LGBT stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender which had cause a serious issue nowadays. This research deals with the causes and cure or transformation from this sexual orientation to normal sexual orientation. In going about this, this research looks at the experience of an expert who has been in the field for about three decades and has witnessed it all. Through the analysis of his experienced with people of this sexual orientation, the research was able to point out some of the causes of this problem and proffered solution on how it could be curbed and how those with the orientation could be treated and transformed to the normal sexual orientation. This research uses a semi-structured in-depth interview that was completely guided by the topic of this research with detailed exploration on causes, attitude of LGBT people during and after the transformation and preferred technique for better transformation. The findings showed that the LGBT is a natural issue but can be controlled, while its antecedents or causes could be traced to the lack of enlightenment, lack of comfortability, compatibility and sexual abuse among the young ones. Moreover, the finding showed that counselling and follow-up techniques could solve the menace of LGBT in the larger societies.
Graphene is a wonder material with ultra-fast conductivity due to its zero bandgap structure with outstanding electronic properties. Monolayer graphene based transistors are suitable for analogue electronics as off-state is not required in analogue and radio frequency applications. But to make the bilayer graphene based transistors suitable for digital applications, a bandgap is required for the existence of an off-state. Also, to achieve a higher performance as compared to the rival silicon-CMOS technology, a high ION/IOFF ratio is required. The latest research on bilayer graphene is still in a theoretical and analytical phase, so we present an analytical modeling of a bilayer graphene based field effect transistor (BLGFET) for digital applications. The proposed BLGFET operates on the principle of a Klein tunneling and Klein paradox. This principle is used to develop a model of BLGFET for digital electronics with an excellent ION/IOFF ratio (greater than 106). Bilayer graphene (BLG) has two types depending on the geometry i.e. AA-stacked and AB-stacked. Both types of BLG undergo Klein tunneling and Klein paradox but at different angles. So the expressions for transmission probabilities and the ION/IOFF ratios for both types of BLGs are derived and their corresponding results are plotted using MATLAB.
Image Enhancement is very essential and important technique used in image processing. The role of image enhancement is to improve the content visibility of an image. Images in different fields like medical, satellite images, aerial images and even real life pictures suffer from poor contrast and high noise. It is important to only enhance the contrast and reduce the noise to increase image quality. The enhancement technique differs according to various aspects and they can be broadly classified into two categories: Spatial Domain and Frequency domain based techniques. This paper presents a review of image enhancement processing techniques in spatial domain. Also we have categorized processing methods based representative techniques of Image enhancement. Thus this paper helps to evaluate various image enhancement techniques.
This work aims to study the impact of depression on athletic performance in a sample of 180 young adolescents attending school. To reach this objective, we used the MINI test (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) for the assessment of depression. Moreover, we chose gymnastics as sport discipline to assess the performance. The results showed relatively high depressive statuses with 29% having a mild depressive episode, 14% with an average depressive episode and 8% with severe depressive episode. The studied adolescents displayed a low athletic performance. Furthermore, girls showed lower performance and higher depression than boys. In terms of age, the adolescents who are between 13 and 14 years old displayed higher performance and lower depression compared to older ones. The correlation analysis showed that depression has a negative effect on performance. In conclusion, it should be noted that the sports performance depends on the depression status that a better management of mental health of adolescents could improve significantly their sports performance.
The groundwater in the alluvial aquifer of Wadi Larbaa currently a water potential for the city of Taza. The study groundwater is located in the watershed upstream of Wadi Inaouen. To highlight a potential negative impact the waters of the Oued Larbaa, mostly polluted liquids and solids from the town of Taza releases, on the waters of the alluvial aquifer, this study has considered making a bacteriological and physicochemical characterization groundwater in the aquifer. The analysis of a number of parameters indicative of water pollution (T ° C, pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, sulphate, orthophosphate, chloride, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen compounds and bacteria germs) found that however contents of these elements are high and indicate, for the most part, the risk of major pollution of the water table by the waters of the Oued Larbaa. However, the sources and sinks close thereof show very high concentrations of these nutrients. The alluvial aquifer has a high bacteriological contamination with fecal contamination is proven by the presence of high levels of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, the use of the web could be a significant health risk to users this water for drinking and bathing.
In this paper, we describe the methodology derived for offline handwritten Sanskrit character recognition. This paper will provide a way for researcher to develop a dataset and techniques for offline handwritten Sanskrit character recognition. This paper describes basics of dataset; challenges associated with character system and proposed techniques to recognize Sanskrit Compound Characters.
