This research aims to create a conceptual method, in order to reduce the effect of bullwhip by integrating information sharing, Forecasting, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), Vendor Management Inventory (VMI), and Consignment (Cs) methods. The results are used to build an application that can be used for information sharing, simulation using forecasting, and Economic Order Quantity-Vendor Management Inventory-Consignment methods, which can reduce the effect of bullwhip. It can be concluded that through information sharing, the results obtained in the forecasting method is more accurate, because customer requests can be identified by suppliers and retailers. Also, the optimal product lot size and total cost was obtained by using the Economic Order Quantity-Vendor Management Inventory-Consignment model. These aforementioned integration steps were taken as an effort to reduce the effect of bullwhip.
Plotless sampling techniques, linear recordings of distances among random trees or points and trees were developed to overcome some limitations of plot-based or quadrat methods by reducing time consuming, sampling effort, etc. However, research works proved that some points need to be clarified in order to provide a more useful guidelines for ecologists. The main objective of this study is to make a critical review of literature on plotless sampling techniques in vegetation studies. For this purpose, most original studies published and focused on plotless techniques in plant communities were identified via Keywords searching on scientific database websites and additional references from retrieved articles. Thereafter, about hundred papers were sampled in this review through careful reading of the abstract, methods and results. This study revealed that plotless sampling methods are mainly used to estimate population density. Furthermore, this study showed that among the plotless sampling methods that were described, some remains slightly documented in ecology to date. Results obtained also showed that the spatial distribution of organisms impacted the performance of these methods. All plotless sampling methods recorded their best performance when the population is randomly distributed. When the population is uniformly or contagiously (clump) distributed, most of them produced the largest bias of density estimate. However, over all spatial patterns, distance measurements at least to the third nearest neighbour were the best preferred methods. Therefore, further research works need to control this bias, to continue some investigations on those methods mainly on measurement errors and detection process.
The study assessed the floristic diversity and analysed the structure of plant groups in the Pénéssoulou Forest Reserve (PFR). For this purpose, 234 plots of 50 m × 20 m each were installed in delimited floristically homogenous stands. An individualization of the different plant groups of the PFR was carried out using non-metric multidimensional scaling. Alpha diversity indices were used to evaluate the floristic diversity of the plant communities. Dendrometric parameters and size class structures of diameter and height were performed to understand the conservation status of the identified plant communities. Four plant communities was identified: G1 corresponded to woodlands and savannah woodlands with Vitellaria paradoxa and Uapaca togoensis as characteristic species, and including 81 woody species; G2 corresponded to forest gallery, dominated by Anogeissus leiocarpa and Cola gigantea and including 100 woody species; G3 corresponding to tree and shrub savannahs with Vitellaria paradoxa and Parinari curatellifolia as characteristic species, and including 64 woody species; and G4 corresponded to Anogeissus leiocarpa - Lonchocarpus sericeus dry forest that included 75 woody species. The dendrometric parameters varied significantly from a plant group to another (P-value < 0.05). The distribution of tree diameters was in an inverted «J» shape, characteristic of multi-species stands. As for the structures in height, they reflected a rarity of higher individuals (>20 m). The results showed an acceptable state of conservation and a good natural regeneration capacity of the forest, which must be improved through the implementation of a forest management plan.
Like the West African countries, the Sassandra river basin limited at Soubré is facing the challenges of climate change. Seen anthropogenic activities have contributed to modifying the climate in a sustainable way, it is important to have as clear an idea as possible of possible climate changes. The main objective of this study is to characterize the variability of climate parameters in order to sustainably manage its impacts on basin development projects. So, the methodology adopted is divided into 2 steps: the characterization of climate variability and the characterization of climate change to 2030 and 2050 horizon. The results of climate variability showed a decrease in rainfall and an increase in temperatures. In terms of climate change, under scenario RCP4.5, minimum and maximum temperatures are projected to increase by 1.4°C to 1.8°C by 2030 and 2050. At the same horizons and under scenario RCP8.5, there is an average increase of 1.4°C to 2.4°C. In terms of annual rainfall, projections show an upward trend of 1% by 2030 and a downward trend of 1% by 2050 under the RCP4.5 scenario. The scenario RCP8.5 predicts an increase in precipitation with rates greater than 35% at both future horizons.
Our Moroccan community has a varied linguistic nomenclature which is not immutable and which changes very often because of the dynamism, the contexts and the fields of activity where it is practiced. Thus, the identity or functional language practices, under the effect of this sociolinguistic dynamic, are constantly subject to modification, enrichment and adaptation.For the faculties of medicine and pharmacy (FMP) in Morocco, French is the language of instruction par excellence, whereas during the entire previous curriculum it was only one language taught. In addition, the courses given in the faculties and schools of health have a terminology that is very often hermetic for the students; which ipso facto puts us before an urgent need for renovation, readjustment, accommodation and adaptation so that the students understand their course properly, and so that they can brilliantly ensure the therapeutic communicative act downstream when they will be in charge of practicing in public and private health establishments.From the foregoing, the urgency to adopt the technolectal approach; through the phenomena of compositionality and confixation; which in our opinion constitutes a response to the ills faced by our students in the field of health. In the present work, we will focus on sociolinguistics, in this case the work of Leïla Messaoudi (2003, 2010 and 2013). In terms of methodological approach, we will use corpus linguistics. We will administer questionnaires to students, but we will also use medical courses to highlight technolectal units that are representative of the «scholarly technolecte» in this field and that we will have to readapt in order to allow students access to meaning.