The compatibility of two species of Trichoderma spp. was tested in vitro and in soil with different fertilizing elements (N, P, K, Ca) added to increase concentrations in the solid potato-based medium.
After 48 h of incubation, CaCl2, KNO3 and KH2PO4 at 400 mg/L showed an inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Trichoderma harzianum strain (Tcomp) and Trichoderma viride strain (TV1) compared to controls varying respectively from 9.66 to 28.33 and 10.33 to 29.16 / 90.00 mm. For cons, the NH4NO3, (NH4) 2SO4 and CaSO4, 2H2O had a mean toxicity against the two strains tested, mycelial growth was ranged from 50.50 to 64.00 / 90 mm. After 7 days of incubation, both strains were able to produce conidia; their numbers have varied respectively from 6369.00 to 117833.20 / 245843.00 conidia / mm2 and 6793.00 to 67221.70 / 649635.00 conidia / mm2.
The pH was slightly basic in the potato liquid medium before culturing and after the addition of the products at different concentrations (7.64-8.60). The pH became acid after culturing of the two strains; it varied between 3.13 and 5.85. Fresh weights were low in the presence of 50 mg / L of Calcium Chloride and medium for other products from 0.01 to 2.79 and 3.04 to 6.69 respectively compared to control 7.31 - 9.28 mg. Dry weights were low in the presence of the tested products compared to controls from 7.31 - 9.28 mg.
In soil, both strains were able to grow on barley straw fragments at a concentration of 400 mg/L. The colonization percentage varied respectively between 63% and 94%.
Two strains of Trichoderma showed substantial compatibility with the most part of fertilizers tested in vitro and a great capacity to keep the soil in the presence of different elements. Thus, the antipollution properties of Trichoderma spp. can be used in agriculture in soils with excess of nitrogen and phosphate. They also have the ability to increase the capacity of nutrient uptake by plants.
Lycium europaeum L., an economically important traditional medicinal plant, which can be used for re-vegetation purposes under various ecological factors due to its ability to form an association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Our study presents a synthesis of information and hypotheses found in different consulted scientific studies regarding the importance of this plant, its adaptability potentials and its biological characteristics, in order to provide scientific support to encourage the cultivation and valorization of this plant in Morocco.
The aim of this study is to detect in vitro activity of pectinolytic enzymes (trans-eliminase polygalacturonase and pectin) and cellulolytic five fungal species responsible for rotting apples: Alternaria alternata (E and S), Penicillium sp. (P), Trichoderma sp. (Tr), Trichothecium roseum (Tc) and Fusarium avenaceum (F).
Lyase activity petine of these fungi is low during the first days of pectin degradation process but increases with age of cultures. The most important activity was recorded in Alternata alternata (0,146 U) and Trichothecium roseum (0,100 U) followed by Trichoderma sp. (0,078 U). The lowest activity was observed in Penicillium sp. and Fusarium avenaceum.
The estimated activity of polyganlagturonase is important during the first days of pectin degradation by fungi and decreases during this process. Alternata showed a very significant activity (0,1467U) compared to other fungi. However, the polygalacturonase activity is very lost in Trichothecium roseum (0,0012U) and the important cellulolytic activity was detected in Fusarium avenaceum (0,0384 U).
The work presented here aims to establish, from the bibliography, inventory of endomycorrhizal species reported in the rhizosphere of the date palm. 89 fungal species have been reported across the world (Egypt, Oman Soltanat, Soutern Arabia, India, London, and the Arabian Peninsula). Morocco is represented by 29 species, reported in the regions of Tafilalet and Zagoura. The Glomus genus was the most represented, with 34 species followed by Scutellospora with 21 species and species of the genus Acaulospora, with 11 species. It then comes the genus of Entrophospora (5 species), Gigaspora (4 species) and Diversispora (3 species). The Rhizophagus genera are each represented by two species. By cons, a single species has been cited for each Sclerocystis, Septoglomus, Paraglomus, Ambispora, Funneliformis, Claroideglomus and Archaeospora genera.
The effects of metal ions (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn) on the life cycle and ability of two Trichoderma species to compete in the soil were searched.
The strains of T. harzianum (Tcomp) and T. viride (TV1) presented a slowed mycelial growth (respectively 31 - 22 and 57.16 - 59.33 mm; 20 - 14.76 and 17.16 - 14.83 mm) on agar media supplemented with 200 and 400 mg/L copper and ferrous sulphate salts. By cons, in the presence of different concentrations of magnesium, zinc and manganese sulfates, mycelial growth varied between 66.66 and 90 mm compared to controls. Conidia production of the two strains was null in the presence of 400 mg/l of FeSO4 and reduced in the presence of different concentrations of other salts varying between 0.37 and 1.97 105 spores/mm2 compared to the controls, 4,50 105 spores/mm2 for Tcomp et 4,10 105 spores/mm2 for TV1
The neutral pH became acid after culturing of the two strains in the liquid medium with or without the test salts varying between 3.75 and 5.71, except in the presence of TV1 in media supplemented with FeSO4 and MgSO4. In addition, the two Trichoderma strains showed a very strong saprophytic soil activity exceeding 80% at a concentration of 100 mg/L of the salts tested.
The ability of strains of Trichoderma to grow up and to show great saprophytic activity in the presence of metal ions and other soil fungi, suggests the possibility of using them for the remediation of contaminated soil.
The plants of two strawberry varieties ‘Fortuna and Festival’ were inoculated with two isolates of Verticillium dahliae ‘VFF and VDS’, isolated from strawberry fields lacated in the Gharb region (Morocco). The monitoring of the symptoms evolution of the Verticillium wilt, in fuction of time, on the inoculated plants has allowed to note different types of symptoms: Early yellowing followed by necrosis, stunting, wilting and death of plants especially in plants of the Fortuna variety.
Calculated severity indices and the coefficients of infection, seven days after inoculation of strawberry plants are respectively about 13.5 and 11.5%. After four weeks, they reached respectively 66 and 86% for plants of the variety 'Fortuna' and 31.45 and 44.62% for those of variety 'Festival'. After six weeks, the severity indices and the coefficient of infection are respectively 77.44 and 106.8% in the 'Fortuna' plants inoculated with 'VFF' isolate. Comparisons between indices of severity and coefficients infection in inoculated plants of both varieties have shown that this is the variety 'Fortuna' which is most sensitive to isolate 'VFF', which showed pathogen also against the 'Festival' variety. Both tested isolates 'VFF and VFS' were re-isolated from all levels of plants: roots, collars and leaf petioles.