With the development of computers, researchers have gathered special interest in the algorithmic aspects of mathematics. Due to this graph models have emerged as a necessary and important tool for solving real-world problems. Algorithmic solutions to the graphical problems have large number of applications. Its area of applications ranges from VLSI circuit design to scheduling, from resource allocation to physical mapping of DNA. If we look at the mathematical aspect, graph classes have provided rich soil for deep theoretical results which provide a deep insight into the problems related to artificial intelligence to pavement deterioration analysis. This paper intends to highlight the significance of graph theory in solving the real world problems by presenting some of the existing applications with special emphasis on operations research and computer science.
Today world is making rapid progress on the path, towards the utilization of technical applications in the field of education. This is particularly true in the area of distance education, as the possibilities of its realization and growth have multiplied in ways not possible in the past. Video conferencing is a two-way connection between the teacher and the students at two or more locations through audio and video equipment. Out of all the available distance teaching technologies, video conferencing is very similar to the formal classroom teaching and therefore includes a very important element of teaching-learning process. However, there are a few key differences in the teaching and learning process that require attention for faculty and students to use video conferencing successfully. This paper studies the elements of distance education and role of e-learning (particularly the video conferencing) in benefiting the students via distance education.
The mosquito netting treated with permethrine 2% mark Olyset Net is effective against the Anopheles gambiae. The resistance of this vector due to this insecticide is more worrying from the third month of use. Mesh of that mosquito would be 4mm permanent contact between humans and the vector which explains the perpetuation of this epidemic in our study area despite the extension of nets made by health agencies.
Artemisia annua and Mentha aquatica are plants, the first being an annual plant of variable size and the second in a perennial grass rependu D.R.CONGO. Both are used because of their toxic activity in Acanthoscelides obtectus and against Plasmodium falciparum. Aqueous extracts, terpene, and steroids from the leaves are equipped with a power that acts anophélinocide for 6 days. The DL100 and the LD50 of total extracts are respectively 0.37g/ml and 0,16g/ml for M. aquatica, 0.16g/ml and 0.08g/ml for A. annua.
Larva of Anopheles gambiae ss were collected in the sites at Lwiro and the surrounding areas, to study the sensibility and resistance of these vectors in front of four insecticides in the entomology laboratory of medicine and parasitology, CRSN-Lwiro. The test was carried on the adult femele vectors, twenty five individuals whose age ranged from two and five days. Indeed, this test concerned four insecticids mainly perméthrine (0.75%), deltaméthrine (0.05%) two components of pyrethrinoïdes, malathion (5%) and lambdacyhalothrine (0.05%) largely used in public health for the vectorial control. After more tests, all the Anopheles population have been noticed sensible to all the precited insecticids. Within an hour of test, Anopheles gambiae presented a certain resistance to deltamethrine with a rate of mortality of 46.6%. Twenty four hours after, the rate of resistance for anopheles raised to 95.5%. Statistically, at .05, between permethrine, malathion and lambdacyhalothrine, the difference is not significant in term of resistance. However, the deltamethrine compared to the three insecticids cited above, displays a significant difference and the vectors are resistant. The vectors of malaria may display a certain resistance to the insecticids owing to their origin and concentration.
The presence of heavy metals in water is widespread, affecting hundreds of cities. In high dosages, these heavy metals are toxic to human, even deadly. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the heavy metal concentration on the groundwater of Enugu. Three (3) groundwater samples each were collected from Coal Camp and Abakpa Nike and the samples acidified with drop of nitric acid before it was sent for analysis at Union Recycling Plant, Ibeto Group of Companies, Nnewi, Anambra State. The analyzed heavy metals are: As, Cr, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Cd and Hg. The results revealed heavy metal contamination of the groundwater of the area. The study tested whether there is significant difference between the selected heavy metals concentration from that of W.H.O standard. When compared with WHO standard, As, Cr, Pb and Hg of the groundwater of Coal Camp showed significant difference, whereas that of Abakpa Nike showed no significant difference with the standard. To remediate the effects of the polluted water in some parts of the area, it is recommended that a systematic study of the heavy metals concentrations in groundwater sources should be carried out regularly. This is very imperative as the inhabitants of the area depend on groundwater for drinking purposes. More importantly, mass awareness should be generated about the effects of improper and careless waste disposal on water quality and human health.
This paper presents a novel approach for Face Recognition and Gender classification strategy using the features of lips. Here feature extraction is carried out by using Principal component analysis (PCA) and Gabor wavelet. The proposed algorithm converts the RGB image into the YCbCr color space to detect the skin regions in the facial image. But in order to detect facial features the color image is converted in to gray scale image. This method locates the lip region and the mouth region. The gender classification method classifies almost all the images with different image sizes. The best classification rate is achieved by using the methods given in this work. The whole idea is offering a simple, reliable and robust method for extracting features of lips for face recognition and gender identification. For recognition experiments we used face images of persons from different sets of the FERET and AR databases. Recognition experiments with the FERET database (containing photographs of persons) showed that our method can achieve maximal 97-98% first one recognition rate and 0.3-0.4% Equal Error Rate.
