This research is a « post-study ». It is conducted in Kimbanguist secondary schools from Bukavu town, for the school year 2019-2020. It conveys the problematical styles of leadership in Kimbanguist school headmasters, in Bukavu town: Analysis of the education freebie effects. After analysis, interpretation and discussion of the findings, results; we can notice that the school manager headmasters use the style « let them do as they want » and teachers have features of clamoring lack of professional consciousness on while exercising their functions in teaching.
Since gaining independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced many problems; among other things the legal problem and particularly the 50 years spent in civil wars have made it a vast site of juvenile delinquency. Many laws have been passed and promulgated, but they seem to be insufficient to stem all the problems linked to delinquent children or to children victims of delinquency and deviance. It should be noted that since the entry into force of the law n ° 09/001 of January 10, 2009 on the protection of the child and the installation of the juvenile court, the legal conditions of children in conflict with the law seem to be to improve, now delinquent children are no longer tried in the same court as adults. However, in the juvenile court the appeals chamber has not yet been set up due to the lack of judges. This is how a decision rendered in the First Chamber cannot be reformed by the review procedure, which is the sole responsibility of the judge who issued a first decision to review it. The consequences of the double degree of jurisdiction before the tribunal of children are by filing an appeal on the same jurisdiction with the same judge there is not too much reliability in judgments contradiction.
The 1st and 2nd paragraph of Article 1 of the Uniform Act on General Trade Law states that Any trader, including any commercial corporation in which a state or other person of public law is associated, as well as any economic interest group, whose establishment or head office is located on the territory of one of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, as «States Parties», is subject to the provisions of this Uniform Act.OHADA law of developing common, simple, modern rules adapted to the reality of OHADA member countries. The one-stop shop for business creation is the mechanism for creating a business established in accordance with OHADA law. This mechanism is not yet being applied by the TGI/KINDU itself-if the Congolese legislator has already foreseen it.The registration of the register of commerce and real estate credit is carried out at the TGI/Kindu. The latter does not exercise the jurisdiction afforded by the aforementioned law pending the installation of the single business start-up window in Kindu. However, the provisions of Article 17 which stipulate that the application for business creation is made by a single form filled out, signed and filed at the Single Box Office by the applicant, a natural or legal person, in this case a TGI/Kindu registry would be filed, which serves in the event that the one-stop shop for business creation is not yet effective.Commercial and cooperative companies that go to the registry for registration do not even file company deeds or statutes with the registry of the TGI / Kindu. Yet this is a legal requirement.
The constitution of February 18, 2006 organizes the territorial institutions of the DRC by distinguishing between political regions, decentralized entities and deconcentrated entities. The unitary form of the State is affirmed in the functioning of the institutions because all refer to the same and only Constitution which in its article 1 provides: the DRC is a State of law, independent, sovereign, united and indivisible, social, democratic and secular. The DRC is made up of the city of Kinshasa and 25 provinces with legal personality. As said above, the constitution of February 18, 2006 establishes the free administration of provinces and ETDs, their competences and the autonomous management of their resources. The Congolese experience is particularly rich in lessons in terms of management and territorial planning, it is characterized by two aspects; the multiplicity of changes sometimes due to certain contradictions between the different texts and the gap between the texts and the implementation of Decentralization. The main challenge for the central government is to succeed in implementing decentralization, the principles of free administration of provinces according to the vision of the current Constitution aimed at the development of a unitary and highly decentralized State, while ensuring the unity of the country and national cohesion. This is how we have some challenges, in particular the transfer of skills and resources according to a progressive approach with a view to deepening the constitutional provisions on the sharing of resources (human, technical and financial) and of powers between the different levels of communities, the financing of decentralization within the framework of a set of instruments combining local taxation, the retrocession system and the national equalization mechanism for investments aimed at ensuring egalitarian development between the provinces and ETDs. In terms of challenges we can cite in particular for the success of decentralization: the appropriation of decentralization by the actors and the population; the maintenance of peace and security; political will; the involvement of all; the existence of a common vision; national solidarity; progressiveness in the process; good local governance; the financing of decentralization; building the capacities of the various actors and representatives; the organization of provincial, urban, municipal and local elections.
