Thirty embalmed adult human cadavers irrespective of age, sex and cause of death, were selected for this study over a period of one year to determine the azygos vein formation and drainage patterns. This study revealed four varieties regarding azygos vein formation. In twenty two cases (73.3%), the azygos vein formed by the confluence of the right subcostal and right ascending lumbar vein. It formed by the right subcostal vein with a contribution from the inferior vena cava (IVC) in three cases (10.0%) while, it formed by the right and left subcostal veins in three cases (10.0%) and in two cases (6.7%) formed by the right subcostal vein only. Moreover, in twenty three cases (76.67%), the azygos vein showed usual course and tributaries. Five cases (16.67%) revealed midline azygos vein with independent left lower eight posterior intercostal and subcostal veins. One case (3.33%) showed (H) shape azygos system. Independent double azygos veins were found in one case (3.33%). Based on the results, the azygos vein can take different developmental variations. Such variations are important in mediastinal surgery, imperative for reporting radiologists and have clinical importance. Variations in the formation and drainage pattern of the azygos vein are not clearly described in the literature. In this study the possible causes of these types of variations are discussed in view of the embryological development.
The goal of this study is to analyze the economic and social determinants of production boards. An investigation was conducted among 50 operators. Taking into consideration the nature of the data collected, we estimated an econometric model. Our findings show that economic variables influence 79.6% of production and social variables influence at 9%. Sensitivity analysis of this probability shows that economic variables have the highest marginal effects on the exploitation of wood that social variable.
A domestic scale fluidized bed dryer is designed, fabricated and used to measure the drying rates of wood chips and ground nuts at various operating conditions. Experiments were conducted at two different bed temperatures viz. 100C and 115C and also at three different fluidization velocities. The design was carried out using SOLIDWORKS and fabrication was done in a workshop using most basic processes. The purpose of keeping the cost of the facility was achieved. Different drying rates at different times, conditions, and materials were noticed. Drying times were lower for higher fluidization velocities and also at higher bed temperature. However, the influence of fluidization velocity is found to be greater than bed temperatures.
This article is intended to describe some situations that have to confront central and south america by the raid of projects extractive in their territories through a literature review that focused mainly in categories as a violation of human rights context latin america, free trade agreement and its relationship with mining. characteristics of the territorial context that today facing the central and south america after the raid of mining projects in their nations, as was evident, is framed by an impact high violation of human rights of residents of each one of the nations, especially as the minority communities case of indigenous, african americans and farmers; development of this type of economy generated the involvement of relationships and emotional socio bonds of each of these territories after corporate and government pressures this industry. how could appreciate, mechanisms are lacking internal own different countries to frame in this part of the continent to give guarantee territorial defense, this is evidence in the revocation representing the prior consultation at the time to be applied, and warranties set forth in the free trade agreements for multinational.
In image processing is to identify the human faces in difficult to recognizing image analysis which has each day most applications. The main idea in the building of the detector is a learning classification built on ada-boost. The families of simple classifiers contain simple rectangular wavelets which are reminiscent of the Haar basis. Their ease and a new image representation called Integral Image allow a very quick computing of these Haar-like features. An assembly in cascade is introduced in order to reject quickly the easy to classify background regions and focus on the inflexible to classify windows. The structure of the SVM classifier allows a real-time implementation of the indicator. Some results on real world examples are presented. The detector yields good detection rates with frontal faces then the process can be easily adapted to other object detection tasks by changing the contents of the training dataset.
The pulse tone generator provides one with the application of two 555 timers, resistors, electrolytic capacitors and a power source, all being connected together on a Vero board. This project attempted to incorporate into previously developed pulse tone generator useful features such as making the circuit simpler, variation to the tone by means of a variable resistor knob. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) case is used as against metallic casings used in some previous works. In this project, a regulated dc power supply starting with a 220/12 volt, 500VA step down transformer is used to power the circuit. When the circuit is connected to the power source, the 555 timer IC triggers the loudspeaker to emit a loud audible sound. This sound will stay on for as long as the circuit is connected to the dc power supply. The component and circuits was tested and the design was implemented and realized.