This paper examines statistical approaches for interpolating market related data over large regions, providing different interpolation techniques for market access variables used in agricultural research. Splines interpolation process was evaluated to distribute different variables related to market accessibility for total land area of Papua New Guinea. Different independent market access variables like village points, minor market, major market, capital market, telecommunication, airstrip and airports, major road network and major wharfs, were used for the interpolation process. Suitable market access zones were modeled using each independent market access variable. The accessible area was coded as 1 and rest area as 2 for each case. Overlay operation (intersection and union) was performed to find out the suitable market access zones using previously modeled seven types of market accessibility results. Then the final market accessibility layer was classified into 3 categories as Good, Medium and poor access. These market accessibility characteristics were applied to all the villages of Papua New Guinea to determine the market accessibility zone for each of them. Rice crop suitability analysis was carried out for entire Papua New Guinea base on multi-criteria decision-making approach using slope and altitude, soil texture, water holding capacity, soil depth, soil drainage, pH, exchange base saturation, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, temperature and rainfall data sets. Finally overlay analysis was carried out between market accessibility and suitable agriculture land zones for entire Papua New Guinea to show the prospects of rice cultivation for marginal farmer in term of market accessibility.
The purpose of this study is to use T-GM(1,1) and T-GM(1,n) to predict the number of teachers and students for admission in Vietnam. T-GM(1,1) and T-GM(1,n) are two prediction models based on Taylor approximation method in grey system theory to improve the predicted accuracy of GM(1,1) and GM(1,n). Two combined models can obtain the most optimal values of prediction by multi-times approximate calculation. In addition, researchers used the MATLAB software to build a MATLAB toolbox for two prediction models. These results of this study not only are conducted to serve as a reference for the educational administrators but also can assist the government in developing future policies regarding educational management. This is critical for improving the overall quality of teaching and learning and improving the quality of education across the country.
The term backyard poultry production designates chickens reared on small scale at household level. The first chicken was lured from the rain forests of Southwest Asia over 3,000 years ago. Since then chickens have been kept for meat and eggs throughout the word. In Balochistan province of Pakistan nearly all rural families keep a small flock of poultry to have a steady supply of fresh eggs for household consumption and to sell surplus at the local farmers market. Household level poultry production is mostly owned by women and managed by women and children. The profits are usually low as mostly Desi type chickens are reared with low egg and meat production. For increase in production and household income rearing of improved backyard poultry breeds is of utmost importance. During past 50 years through genetic research many high producing chicken breeds have been developed world over. These new breeds are well adapted to different climates and can be reared in both intensive and free range systems. The present study was conducted in the rural areas of five districts of Balochistan, where majority of people are dependent on livestock and poultry. The main objective of this research was to investigate economic status of rural poultry in the study area. Compilation of study data concluded that backyard poultry farming is commonly practiced in our rural area, mainly for family consumption and as a small income generating unit. The average number of birds kept is 12. Information from 200 females was obtained during the year 2013-14 to investigate status of backyard chicken in 5 district of Balochistan. Training status of the farmers and vaccination schedule affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average egg production reported per bird/per year has been 140.
The City of El Oulja is known for the concentration of craft trades, including pottery which is the most represented in terms of number of production units. Pottery contributes to the growth of the craft sector and reflects the wealth of the latter. It also has the potential for unprecedented development. This study is the result of a survey of potters settled in the city of El Oulja. It analyzes the existence, and the need of innovation, a factor that may contribute to the evolution of pottery. In El Oulja the use of innovation remains weak because of the resistance of potters to change due to the traditional nature of the activity. Thus, the establishment of a localized production system in this city would represent many advantages and benefits through to the ease and efficiency of the flow of knowledge within it.
