the appearance of vessels within the normally avascular corneal stroma. It is the end stage of most inflammatory diseases of the anterior segment. In recent years, several studies have shown encouraging results in the treatment of corneal neovessels by anti-VEGF.
We conducted a prospective study in ophthalmology B, based on the study of the efficacy and tolerance of intra-stromal injections of bevacizumab in 10 patients with corneal neovessels with a follow-up of 6 months.
This article studies the elimination of fluorine in aqueous solution by calcined bone has been implemented. Series of experiments were carried out to study the influence of certain parameters on the adsorption rate such as: particle size, stirring speed, contact time, adsorbent mass and pH. The results obtained show that the calcined bones adsorb the fluorine quite rapidly during the first minutes to reach a defluorination efficiency of 85% after 60 minutes of contact between the adsorbent-adsorbate. The kinetics of adsorption of fluorine by calcined bones shows a better fit to the second order model with a regression coefficient of 0.9919. The tests carried out make it possible to determine the type of adsorption, which is in agreement with the BET model with a regression coefficient very close to unity. The thermodynamic parameters obtained reveal that the adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic.
This study intended to make a diagnosis of the technical teaching in the city of Bondo. To arrive there, we interrogated the chiefs of school establishments, the titular teachers of the courses of options of these establishments and, we resorted to a grid of observation to identify some relative information to existence and the quality of the present school infrastructures.
At the end of this investigating, it proves that the technical schools of Bondo miss the minimum for its good working (lack of furnitures, insufficiency of manuals, of shops, of the local, etc.). Broadly speaking and fattening pond, one notices that these schools are not qualified to organize the technical options, which require the daily practice on behalf of the teacher and pupils. Even though some schools provide effort again in order to improve their practice, the situation is not encouraging.
As consequence, we must pull a lot of attention on the formation of teachers, the equipment of the schools in infrastructures, movable and manual because the school results depend on some.
In the region where Banana tree Bacterial Wilt Disease has decimated banana tree plantations after many years, peasants who have only this culture as source of income co-op do not know what to do in order to cope with this continuing plague which lasts for more than a decade. Nevertheless with more or less resistant varieties including the FHIA-25 in the introduction, hope is allowed. However, in the process of planting plantations, regardless of fertilization and which our study has focused on the organic and mineral amendment, nothing can open on an issue to restore the banana fields around the huts in the agglomerated villages. Therefore, soil enrichment based on Tithonia, cow manure and ash is a way out among alternatives allowing farmers to resume the restoration of their banana plantation’s heritage. The results are promising in an endemic zone of banana wilt, sign of devastation, the respect of settlement with organic manure coupled with a versatile fertilizer produced with Tithonia and wooden ash, banana growing rapidly and the vigor of the plants presents an identical aspect to that under the natural conditions, with more performance on soils recognized as being too poor.
The present paper examine the impact of class composition on achievement of the fourth primary year pupils in french understanding of Bunia and Kisangani, two cities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
To arrive there, we exploited the data of the Service of Scheduling and Assessment in Education of the University of Kisangani. After analysis of the data, it proves that 45% of variance of the performances is located to the level of the schoolchildren and 55% to the level of the class.
While introducing the individual variables in the model, these last explain 12% of the total variance of the performances of the schoolchildren in french understanding. While considering every hierarchical level, the variance non explained by the individual features rises respectively to 43% and 45% to the levels of the pupil and the class. Of all variables of the class composition introduced in this survey, only two among them display meaningful interrelationships with the results of the pupils. It is about the initial level of the pupils and the language spoken in family.
Milking as practiced in farms without devices ensuring hygienic measures in the highlands of Mulume-Munene in South Kivu drew our attention to study the hygienic quality of milk according to milking mode. Hand milking in most cases in an open kraal or barn is prone to many risks of microbial contamination. The results show that despite the existence of total coliforms, faecal coliforms, staphylococci and streptococci below the average threshold in gross value, especially less than 1x106 and 1x102 / CFU, there is no tuberculosis bacillus. Note that this milk is directly consumed fresh or marketed after processing into curd, That is "Mashanza".