Production of various edible crops in the residential parcels is of great importance in terms of direct access to food by urban households. This paper aimed to determine the degree of participation of men and women head households in the management of activities within the home gardens. An investigation coupled with the observations targeted 170 households in ten districts of the city in January 2016 to compare the valued area, the objective, the access to the seeds, the type of fertilizers used, crops grown and the active manpower. The results showed that 88 % of women and 78% of men produced mainly vegetables for subsistence and family sharing. The principal mode of access to the seed is the purchase but the self-production is presented to be the surest mode. Gender resorts less to the chemical inputs and 42 % men and 54 % of the women valued the household wastes to produce a diversity of culture of which most important are the amaranth and the marrow (26%) for the men and 31% among women, who more over remain more active in the maintenance of the domestic gardens. Whereas 39 % of men and 32% of the women mention the dry season like major hurdle to produce all the year, 53 % women and 45% of men seek to maintain their gardens in a productive state by watering. Adoption of the ecological agro practices in its entirety could make the gardens more sustainable.
For better management of the use of insecticide in public health against Culex quinquefasciatus, an arboviral and filarial vector, a study was conducted at Natitingou, a town located in northern Benin, from October 2015 to March 2016, to evaluate the susceptible of this mosquito to insecticides and the mechanisms of resistance developed.
The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across the four areas selected in northern Benin. Bioassays were performed on adult mosquitoes collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of filarial vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1%) following WHOPES guidelines.
Moreover, mosquitoes from the susceptible tests were used to search for the presence of the knock down resistance (Kdr) and the Acethylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) mutations.
Finally, F1 generation of the wild population of Cx. quinquefasciatus were used for biochemical analysis to target Mixed Function Oxidase (MFO), non-speciﬁc esterase (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) enzymes.
This research showed:
1)- A wide spread of resistance to permethrin, delthamethrin and DDT was found in samples of Cx. quinquefasciatus despite the collection areas with 4%; 7% ; 19% and 60% as average of mortality respectively with DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb;
2)- The kdr mutation was detected in all areas at various frequencies (0.8 to 0.88) whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%);
3)- Enzymes activities (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferases) were detected in all mosquito populations despite the areas of collection.
This work has highlighted the high resistance of Cx. quinquefascitus to the 3 classes of insecticides used in public health. Moreover, the high frequency of kdr and the presence of enzyme activity in Cx. quinquefasciatus will augment the existing data on the insecticide resistance of filariasis vectors and will be useful for making decision to control this mosquito.
Background: Vegetable farming is developing fast in several cities in Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of this practice on the diversity of mosquito populations and malaria transmission in the Agbanto district, southern Benin.
Methods: Firstly, socioeconomic data was collected by interviewing 100 vegetable farmers regarding the benefits obtained from the farming practices and possible disadvantages observed. Secondly, sampling of mosquitoes was conducted from June to December 2015 by Human Landing Catches (HLC) method in households at peri-urban areas close to the vegetable farms and in rural areas where there is no vegetable farming in order to investigate the differences in mosquito species and identify which of the species were responsible of malaria transmission. Finally, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using monoclonal antibodies targeting the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), was used to estimate entomological parameters relative to malaria transmission.
Results: This research showed that:
1)- The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations. This activity increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; 2)- During the six months sampling period, 24,449 mosquitoes were collected by HLC method, of which 26% (6,357/24,449) were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (June to July and October to November), but declined in the dry season (August to September); 3)- The Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs) and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the dry season in the households from the peri-urban areas close to the vegetable farms than in the households from the rural areas where there is no vegetable farming. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in HBRs and EIRs between the two areas during the rainy seasons;
Conclusion: This study showed the impact of vegetable farming activity in malaria transmission in the Agbanto district of southern Benin. Despite the advantages brought by this activity to urban populations, measure must be taken to decentralise this agriculture to rural cities.