Objective. – This study aims to participate to the improvement of the management of waste arising from care activities involving infectious risks, which is currently a real health and environmental concern, especially in the collection, storage, transportation and disposal of this type of waste. Workers and methods. – This is a descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study was carried during 2011 in the regional hospital EL IDRISSI of the Gharb region in Morocco on 170 health-care workers form 275, with anonymous questionnaire. Other methods have been used such as grids observations and interviews with the managers of waste arising from care activities involving infectious risks. Results. – The frequency of the internal collection is an essential role in the proper movement of procedures for the management of infectious and highly infectious waste especially for storage time, this frequency is well respected in the hospital studied, 78.8% of nursing staff report that infectious waste is collected once a day. Approximately 11% of these buildings are identified and separated, the rest were inside the services. No local intermediate storage satisfied the standards of hygiene and safety; the Storage rooms are 49.64% treatment rooms, toilets 32.12%. The establishment has a local central storage. However local compliance with regulatory standards is not respected in its entirety. Only 41.9% of nursing personnel know how to handle potentially infectious waste to his hospital, among them 23.9% et 19.4%, respectively, know the exact mode of treatment used in the hospital of the waste care activities infectious risks soft and of the sharp objects. Conclusion. – The management system of solid and liquid infectious and highly infectious waste is a major concern for health staff and people. The lack of organization and human and financial resources make the challenge of the application of the national policy on the management of infectious waste particularly difficult for the hospital studied. This study supported the implementation of an adequate organizational plan based on regular assessment and coordination between those responsible.
A number of studies evidenced the psychological problems being faced by university students. However, little work has done in Pakistan with respect to psychological problems faced by university students and its impact on their self-esteem. On the basis of literature review it was hypothesized that 1) There would be a significant inverse relationship between symptoms of psychopathology and self-esteem. 2) There will be a difference between symptoms of psychopathology among men and women university students. Sample of 400 participants had been taken from major representative departments of Humanities, Sciences, and Social Sciences, Management and administrative sciences of University of Karachi, while using Systematic Random Sampling. Consent form was got signed from every participant. Interview sheet and General Health Questionnaire: GHQ-28 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was administered on each participant. Result analysis revealed that a correlation between symptoms of psychopathology and self-esteem is negatively associated and significant at 0.01alpha level. However, no gender difference found in the symptoms of psychopathology.
Carcinosarcomas are rare uterine cancers and carry poor prognosis. Although these tumours usually arise de novo, some cases developed under tamoxifen therapy have been reported. We report a case of uterine carcinosarcoma occurring in a postmenopausal patient benefiting from tamoxifen therapy as adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
Seagrasses play a prominent ecological role and support the productivity on which many communities of marine animals feed and reproduce but, unlike their macroalgae and microalgae counterparts, their diversity and extent have never been rigorously documented in Moroccan coasts. In this study we compiled and analyzed the available bibliographic data (Physical and chemical requirements) relating to seagrasses, followed by determination of physico-chemical characteristics of six selected coastal environments in Moroccan coasts. Comparison between seagrass species requirements and selected coastal environment conditions allowed us to distinguish four seagrass species (Zostera noltii, Zostera marina, Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica) which can shelter these study areas. This paper provides baseline data for further work on ecological study and long term monitoring; and a first step to create a seagrass check-list in Moroccan coasts.
The purpose of this study is to use T-GM(1,1) and T-DGM(2,1) to predict the number of foreign students studying in Taiwan. T-GM(1,1) and T-DGM(2,1) are two prediction models based on Taylor approximation method in grey system theory to improve the predicted accuracy of GM(1,1) and DGM(2,1). Two combined models can obtain the most optimal values of prediction by multi-times approximate calculation. In addition, researchers used the MATLAB software to develop a MATLAB toolbox for two prediction models. In this study, results are not only conducted to serve as a reference for the educational administrators but also can assist the government in developing future policies regarding educational management. The accurate prediction of the number of foreign students studying in Taiwan will provide important information for educational managers to continue to attract and efficient use of resources, bring international cooperation for training and scientific research. It will not only help the managers to make good educational scholarship program for foreign students studying in Taiwan but also improve the effectiveness of education for international cooperation in education and training.
According to the cell density bacteria can regulate their gene expression. Gene regulation is initiated by the release of signaling molecules into the environment which are called autoinducers. When the population density increases, these autoinducers accumulate extracellularly and these can be detected by the bacteria through quorum sensing. We found that E. coli make use of indole quorum-sensing signals to prevent it from infection by T4 phage. This has been acknowledged for the first time that E. coli utilizes antiphage defense mechanism regulated by quorum sensing. We proposed that through quorum sensing E. coli is protected in conditions where there is increased risk of infection as for example during growth in high cellular density in which there is mixed species environments. In microbial communities, quorum-sensing is a general phenomenon which controls E. coli susceptibility to phage.