Three silvicultural experiments with Pericopsis elata were carried out in the Deng-Deng Forest Reserve in 1974 to understand the silviculture of this specie. However, this work has not yet yielded its full results. The objective of the present study is to construct productivity curves and evaluate the effect of silvicultural method and planting type on the height growth of Pericopsis elata. The data collected for this study came from 9 stem analyses carried out in the plantations. A fit to the Johnson-Schumacher model was performed. The variability of productivity curves between the three plantations indicates that there is a consistent relationship between silvicultural methods, planting types and Assamela fertility indices. Three levels of fertility were identified for each plantation at 40 years (H40): 18 m, 22 m and 26 m for P741; 12 m, 15 m and 18 m for P745 and 15 m, 20 m and 25 m for P746. The open field method shows the best growth performance in height (18 m ≤ Ht ≤ 26 m) regardless of plant type, compared to the layered method. Following the large layered silvicultural method, short stumps show better height growth (15 m ≤ Ht ≤ 25 m) than bagged seedlings (12 m ≤ Ht ≤ 18 m).
Context: The effects of climate change make it difficult to achieve food security in Burkina Faso, despite its many resilience efforts. This is how this article aims to identify and understand the impacts of the country's main climate risks on food security and the causes of the non-resilience of the proposed solutions, in order to better help develop resilience strategies.Materials and methods: Surveys were carried out among fifteen (15) main institutions in charge of the governance of food and nutrition security in Burkina Faso using a questionnaire focused on (i) the exposure units of food security in the face of climatic hazards in Burkina Faso, (ii) the impact index of these climatic risks on food security and (iii) their exposure index. The criterion for choosing the structures surveyed was their level of involvement in food security management, or their membership in the national food crisis management committee. All fifteen (15) institutions were national.Results: the results of the work reveal that whatever the climate risk, the availability of food, its financial accessibility and the governance of food security management institutions, are the main components of food security affected between 62.5% and 92.5%, against 62% to 70% of the impacts felt by the « price stability of agricultural products » and « nutritional use of food » components. The proposed solutions come down to the control of agricultural water, the development of irrigated agriculture, as well as the strengthening of the State's skills to implement emergency measures.Conclusion: The results corroborate the work of several authors, who have analyzed the food security situation in countries experiencing the same realities as Burkina Faso. However, their analysis does not include a fifth component, namely the governance of institutions. Based on these shortcomings, the recommendations could not be robust enough to bend the food insecurity curve in Burkina Faso.
Introduction: Peripheral venous access is the most common procedure performed in the emergency department. Different factors can be a source of difficulty for this procedure. Our objective was to identify these factors in an emergency department.Method: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a period of six months in an university emergency department. All adult patients admitted to the emergency department who required a peripheral venous line to be inserted by the traditional method were included in this study. For each patient, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical examination data, history and type of operator were recorded. Difficulty was judged on the number of attempts necessary for successful venous access. Predictive factors were identified by binary logistic regression.Results: Over the 6-month period analyzed, 1007 forms were usable. The population was divided into two groups, Gr.IVA.E: n=681 (67,6%) and Gr.IVA.D: n=326 (32,4%). were retained as predictive of difficulty: moderate obesity, type of provider of the procedure: young physician, reactivity/pain to the procedure, size of cannula (18G), recent admission within 3 months and clinical examination data (burns, neurological deficit, arteriovenous fistula, swelling of extremities).Discussion: The identification of the factors that make peripheral venous access difficult in the emergency department can lead to an improvement in the quality of care and therefore to better management. Good clinical assessment, mastery of alternatives to the traditional technique, adoption of medical simulation for learning, and adoption of a clinical score can overcome this difficulty.