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are a promising technology that could revolutionize the way wireless network access is provided. We allocate the available bandwidth in wireless mesh network to reducing the energy consumption of a user using the AODV protocol. the AODV protocol to reducing energy consumption using the improving parameters are throughput, end to end delay, network overhead, energy spent, packet delivery ratio. The bandwidth allocation using greedy algorithm and gateway load balancing routing protocol. In this paper Genetic Algorithm used for providing solution in optimization problem.Topology of wireless mesh networks with more no of nodes is routed using genetic algorithm with proposed approaches and parameters such as end to end delay, throughput, energy spent, packet delivery ratio.finally comparison done between greedy algorithm and genetic algorithm.
The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought about an economic tsunami. This paper explores creative disruption and the widespread presence of digital platforms within the financial community. It sheds light on the ecosystem of financial services and expounds on the development of new business models. Special attention is paid to the various business models, as well as to a booming emerging country.
The present paper is on study of the influence of thermal radiation effects on parabolic flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and uniform mass diffusion in the presence of transverse applied magnetic field in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction is studied. Using the appropriate variables, the basic governing equations are reduced to non-dimensional equations valid with the imposed initial and boundary conditions. The exact solutions are obtained by using Laplace transform technique. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied normal to the direction to the flow. The numerical computations are carried out for various values of the physical parameters such as velocity, temperature, skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number and presented graphically.
The bridgeless SEPIC converter design is used for the phaco emulsification peristaltic pump of permanent magnet DC motor. This paper focuses the supply to the peristaltic motor using Bridgeless SEPIC having reduced switching and conduction losses with improved power factor, It is designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve the speed control of DC motor by varying the input supply to the armature. This converter is investigated theoretically and the performance comparisons of this proposed converter is verified with MATLAB simulation. The experimental setup of phaco emulsification peristaltic pump is developed.
The title crystal was grown from ethanol solvent by slow evaporation method. In order to good quality of crystals involved various analytical techniques. The crystal structure was verified by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and structural purity was revealed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The functional group of the grown crystal was examined by FTIR spectrum. From the UV-Visible spectrum, grown crystal found that there is no absorption in the entire visible region. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was identified by TGA-DTA and DSC studies. The physical stability of the grown crystal was measured by Vicker’s microhardness studies. The Nonlinear optical eccentric was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.
Analysis of peasant practices for the sustainable soy production has been achieved in the district of Kalalé. The objective of this research is to make the census of the different peasant practices which characterize that production, in order to have a compared analysis with the sustainable soy production methods recommended in Benin. The methodological approach use dis based on the structured interview for the farmers and the semi-structured interview for the farmers’ technical coaching agents of Kalalé. The sampling has taken into account 88 soy producers and 09 farmers’ technical coaching agents (TS and ACIPV) from the Kalalé agricultural area. The obtained results indicate that extensive production practices based on rampant increase of farming lands for better yield, has remained low. The Jupiter variety is dominantly farmed (79.54%) followed with the TGX (20.45%). The majority of the farmers (82.95%) take away their seeds from their former stocks, instead of referring to certified seeds. The seeds then are submitted to no prior treatment, nor any inoculation before being sown. Moreover, crops rotation is a common practice in the study area (62.79 %) and the mostly practiced farming system is soy in pure (79.55 %). For the land plowing, most soy farmers (64.77 %) do direct hillocking with bullfinch plought against 3.40 % of farmers who practice the recommended flat plowing, followed with 31.83 % farmer who used big hoes with their hands. All the inquired farmers have densities inferior to the recommended ones (10 cm x 50 cm). Despite the high poverty of soils, the use of organic fertilizers has been observed with none the inquired farmers. The mineral fertilizing is used by very few farmers (04.55 %). Also, dates, periods and doses for handling the fertilizers are not usually respected by those farmers who use them. The phytosanitary protection is totally absent from the study area.