The study results showed that due to advent of market economy the resource system changed from range based livestock production and rain fed agriculture to irrigated mode of agriculture supported by tube well/dug well and sedentary and household level livestock production systems. This triggered changes in the settlement pattern in human communities from nomadic and transhumant to resident communities. With this change in the settlement pattern, the earlier prevalent joint family system gave way to the extended family system. Similarly the human behavior also changed with increasing territoriality, weakening of social bonds and communication, lowering levels of altruism and a multiplier effect reflected in the adoption of new innovation. These changes also brought about alterations in the physical environment i.e. natural resources being used in the resources system. Rangelands of the area, previously protected/managed for community livestock use assumed the role of open to grazing areas and were invaded by herders/nomads from outside. Livestock of nomads grazing the rangelands brought with them new ecto/endo parasites which not only infected the local livestock populations but were also source of pollution in the water. Rangelands also showed signs of deterioration due to overstocking and heavy/overgrazing. Based upon study results it is recommended that introduction of new resource process in a stable resource system needs careful thinking so that not only the human – environment relationship could be maintained in a harmonious manner but also support the existing social order.
A case of a malignant mesothelioma of clitoral location is reported in a 52 year-old woman.The microscopic and immunohistochemical exam of biopsy conﬁrmed the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma of the clitoris. The computed tomography scan of thoraco abdominal pelvic was normal. The patient underwent surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Most malignant mesotheliomas are pleural location; they rarely occur within the peritoneum and their clitoral location is exceptional. Our objective about this particular case is to discuss the diagnostic problems of exceptional tumour of the clitoris and clinical and pathologic aspects.
Now a days, in data transmission security and authentication are the major challenges. To resolve these problems different techniques are used like cryptography, steganography etc. in the image steganography, we are using two images i.e., cover image and hidden image. The hidden image is sent by put it in the cover image. In the present techniques, only one key is used for both encryption and decryption. So, the users can see the data and also they can modify the content of the data. . Now we are using QR code which represents the hidden image and sent the QR code by encryption and decryption. We proposed a novel algorithm, in which the sender has two keys (public and private keys) and the user is provided with only one key (public key) by using RSA algorithm. Thus, the user can only see the data and he can't modify the data.
Anonymous proxy signature is suitable for the situation where the proxy signer's identity needs to be kept secret. The verifier needs to reveal the real identity of the proxy signer with the help of the original signer. A new ID-based anonymous proxy chameleon signature scheme based on bilinear pairing is proposed in this paper. This scheme is based on Gap Diffie-Hellman group and meets the security requirements such as verifiability, un-forge ability, anonymity, traceability, Prevention of misuse, non-repudiation and Message hiding.
Clustering is an approach to find similar objects and group these similar objects. It is the powerful method for finding the similarity among objects. The group of objects is called cluster. The objective of the cluster is to find the structure of a dataset and it is very much close to the human way of thinking. The clustering algorithms are used to categorize the large number of data in to group or cluster. In this paper different clustering algorithms are analyzed and these fall into the different clustering methods. These clustering algorithms are partitioning the data set into several groups.
Cet article se consacre à préciser les aspects et les fondements d'une nouvelle réalité perçue dans la ville algérienne, il s'agit du phénomène des villas-immeubles et son effet sur l'émergence de nouvelles recomposition socio-spatiale et de nouvelles centralités dans la ville de Constantine. Cette réalité apparait suite à la naissance de nouvelles activités économiques polarisée dans les quartiers d'habitat individuel, à citer, les lotissements.Notre choix s'est porté sur la ville de Constantine, qui a été depuis l'époque antique, tout au long de la colonisation française et jusqu'à ce jour, capitale de l'est algérien et future capitale de la culture arabe en 2015. Cette importance a été favorable pour attirer des flux migratoires convergents des villes limitrophes , des villes moyennes pour la majorité (Ain-Fakroun, Ain-Mlila…) connues pour être « les villes des importateurs », des villes à grand essor commercial (commerce de gros et détail en vestimentaire, ameublement, électroménagers, pièces détachées consommation..) de ce fait Constantine devient un point de convergence stratégiques à l'échelle de la région de l'est Algérie et cette convergence a largement affecté les espaces stratégiques de la ville à savoir les lotissements à caractère résidentiel.
The lack of sharing, organizing and reporting on water are among the obstacles to the implementation of the objectives of a significant number of scientific researches in Morocco. Especially as access to data and information on water held by the administration, is still not open to the general public. In this context the SAWIS Initiative was created to provide a platform for sharing data manages and maintained by a scientific association for the water information (SAWIS) systems. The purpose of this platform is to provide the scientific community, the methods and techniques for sharing data and enrich them with tools Open source GIS and conform to OGC standards (WMS, WFS, CSW). The present work aims to (1) present the context of the birth of SAWIS Initiative, (2) present the service-oriented architecture and functionalities of the platform and (3) present the results of a study cases with data from a pilot area, resulting from scientific work, to achieve a "SWEM Platform for Meknes region".
