The term backyard poultry production designates chickens reared on small scale at household level. The first chicken was lured from the rain forests of Southwest Asia over 3,000 years ago. Since then chickens have been kept for meat and eggs throughout the word. In Balochistan province of Pakistan nearly all rural families keep a small flock of poultry to have a steady supply of fresh eggs for household consumption and to sell surplus at the local farmers market. Household level poultry production is mostly owned by women and managed by women and children. The profits are usually low as mostly Desi type chickens are reared with low egg and meat production. For increase in production and household income rearing of improved backyard poultry breeds is of utmost importance. During past 50 years through genetic research many high producing chicken breeds have been developed world over. These new breeds are well adapted to different climates and can be reared in both intensive and free range systems. The present study was conducted in the rural areas of five districts of Balochistan, where majority of people are dependent on livestock and poultry. The main objective of this research was to investigate economic status of rural poultry in the study area. Compilation of study data concluded that backyard poultry farming is commonly practiced in our rural area, mainly for family consumption and as a small income generating unit. The average number of birds kept is 12. Information from 200 females was obtained during the year 2013-14 to investigate status of backyard chicken in 5 district of Balochistan. Training status of the farmers and vaccination schedule affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average egg production reported per bird/per year has been 140.
According to the cell density bacteria can regulate their gene expression. Gene regulation is initiated by the release of signaling molecules into the environment which are called autoinducers. When the population density increases, these autoinducers accumulate extracellularly and these can be detected by the bacteria through quorum sensing. We found that E. coli make use of indole quorum-sensing signals to prevent it from infection by T4 phage. This has been acknowledged for the first time that E. coli utilizes antiphage defense mechanism regulated by quorum sensing. We proposed that through quorum sensing E. coli is protected in conditions where there is increased risk of infection as for example during growth in high cellular density in which there is mixed species environments. In microbial communities, quorum-sensing is a general phenomenon which controls E. coli susceptibility to phage.
The study results showed that due to advent of market economy the resource system changed from range based livestock production and rain fed agriculture to irrigated mode of agriculture supported by tube well/dug well and sedentary and household level livestock production systems. This triggered changes in the settlement pattern in human communities from nomadic and transhumant to resident communities. With this change in the settlement pattern, the earlier prevalent joint family system gave way to the extended family system. Similarly the human behavior also changed with increasing territoriality, weakening of social bonds and communication, lowering levels of altruism and a multiplier effect reflected in the adoption of new innovation. These changes also brought about alterations in the physical environment i.e. natural resources being used in the resources system. Rangelands of the area, previously protected/managed for community livestock use assumed the role of open to grazing areas and were invaded by herders/nomads from outside. Livestock of nomads grazing the rangelands brought with them new ecto/endo parasites which not only infected the local livestock populations but were also source of pollution in the water. Rangelands also showed signs of deterioration due to overstocking and heavy/overgrazing. Based upon study results it is recommended that introduction of new resource process in a stable resource system needs careful thinking so that not only the human – environment relationship could be maintained in a harmonious manner but also support the existing social order.
An old saying states that "the ram is half the flock", since his genes will provide one-half of the genetic makeup of his lambs. One of the primary tools which sheep breeders have at their disposal for the improvement of their herds is selection of breeding ram. Rams are the primary means by which genetic improvement can be made in a flock. If the ram's daughters will be retained in the flock for breeding purposes, he should come from a productive ewe or line. His dam should be one of the most productive members of the flock. Therefore choose rams from good ewes. The selection, of course, is a group term that includes many activities: recording, identifying, and the use of formal programs involving Record of Performance (R.O.P) testing and so on. In Balochistan sheep farming communities it may not be possible to fulfill the requirements of a sound R.O.P testing mainly due to noncommercial small ruminant production practices and very low level of literacy. However through this article the sheep farmers of the province can be helped in selecting their breeding rams through visual appraisal on certain desired breeding traits/ characters. The farmers in the province mostly practice breed specific selective breeding and like to retain ewe lambs, from their own breeding rams. Therefore much attention is required towards selection of true to type breeding rams. The ram must beer the traits which are heritable and, definable, by visual methods and which have an economic value. The breeding goals in addition to body growth and conformation must emphasise fleece characters such as fibre length, fibre density and above all the wool colour which should be white with minimum grease, etc.). Use only selected rams for breeding and castrate all males so as to enforce the required breeding traits.Strive to keep inbreeding below 5% per generation. As the coefficient of inbreeding (COI, the degree of relatedness) increases in a flock, inbreeding depression may occur, during which fertility, growth, and other reproductive traits tend to decline. Such declines are especially dramatic when the COI reaches or exceeds 30%. It is therefore advised that the sheep breeders exchange breeding rams.