Many species of domesticated animals are raised for food. Livestock farming methods have also changed more significantly to produce and satisfy the demand for meat. In an area where the demographic pressure is exponential, the rural population is engaged in raising pigs, 75.6% of whom are determined to opt for stabling when 22.2% despite the conviction, continue to practice semi-stabling in order to cope with the difficulties of access to feed and quality agricultural waste. Nevertheless, 2.2% resort to caretaking in public places and trails at the time when this breeding system carries animal diseases, 31% of which are African swine fever and which decimates entire herds, 24.4% of verminosis and particularly zoonoses.
In all the cases, the breeders do not have any standard of premixing yet based on local ingredients in supplementation of the fodder that seems to be the staple food. As a result, work to improve the growth curve of animals in relation to a balanced diet remains poorly known by farmers in rural areas. This can be summed up in three technical, economic and social constraints without which this breeding cannot prosper.
This paper describes the results of the pupils of two cities of the oriental province/RDC, while being based on the data of a longitudinal study, led by the Service of Scheduling and assessment in Education of the University of Kisangani, since 2010.
Being based on the French understanding, we noted that the level of the pupils is weak. In spite of it, some variables permit to predict this output, like language spoken in family and the pupil's initial level (pretest). A pupil who speaks French in family is superior, as regards to output, in relation to his colleague who speaks others language; also, more a pupil's level is raised to the pretest, more his output is better at the end of school year.
It is necessary to show that the increase disadvantages pupils because a repeater is less effective than a non repeater.
Since 1980, the National Park of Garamba is registered on the list of goods of the world heritage because of the presence of populations of rare emblematic species and threatened a population of elephants notably (Loxodotaafricana) and the last populations of giraffes of Congo (Giraffa camelopardalis congoensis) and of white rhinoceroses of the North (ceratotheriusimum cotton).
Our objective in this work is to Surround all the problematic bound to the human activities exercised in the domains of hunt of Gangala Bodio na and of Mondo Missa, to value the impact of the all these activities on the conservation of the park.
Thus, in spite of the different laws on the activities regulating the domains of hunts of Mondo Missa and Gangala na Bodio, there are always subversive activities that the convenient population, between other the exploitation of woods and ores.
The rate of annual deforestation in DRC passed from 0.44% (for the period of 2000 to 2010) to 1.25% (for the period of 2010 to 2014) estimates FAO. The danger is thus so eminent that it is important to act urgently. The objective of our research was to understand the challenges of the irrational use of the forest resources with Kamituga, in the province of the South-Kivu and to propose tracks of solution for a sustainable development. An investigation was conducted near 765 people, was coupled with the interviews and documentation. The results raise that the number of forest owners doubled between 2014 and 2017 passing from 620 to 1200. The population to 52.2% is justified by the research of the money for survival while 83.7% live in the ignorance of the laws protecting the environment. The negative impact of deforestation is felt to 79.5% on the natural environment and 20.5% on the human environment. To cure it the awakening and the action of the actors concerned at the local level, national and world prove to be essential.
In the search for solutions to increase the productivity of the potato "Kinigi variety", two parameters have been considered, namely the spacing and variance fertilization of two types of fertilizer and three spacings. The results show that with different spacings, application of compost and guinea pig dung, yield increases in number of tubers and by weight, which would contribute to the fight against food insecurity in the region.
The artemisin based-therapeutic combinations (ATC) are an approach developed to solve the malaria parasite chemo-resistance problem in endemic area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors associated to the weak proportion of children under the age of 5 years treated with the ATC against malaria. The data collected on a sampling of 9177 treated children in 13 health centers in Gbado-Lite city in 2014 have been analyzed with the help of Epi-info software package (version 3.5.4). The number of children treated with the ATC is weak (58.9%) in spite of the availability in ATC (87.7%). The socio-demographic factors and the life styles of the ATC prescribers are not associated to the weak proportion of the children treated with ATC (p>0.5). Nevertheless, a strong non-significant association is observed with alcohol consumption by the prescribers of ATC (p>0.72). A weak non-significant association is noted in male (p=0.52) and with the seniority of the prescribers (p=0.71). The factors like age, marital status, monthly income, study level, lodging and consumption of tobacco are not associated with the weak proportion of children treated with ATC. The influence of the number of staffs working in the health centers on the proportion of children treated with ATC is variable according to the considered structures of health. It is therefore desirable to develop advantage of the strategies for a rational prescription in order to guarantee a better malaria treatment in children at Gbado-Lite city.