Fingerprint recognition is the reliable and oldest biometrics used for personal identification. Many sensors were developed for fingerprint recognition systems in which the user's finger print is placed on a sensor. Due to this contact the input fingerprint from the same finger can be different and there can be fingerprint issues which can lead to forgery and hygienic problem. For this reason touchless fingerprint recognition has been developed in which the fingerprint is acquired using a high resolution webcam. The acquired images are subjected to pre-processing steps and the region of interest is extracted. Minutia features are extracted from the fingerprint image and matching is based on the number of minutia pairings among two fingerprints to be matched. The project is coded in Matlab.
Modeling and Simulation of a solar based energy generation system is a significant tool in predicting the performance of both grid-connected and standalone PV systems. There are multiple ways by which a PV system can be connected to the grid. However, the output of PV systems varies due to change of solar irradiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and other climatic conditions, that makes the real field prediction becomes complicated. Hence we need better tools to predict the real field performance of PV power stations. Herein, we developed a MATLAB/Simulink model that can accommodate all field parameters to make a better prediction. The PV array model has been implemented through an embedded MATLAB model. The maximum power point tracking algorithm is implemented to DC/DC converter to operate PV arrays at maximum power point. The incremental conductance algorithm is employed to control the boost converter. The inverter controlled by the boost converter is interfaced with the grid. Finally, system performance is analyzed under various conditions. The system validation is also carrying out using the real power plant data. Simulations performed with field conditions at various locations. The model is helpful for optimizing the power output of a PV system as well as achieving cost effectiveness by incorporating different PV system types.
This study presents the concentration of rural Taluk population using probabilistic model. Taluk size Distribution and the concentration of rural population in the Taluk are related. Taluk sizes are increased in both ways, population and area. Pareto and Exponential probabilistic model were used to describe the Taluk size Distribution. Gini's concentration ratio and Pietra index were used to study the amount of concentration of rural population. This study includes all Taluks of Tamil Nadu and their population as per 2011 census for an empirical analysis. As per this study, the concentration of the rural male population in the rural Taluk area is less than the concentration of the rural female population and the Exponential model is more suitable than the Pareto model for the study of variability in Taluk size Distribution using Gini's concentration ratio and Pietra index.
Storage fungi damage grains in several ways: they reduce germinability, produce undesirable odour and kernel discoloration, reduce the nutritional value and also produce mycotoxins injurious to the health of the consumers. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of fungi associated with stored wheat grains under the storage conditions of farmers in Shashemene and Arsi Nagelle districts from June to July, 2013. Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect wheat grains from the study sites of Arsi Nagelle and Shashemene districts. Two peasant associations from each district and 10 House Holders from each of the peasant associations, with a total of 40 House Holders were purposively drawn for sample collection. A Malt Extract and Potato Dextrose Agar were used for the isolation of fungi. Fungi were identified based on the microscopic examination of spore morphology and culture characteristics of the isolates. A total of 898 fungal isolates belonging to five genera and three unidentified taxa were obtained. The isolated mycoflora were dominated by the morphotaxa of Aspergillus (45.54%) and Penicillium (29.18%), respectively. It was concluded that stored wheat from the study areas could be contaminated by storage fungi and therefore, awareness creation and training should be given to the farmers on better and improved storage techniques.
Mobile ad-hoc-network is the future network, because it can be developed easily, automatically configurable, flexible and don't depend on any network structure. It means MANET do not need already existing network infrastructure. A routing infrastructure requisite to establish in distributed controlled system. Various protocols for MANETs in routing have proposed and several evaluated work had conducted. A large amount of anticipated routing protocols and estimation made complicated to maintain the expansion and to acquire an impression of the strength and limitations of the protocols. The analyze evaluation techniques from the past and describes common problems to evaluate of routing protocols for MANETs and how to resolve them. A wide-spread MANET protocols have studied. They are categorized according their similarities and their results are deduced and eventually presented. The main goal of the work was to examine the recital of protocols, OLSR that was table driven DSR, AODV discovering average delay in packet sending and receiving, the average number of entries in the routing table: varying suspension time and different amount of nodes. An experiment was conducted to examine the recital of these protocols with OPNET 14.5 and NS2.
With the alarming rate of enormous increase in the quantum and diversity of waste materials generated by myriad human activities, and their potentially harmful effects on the general environment and public health, there arises an invariable need of increasing awareness about an urgent need to adopt scientific methods for safe disposal of wastes. While there is an obvious need to minimize the generation of wastes and to reuse and recycle them, the technologies for recovery of energy from wastes can play a vital role in mitigating the problems. Besides, the education on how they can use it for generating a renewable and sustainable source of energy and the ways to generate would become utmost important and mandatory. Besides recovery of substantial energy, these technologies can lead to a substantial reduction in the overall waste quantities requiring final disposal, which can be better managed for safe disposal in a controlled manner while meeting the pollution control standards. So, this direction of research would yield multiple benefits and the world can even end up with a very minimum expenditure on new energy resources. So this paper mainly focuses on the types of wastes that can be processed to energy, and the ways in which it can be processed to energy, which is the ultimate requirement of the world today!