Monitoring the safety and microbiological quality of food is an integral part of national development programs. It can protect consumer health and prevent the occurrence of food borne infections. In this context, the present study is the first one performed in Fez region, on evaluation of the microbiological quality of raw, cooked and fruits salads. In this regard, 224 samples were studded during three years (The January 2011 to December 2013). The total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sulphite-Reducing Anaerobic and Salmonella spp were counted. The results obtained showed that the 86 samples were classified as unsatisfactory microbiological quality according to Moroccan guidelines. A high number of salads of all categories, which were classified as unsatisfactory, were contaminated by E. coli. A variation of unsatisfactory microbiological quality salad was detected between a category and another. The difference between the categories was significative (P=0.024). The Results obtained revealed that the different categories of salads were contaminated by the total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliform and E. coli. By against, only raw salads were charged by Sulphite-reducing anaerobic bacteria and Salmonella spp. The Staphylococcus aureus was detected both in raw and cooked salads. In order to prevent contamination and bacterial growth, good hygiene practices must be implemented by producers who must ensure that the hygiene, environmental and conditions are controlled and maintained.
Despite the gradual professionalization of the construction sector as well as the abundance of sand mining sites offered by the Western Cameroon Region, ignorance of materials by local builders persists. In the present work, the physical characterization of river sands of Santchou Sub-Division in Cameroon is performed. Experimental laboratory studies show that sand equivalents is greater than 80%; therefore, these materials are clean sands for concrete manufacture. The Materials from Ntingue and Fombap are well-graded. As for materials from Faungwa are poorly graded. The fineness modulus of Fombap materials indicates that they can be used as sand for concrete mnufacture, provided to use Portland cement. Materials from Ntingue and Faungwa are of very high fineness modulus; therefore, particle size distribution requires correction before their use in formulating concrete. For such a correction, it is proposed their association with Fombap sand in suitably chosen proportions using tables obtained in this work. The formulation should be carried out using one of the modern methods. Compression tests on concrete samples made up with these proposals provide good resistance, which demonstrates their validity.
La recherche de base d’entiers algébriques dans un corps quadratiques fait partie des résultats de Dedekind dans les années 1900, pour les corps cubiques les résultats sont données par Daniel Marcus 1973, Sous les mêmes hypothèses Nous proposons dans ce papier les bases d’entiers de Corps quartiques (de degré 4).
An optimal design for an engineering optimization problem involves various decision variables and constraints. In engineering applications, objectives under consideration conflict with each other, and optimizing a meticulous solution with respect to a single objective can result in objectionable results with respect to the other objectives. A practical solution to a multi-objective problem is to examine a set of solutions, each of which satisfies the objectives at a satisfactory level without being conquered by any other solution. In this paper, a new population based evolutionary algorithm used to optimize the gear drive with combined objective function which maximises the power, efficiency and minimises the overall weight, centre distance has been considered. The performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and results are compared.
The electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a method to determine the material distribution within the interior of a closed object by measuring the capacitance value across externally mounted electrodes. This paper investigates the electrical capacitance tomography measure up to performance of triangle wave (AC) and charge-discharge (DC) methods. AC-DC based method applying voltage to the ECT sensor with different time. An excitation signal is applied to a pair of electrodes that forms a capacitor during each measurement step in order to determine the capacitance from the output current measured. When the voltages is applied to the pair of electrodes, the analyzing charging and discharging time and quality of the output signal. The betterment of the ECT system need to avoid stray capacitance then increase speed to switching combinational electrodes. This paper presents finally, the output voltages are also convert into images by using MAT Lab.
The objective of this study was to determine the causes of the non-execution of the national program of the geometry in the secondary schools of Bukavu/DRC. A cross sectional study was conducted on 84 teachers of mathematics during the period going from January till March, 2015. The causes of the non-execution of the program of geometry were associated with the teachers, the pupils, the education, the official program and the school authorities. The organization of the training in geometry in-service for the teachers of the mathematics, the providing of educational materials and support in the schools, the revision of national program could make the execution of the program of geometry effective.