The extradition is an international procedure, instituted on basis of a convention or an international agreement, by which a sovereign State called required State, accepts to deliver an individual being on its territory to another State or to an international repressive jurisdiction, applicant, to the ends of judiciary pursuits (judgment or execution of the pain). The extradition is a judiciary collaborative mechanism between the States to fight the cross-border criminality. It is demonstrated through the present study that the Congolese right doesn't ignore this mechanism because there are international or national legal rules on this matter exists. Of the exam of the legal instruments, it is demonstrated that the extradition in Congolese right obeys, like in other modern States, to the conditions of bottom and shape of which the non-observance would drive to the dismissal of the extradition demand. It was shown in this study that the extradition is of the Government's expertise that has the last decision, which decision escapes completely the jurisdictional control even the administrative one. However, none would ignore the intervention of the Congolese judge on the subject, which intervention appears by the exequatur of the judicial pieces that comes with the demand of extradition and possibly by the arrest of the person needed. Besides, the politicization of the Congolese judicial system does not permit other States to extradite toward the DRC in spite of demands formulated in good and due procedure. To allow the institution Extradition to assure its role fully, it is clear that the DR Congo proceeds to the reform of its extradition related to right while straightening its political and judiciary system on the one hand and while concluding conventions of extradition on the other hand in the under sub-regional and regional settings.
The Convention of the United Nations relative to the child's rights is the international legal Setting of reference for all question of the childhood. The Democratic Republic of Congo as having left taking since a lot of years, had to get in order taking its content in this legislation. This obligation has been executed with the advent of the law no 09/001 of January 10, 2009 carrying protection of the child. This legal setting had foreseen to put on foot of the judicial and administrative structures to attend this category of no one once it puts the act that the law qualifies default because its vulnerability imposes to reserve him a particular treatment. But practically, the applicability comes up against an unspeakable cacophony. On the one hand, in other cities and territories of the country, one simply notes the absence of these structures and on the other hand, it is a heterogeneous mixture between the jurisdictions of common right and jurisdiction for miners, procedure of common right and special procedure for miners. All these difficulties make that these miners don't benefit from an aid that the international and national texts reserve to them.
In order to better constrain the utility of multispectral datasets in the characterization of surface materials, Landsat 8 data were evaluated in the discrimination of geological classes in KISANTU and its vicinity. Ground-based measurements collected from the study area highlight the importance of limestone in that area. The spatial distribution of exposed lithologies in the study area was determined through an image resulting from a band ratio (band 7/band 6) that shows the distribution of clays coming from the alteration of the rocks below; and another image using a band ratio transform (band 6/band 7) to identify limestone. Despite some shortcomings coming from the unsupervised classification, the merging of band ratio and the principal component analyze gives an overall representation of the spatial distribution of exposed geological materials in the study area.
The bioaccumulation of four heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803), Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus, 1758) and Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger, 1897) fluently fished and sold in Kingabwa district (Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo). At first, the results of physico-chemical analysis of water of inspected sites (2) revealed that the values of pH and temperature are in the standards as recommended by WHO and FAO, while the conductivity as well as the dissolved total solids in inspected sites are very weak.. Yet, the two sites are polluted by heavy metals. Secondly, the dosage of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that all tested fish are polluted. However, the Cadmium has not been detected in the muscles of three fish: Clarias gariepinus, Coptodon rendalli and Mormyrops anguloides. Meanwhile, Coptodon rendalli species didn't reveal any presence of Lead in its muscles. The results obtained show that the consumption of these fish can represent a health risk for the exposed populations notably fishers and their family who consume these fish at least once per day. Thus, by formulating the hypothesis that the fisher or his family is the more exposed and while increasing the quantity of fish for example from 0.025 kg/j to 0.5 kg/j, we can note that the coefficient of danger is superior to 1 for the cadmium and then the danger becomes apparent. It is therefore desirable that the Democratic Republic of the Congo authorities can develop a better policy for the management of the interior waters in order to avoid possible health problems linked to the pollutions of these waters.
Oil blocks have been delimited by parallels and meridians squares since years up to now in DRC. This technics is not suitable and common, that is why in order to better limit the different oil blocks in the West-Congolian sedimentary basin, we used the Lansat 8 data to bring out lineaments which help to set geological structural model. Lineaments probably coming from tectonic movements have been identified throughout the surface of lithological units in the West-Congolian basin. The principal component analysis, the band ratio and some filterings helped to get more details about that. Data coming from existing maps combined with groundtruth data have been compared to teleanalytic data.