It is known that around 11 billion pounds of waste from poultry industry accumulates every year, we also have endless appetite for chicken and other poultry products. The feathers cannot be just kept only in pillows, but we need to utilize it as under grade feed for animal. An environmentally safe process is created for converting feather meal of chicken into biofuel. It is also found that feather meal consists of blood, innards apart from processed chicken feather. So, this way of research, would save much of the fuel input cost for many industries, by using the chicken feather as their energy input. It is a multi beneficial way of processing them into biodiesel, because we have significantly huge amount of feather every year and it's also found protein rich and easy to convert into fuel form. In this paper we preliminarily discuss how chicken feather meal is processed further. Also we will discuss how it may be considered having a potential for an alternative energy in different forms. Apart from using it as energy, how can we use it for other value added products such as holdup of hydrogen, is also discussed.
Sericulture is an agro based industry, playing an important role in community of the world. An assessment was conducted to assess the silkworm production and identify the major constraints for silkworm raring in eastern Tigray from February to May, 2014. Primary data on type of silk worm, food (host) plants of silkworm used, annual income and major constrains were collected from silk worm rears using semi structure interview. Two types of silk worms were identified namely, mulberry and eri silk worms. Mulberry silk worm was more adapted to the study area. The main food or host plants were mulberry for mulberry silkworm and castor for eri silk worm, respectively. The average annual silk production ranges from 100 to 500 kg of silk. Mulberry silkworm produces higher kilograms of silk and income per year than eri silkworm. The major constraints were lack of food or host plants, drought, lack of knowledge such as training, lack modern house, lack of market availability, lack of governmental and nongovernmental support, lack wide area, lack of silk worm production materials and seasonal environmental condition fluctuation. Despite all the constraints, the area has great potential for silk production. Therefore, the people should be aware on silk worm farming and the government also fulfills the facilities for high potential of silk production at regional and federal level.
Taeniasis is an important worldwide food borne parasitic disease. A cross sectional study was conducted on 540 bovine species from October 2012 to March 2013 to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of cysticercosis at Adigrat Municipal Abattoir. The overall prevalence of cysticercosis was 5.73% (29). Infection prevalence of cysticercosis was significantly associated with age, body condition and breed of cattle (P < 0.05). Infection rate of cysticercosis with respect to age group showed that higher prevalence was in cattle 5 and above years (8.47%) than below 5 years (2.96%) (χ2= 7.949, p = 0.003) and infection rate with respect to body condition revealed the highest prevalence (13.5%) was in poor followed by medium and good body condition scores 4.6 and 1.66%, respectively (χ2= 23.1, p = 0.000). Related to breed of cattle highest prevalence (6.31%) was in Holstine – Fresian followed by local (5.2%) and barka breeds (4.91%) (χ2= 0.211, p = 0.036). However, no significant variation was observed with related to sex of cattle (p > 0.05). Heart (35.56%) was the most infected organ by large number of cysts followed by tongue (23.3 %), masseter muscle (14.4 %), tricept muscle (10 %), liver (8.8 %) and tight muscle (7.7%), respectively. In conclusion, results obtained from this study confirm that cysticercosis is a health problem in cattle in the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategy for prevention and controls.
The Honey bee (Aphis mellenifera L.) is prone to infected with fungal, bacterial and protozoan pathogenic organisms. Honey bee diseases in Ethiopia include Chalkbrood diseases caused by pathogenic fungi, Ascosphaera aphis, Nosematosis caused by Nosema apis and amoeba caused by a single protozoa malpighamoeba mellificae. A numbers of invertebrate pests belong to insects themselves such as ants, beetle, moths, lice, termites, mites, and large vertebrate animals such as amphibians, reptile, lizards, birds, mammals like honey badgers and mice were recognized in the Ethiopian honey bees. Honey bee diseases, predators and pests are problems for bee keeping practice in Ethiopian. The success of apiculture influenced by these diseases causing pathogenic organisms and various pest animals. Infections of the disease ranging from chronic to highly virulent can result loss of honey bees' population and loss of honey bee products such as honey, wax and also caused honey bees to abscond and death. The economic loss associated with the presence of honey bee diseases and pest was estimated in some works and significant loss was reported. In the present review an attempt has been made to briefly the major honey bee diseases, pests and predators and their rate distribution in the country so as to help the researchers to develop efficient methods for prevention, control and management to improve productivity and the health welfare of bee population.