A literature review around the establishment and management of the quality and specificities for SMEs, highlight the effective existence of different intensities of quality approaches that divide SMEs, at least, into two categories; a first group of SMEs implementing ISO 9001 by launching into a global and committed approach, called proactive quality approach, and a second group only seeking minimalist certification as end in itself called reactive quality approach, to meet the extern requirement.
The lack of unanimity on the impact of these quality management models on the organizational performance of SMEs justifies that research on this topic are still valid. This research aims to find out whether and how the intensity of the quality approach she contributes to the continuous improvement of organizational performance of Moroccan SMEs. The exploratory qualitative study reveals that the adoption of different models of quality approach impacts differently the social, structural and operational dimensions of organizational performance of Moroccan SMEs.
This study was carried out to assess the seed-borne fungi of onion in Burkina Faso. Eighteen onion seed samples were collected from local farmers and wholesalers of vegetable seeds in the country and were investigated for fungi. The investigation was done using the “blotter method” on dry seeds and on seedlings. Fungal contamination was detected in all 18 tested samples. Seventeen fungal species belonging to 11 fungal genera were identified in the seed samples: Aspergillus was detected in 17 samples, Fusarium and Rhizopus in 15 samples, Cladosporium in 14 samples and Penicillium in 13 samples. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum, known to be the causal agents of black mould and basal rot diseases, were detected in 17 and 11 samples, respectively, by seed analysis and in 10 and 9 samples, respectively, by seedling analysis. The infection rates by the fungal species varied from 0 to 90.3% for A. niger and from 0 to 13.5% for F. oxysporum. Alternaria porri, the causal agent of purple blotch disease was recorded lowly on two seed samples at infection rates of 0,5 and 1%. Exotic seed samples showed better health quality compared to local seed samples. These results indicated that the seeds locally produced by farmers in Burkina Faso are for low health quality and needs strong treatments before use to avoid diseases appearance in fields.
It is not sufficient when the man is conscious of the negative outcomes of violence’s and discrimination toward women at the community level but he should undertake individual actions for protection and women’s rights promotion. This piece of work shows that men dialogue groups contribute to the prevention of gender based violence’s in the community and particularly in the family of their members. However, discussion and dialogue sessions among men provide with knowledge that allow them to be conscious of negative outcomes of violence’s and discrimination toward women at the community level and undertake individual and responsible actions to acknowledge the women’s rights. In the framework of these pieces of work, we have used the comparative method and the following techniques: interview, free talks, sampling and documentation. After analyzing the results of our research we have found that the implication and participation of all actions, notably religions and custom leader’s spouses of member of men dialogue group and the intensification of these groups will contribute overcoming the issues that member are facing. Dialogue groups allow men to undertake individual and responsible actions to acknowledge women rights.
Data mining has emerged as one of the domains in the field of research. It is an analytic process designed to explore, in search for consistent patterns and systematic relationships between variables in a dataset. In data mining, patterns in huge data are analyzed in order to extract useful information or knowledge. Discovering hidden information from historical data is among its important tasks and one of its ultimate goal is prediction. Prior to the data mining process, data cleaning and preprocessing is performed. In this paper, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was utilized to preprocess the KDD Cup 99 dataset. The goal is to address data dimensionality, by reducing noise and remove redundancy, to generate the useful feature subset that has high influence in predicting network intrusions and reduce computational time. The experiment used the WEKA software, specifically the J4.8, RandomTree and RandomForest decision tree algorithms that are capable of detecting intrusions. The algorithms was trained using ten (10) fold cross validation and the generated model was applied, tested. The results were compared between the original over the reduced dataset. Analysis of the results revealed improvements in detecting network intrusions in contrast the original dataset. This can be attributed to the PCA as a feature reduction mechanism applied as a preprocessing technique. Similar studies may be conducted using other classification algorithms and integrating other data mining techniques.
Breast needle biopsy is commonly used to confirm breast cancer diagnosis with minimal invasiveness. The risk of cancer recurrence in the site of the core needle biopsy represents up till now a concern. This risk exists theoretically, though it is hard to make clinical evidence. In this article we have studied a 46-year-old woman presented with a skin nodule at the site of biopsy after breast conserving surgery for invasive ductal carcinoma. Histological examination proved local recurrence of primary breast cancer. The possibility of such consequence has to be taken in consideration when performing needle biopsies.
The problem of this study is represented by one main question: what is the effect of implementing multi wikis in teaching the written composition on the developing some critical thinking skills and collaborative writing of first year secondary students?
This main question includes the following minor questions:
1. What are the critical thinking skills there are suitable for teaching written composition using multi wikis to first year high school students?
2. What are the written composition topics suitable for first year secondary students?
3. What is the outline of the suggested program in teaching written composition using multi wikis on the development of some critical thinking skills and collaborative writing skills of first year secondary students?
4. What is the effectiveness of the language program based on the wiki used in developing the critical thinking skills and collaborative writing on teaching written composition to students?
The sample was consisted of 40 students' secondary school taken from Ain Shams School for Males and 30 Arabic language teachers and supervisors. The results indicated that:
1. There are statistically significant differences between the observed and expected frequencies of the marks of Arabic language teachers and supervisors and Specialists in methods of teaching Arabic language in the items of the questionnaire of the critical thinking skills relevant for teaching written composition to first year high school students by using the multi wikis as k2 test shows.
2. There are statistically significant differences between the observed and expected frequencies of the marks of Arabic language teachers and supervisors in the items of the questionnaire of the Topics written composition relevant for teaching written composition to first year high school students by using the multi wikis as k2 test shows.
3. There are no statistically significant differences between the means of the experimental and control groups in the pre-test of critical thinking skills of written composition, students’ marks in the pre – test.
4. There are statistically significant differences between the means of students’ marks in the experimental and control groups in the post-test of critical thinking skills of written composition, students’ marks in the post- test.
In Mudaka group, one of the 14 groups of the chiefdom of Kabare, jobless and uneducated young people engage in the sale of the lands that have left them their parents. They squander the money thus obtained easily in trivia: the abuse of alcoholic and even strongly alcoholic, attendance of the daughters of joy etc...
Unhappy, these young people take the direction of the market of Mudaka, of the town of Bukavu where they become a porte-faix or domestic not forgetting those travelling in the territory of Mwenga for artisanal mining precious metals. This sad situation is that field work suffer the lack of juvenile labor.
To stop this true human bloodletting, the Congolese State supported by NGDOS both local, provincial, national and international, should create of male and female occupations Learning Centers to reduce the youth unemployment at the level of both sexes. Thus the group of Mudaka located 15 km north of the town of Bukavu on the road to Goma and Walikale will recover his old face, i.e. of the colonial era. At this time, this group was one of the granaries of the Kivu province in general and of the town of Bukavu in particular.
Following pressure from humans on environmental resources, the growing areas have become saturated in the Adja plateau. The destruction of vegetation cover; the adoption of cultivation technology based on the use of agricultural inputs, land use continues restless and regression of fallow are causing land degradation. To raise public awareness on this issue, research and soil samples from 09 test results collected by the different characteristics of plant cover, allowed to assess the extent of soil degradation phenomenon. The analysis of the samples allowed to note that the land under crops have Organic Matter of contents (M.O) below 2%; which is an average and severe limitation for agricultural development. Only 02 out of 09 samples taken in soil or planting area of swamp forest with values higher M.O 2%. Nitrogen rates in being similar to those of M.O, the corresponding content is not up to standard. They vary from 0.07 to 0.08% for 07 soil samples. PH values that are below 6 for most samples do not represent a good condition of agricultural production. 07 soil samples have medium to severe limitation to phosphorus. By cons, most soils show no limitation Potassium. As to the sum of the bases, the soils are middle class to severe limitation. The cationic exchange capacity is low for these soils.