Capturing mobile data is becoming feasible thanks to the frequent and widespread use of mobile devices embedded with positioning technologies. This phenomenon raises the need to handle efficiently, for decision making purposes, data becoming more and more mobile. The data warehouse technology constitutes the core of modern decision making systems, however, it must be adapted to handle mobile data specificities which bear the mobile data warehousing subfield. The goal of this paper is to explore, through a survey, mobile data warehousing domain in order to provide to research community an overview about main issues handled in this new area by concentrating on conceptual modeling one.
Liberalization and Globalization has not only affected the big industries but also has made an impact to the way of living in the rural India. Impressed by the successes of entrepreneurs, the zeal of entrepreneurship is now blooming in the rural veins of the country. The rural youth especially women in India are taking steps towards being dairy entrepreneurs particularly in states like Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Women Entrepreneurship as a phenomenon has gained importance recently mainly during latter half of the eighties. This study was conducted in some villages near Hisar, Jind and Fatehabad by purpose. A total of 80 dairy start-ups were interviewed. It was observed that most of the women entrepreneurs belong to the age group of 30 to 40 years and after the successful implementation of their business plans, their incomes increased substantially and there is a need to introduce proactive role of government and other cooperatives to strengthen the status of women in business more.
Thresholding is one of the popular and fundamental techniques for conducting image segmentation. Many thresholding techniques have been proposed in the literature. Among them, the minimum cross entropy thresholding has been widely adopted. Most minimum cross entropy thresholding methods use Gaussian distribution as an ideal reference histogram for the images to be thresholded. Clearly, it is doubtful that any natural images would generate a histogram with such a distribution. In this paper, a new minimum cross entropy thresholding method using Gamma distribution is proposed, since it is more general than other distributions. The new entropy thresholding method using Gamma distribution is extended to multi-level thresholding. The experimental results manifest that the proposed method can derive multiple thresholds which are very close to the optimal ones. The convergence of the proposed method is analyzed mathematically and the results validate that the proposed method is efficient and is suited for different real time applications.
This work has been led in view to find the influence of sublethal heat (45°C, 50°C, 60°C) on acid resistance of B. subtilis NCTC 3610 and B. stearothermophilus CNCH 5781 spores. Firstly, we have submitted Bacillus spores to 0.4% acetic acid pH 4.5 during the times of 1, 2 and 3 hours. Then another spores group were preheated at various sublethal temperatures, before be treated with acetic acid. The effect of acetic acid before and after preheat was evaluated by the culture of treated spores on agar medium and the number of colony obtained was compared with that of control culture (neither treated with heat nor acid) and control A culture (only treated with acid). We found that acetic acid was effective on the twice Bacillus spores with more effect on B. stearothermophilus CNCH 5781 spores. Furthermore we have noticed a significant increasing in percentages of recovery of colonies obtained from preheated and acid treated spores compared to those of control and control A cultures. This increase of recovery percentages could be demonstrated the manifestation of a "heat-induced acid resistance" phenomenon. Yet, this phenomenon was more accentuated for preheatings at 50 and 60°C during 3 and 2 hours, respectively for B. subtilis and B. stearothermophilus spores. This study suggest that sublethal heats could be play major role in protection of microorganisms to chemicals
The analysis of the impact of mobile computing on the various services shows how the mobile computing has changed each service. As mobile computing has become more popular over the past decade, it has been under continuous development with advances in hardware, software, and network. Mobile computing has various applications in our everyday life. The convergence of Internet and mobile computing enables personalized access to online services anywhere and anytime. Entities (e.g., users, services) have to authenticate themselves to service providers in order to use their services. An entity provides personally identifiable information that uniquely identifies it to a Service Provider. Due to the rapid spread of smart phones and social network service, the use of Interne applications has increased and their need for bandwidth has begun to exceed the capacity of 3G networks. This has caused a reduction in speed and service quality. The increase in mobile network users has caused identity management problems for mobile service providers. Therefore, in this paper, proposed system is designed to overcome this problem Improved Identity Management protocol is used to breaks up loads, which are allowed by the existing Identity Management 3G protocol's mutual authentication via mobile operator process, by sending some parts to an Internet application service provider to enhance mobile and ID management at the service provider and by reducing the network and process loads from information handling and packet transmission. The proposed system used the RC-5 algorithm to increase the speed and security in mobile cloud computing providing private key and public key with existing method and it is fulfilling the needs of cloud users and Providers.