In light of these results, it is appropriate to adopt cropping systems that are in line with this classification hope for better returns. But, plantations and fallow are given for the reconstitution of the production potential of these soils.
One of the major challenges of agriculture in the African countries is food self-sufficiency. Within this framework, Vigna unguiculata or African bean plays a significant role. However, the level of productivity of this culture in these regions in the process of development is low. The agromorphologic characterization of niébé could make it possible to optimize the programmes of traditional selection of the more productive accessions. The objective of this study of is identified the most powerful accession being able to answer the new conditions related to the climatic changes. The study related to 16 accessions, the agro-morphological variability was evaluated on the basis of 8 parameters. The results showed that varieties N21DR, N18ZR, N10BBrp tested during the present study present an aptitude to be produced simultaneously in quantity and quality of seeds in a relatively short cycle of culture. The analysis in principal component (ACP) of the quantitative variables revealed of the very powerful accessions (cycle runs, a number of pods raised by plant, grains large and heavy) like which one can use in the programs of selection.
Ozone depletion due to Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HSFC) refrigerants is one of the major problem to our natural habitat. Also availability of electricity is still not available in several areas of the world where one need electricity and refrigeration of water, food, and medicine. Such problems can be solved using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) for refrigeration and generation of electricity since it has no Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), furthermore LPG is locally available and is easy to transport anywhere. In this paper the performance of LPG based refrigerator has been investigated and is compared with domestic refrigerator. From experimental investigation it has been found that coefficient of performance of the refrigerator which uses LPG is higher than a domestic refrigerator.
Bilateral filters use a wide range of medical and industrial applications. The limitations of conventional bilateral filter architecture are having a minimum kernel size and constant delay. This constant delay depends on two modules available in architecture such as the width of the image and sum of processing elements. Due to the inputs variation the kernel size can extent which may affect overall performance in terms of all the image quality assessment and performance in FPGA level (scalability, latency, power consumption). To evade this problem Low power, high speed FPGA based Novel Approach for Bilateral filter (NABI) are introduced. This NABI consists of Structure Shared Architecture (SSA), Master Control Unit (combination of intensity calculator and graph theory based traffic estimator), kernel based clock unit and Reconfigurable server. These components are described on the register transfer level implemented in VHDL. Depends upon the size of the kernel the reconfiguration is taking place via reconfigurable server. The intensity calculator is used to estimate the intensity of image and that intensity value is placed in normalization block to achieve better PSNR and MSE. This proposed NABI is implemented in a Virtex-5VLX50-1 device. The performance results in terms of FPGA level 31.69% slice reduction, 49.51% frame rate improvement, 28.96% power reduction and 50% latency reduction are achieved. The image quality assessment is also observed and compared with conventional algorithms. Thus, NABI work achieves better outcome than conventional work.
Can we talk about the saving for the people in DR Congo, a country that is associated with social-economic indicators so poor? Since the early 2010's the observation of some economic indicators in this country may feed the discussion.
This article is a contribution to the study of household saving behavior in DR Congo. It illuminates ways to mobilize economic players around saving, its profits and channeling it into economic and social sustainable objectives. A return to the traditions allowed DR Congo to discern to sayings that reveal relevant aspects on saving such as the need for saving, secure investments or the importance of net investments. A theoretical model of the saving behavior of Congolese households has been drawn. Survey data in cross section and/or panel data are needed for an empirical test of the model.
In this work, lead barium niobate tetragonal tungsten bronze structured ceramics modified with Gd3+ with the stochiometric formula Pbx-3y/2GdyBa1-xNb2O6, where y=0 – 10 mol% Gd3+, were fabricate through the solid state reaction method and investigated for structural and Raman properties. The dried powders were calcined at 800°C for 6h and one sample was calcined at 1050°C for 20h. As it can be observed, there is a mixture of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra allowed a clear identification of the phase evolution Kinetics as a function of the calcining temperature.