The problem of this study is represented by one main question: what is the effectiveness of e-books in using syntactic structures and meta cognitive skills of second year high school students? This main question includes the following minor questions: 1. What are the meta cognitive skills there are suitable for teaching syntactic structures to second year high school students? 2. What is the form of the e-book used in developing the meta cognitive skills of second year high school students? 3. What is the effect of the e-book used in developing meta cognitive skills on teaching syntactic structures to students?
The research problem is summarized in the shortage of the teaching methods used in the teaching of grammatical rules that led to a decline in the level of achievement and failure in the development of skills beyond the knowledge of students in the first grade secondary illustrated by numerous students.
The study attempts to answer the following major question: What is the effect of using the strategy of constructive learning on teaching reading to develop some basic reading and thinking skills among first secondary grade students?
In Egypt, the teacher of Arabic does not study computer in the syllabus of his preparation in Faculties of Education. Moreover, he does not use it in studying any of the syllabi till he graduate as a teacher. This research attempts to pointing out the importance of using computer in qualifying the teacher of Arabic and showing some primary aspects of the relationship of Arabic language to computer. This issue seems to have been lost between the extreme simplification of technicians from one side, and the sharp overlook of linguistics from the other side; the issue is inevitably difficult and interrelated so that simple solutions or tricks will not do. It is also so important and vital to the extent that its importance is in the first priorities of preparing our Arabic societies for the information society where the labour of information, its industries and services will prevail. Behind this research is on invitation to modernize the outlook of the Arabic language as a whole. It is a demand that corresponds to the duality of computer and English language, and many other languages such as Russian, French and German. Such a demand needed a full revision of all the sides of the linguistic system, where the mechanic system impose on the topic it handles a degree of accuracy and completion without which it can not be subjected to the logic or the machine. Maybe in our approach to this problem on this level an indication of how the computer may compensate for our linguistic backward: theoretically, regulationally and implementationally.
This research includes a statement of the research problem and its applications, identifying written composition skills for the first grade preparatory students which need to be developed, defining composition topics appropriate for the first grade preparatory students, and the effect of enrichment activities on written composition. It also includes results, recommendations and suggestions of the study. Following is a summary of the above. Language is one of the most important means of communications among people. Written language in particular is so important, for it is used to write down meanings and thoughts, and it constitutes a reference for people in communication with others. The relationship between activity and composition skills is evident in the various speaking and writing classroom activities performed by students. Such activities enable students to employ the language in written composition; it is through language that students speak together, discuss topics and edit files.
The attention of teaching profession is one of the most important steps on the road to education reform because the development of the quality of education is not only through the teacher with professional competence required, and attention the teaching profession in any society stems from fingerprints left by the teacher on the behavior of students and their morals and their minds and personalities. To evaluate the teacher is particularly important as one of the important aspects; because it includes diagnostic alike; is effective as a laboratory to determine the level of teacher that fits scientific and technological variables through use thinking skills to teach Arabic. Arabic language teacher in good pronunciation, and directed by characters from the exits of origin, according to assets known scientifically, and the link between general and specific objectives, the availability amount of information and knowledge, and expertise to allow him to simplify faces student in the subject of specialization, and to act as guide through the educational process, The proper understanding of the characteristics of the students and their motives and interests, and respect for students, and a good pronunciation, and skill in the use of evaluation methods different, to suit different levels, and the ability to persuade, and the exploitation of the resources available at the school, and the surroundings to upgrade article.
In Egypt, the teacher of Arabic does not study computer in the syllabus of his preparation in Faculties of Education. Moreover, he does not use it in studying any of the syllabi till he graduate as a teacher. Computer illiteracy in our Arab societies does not only require the availability of Arabic programmed language but also the existence of practical means to use Arabic language itself to converse with the computer. The present research is an attempt at showing the duality of culture which prevails over our Arab societies; such duality is one of the main reasons of the deformity of our cultural and scientific view, and the deformity of our intellectual and educational product. The problem of this research may wholly be determined in the following questions: 1 . What are the linguistic requirements for teaching Arabic using computer in the programmes of preparing the teacher of Arabic in the Faculty of Education at Fayoum? 2 . What are the linguistic difficulties concerned with the unavailability of Arabic programing languages? 3. What are the suggestions of treatment so that Arabic may become a computer language? The researcher designed the two following tools: 1. A questionnaire about the linguistic demands for teaching Arabic using computer in the programmes of preparing the teacher of Arabic in the Faculty of Education. 2. A questionnaire about the linguistic demands concerned with the unavailability of Arabic programming languages. First, Results of the application of the questionnaire of linguistics demands for teachingArabic using computer in the programmes of preparing teachers of Arabic in the Faculty of Education.Therefore , it is evident form table no.4 that: The linguistic demands for teaching Arabic using computer in the programmes of preparing teachers of Arabic in the Faculty of Education seen by the respondents (in the sample of research) CHI2 has statistical significance of agreement in the numbers of the following phrases: (6), (7), (11), (4) , (13), (10), (16), (1), (5), (9),(17). Secondly, results of applying the questionnaire of linguistic difficulties concerned with the unavailability of Arabic programming languages. CHI2 has statistical significance of agreement in the numbers of the following phrases: (12), (1), (6), (4) , (9), (3), (10), (13), (14), (7), (8) . On the basis of this research, the researcher suggested practical medicines.
The problem of the study is the presence of some of the weaknesses in the second Stage of pupil's basic education in the collection of grammatical concepts, which affects the critical thinking skills they have. This was confirmed by the results of some previous studies such as: (Magda Saad: 2004) (Lady Rajab: 2004) (Hussein Ibrahim: 2005) (Moataz Zuhaer: 2006) (Samia Mohamed: 2007). The researcher - through his milestone Arabic for pupils in second Stage of basic education - noticed a weakness among students in the use of grammatical rules. He noticed the presence of multiple errors in a large number of syntactic and morphological concepts such as: types of predicate, sound verbs, weak verbs, intransitive verbs, transitive verbs and other grammatical concepts. This makes the researcher use concept maps strategy to reduce errors and develop some of their critical thinking skills.
The objective of this research is to view a summary of the study, but the most important steps and procedures carried out by the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study, and display the highlighted findings, recommendations and proposals.
Student learning is a complex multivariate phenomenon. There are many sources of variation, some of them unobserved and uncontrollable, that contribute to manifestations of learning behaviour and of learning outcome. Practitioners are often confused by the layered complexity found in competing conceptual models of student learning; they generally fail to appreciate the penalties that are incurred as the genuine complexity of student learning is approximated for modelling purposes. The present study deals with a training program in using computers in teaching by Arabic teachers. The program is constructed in order to be suitable for a developing country. It includes training teachers to use general computer applications, personal and pedagogical uses. Two types of generic software (Arabic version) were used in addition to Windows 3.1 (Arabic release). The first type was wordprocessing (Microsoft Word 6.0) and the second was (Microsoft Power Point) . The program was constructed and applied according to the findings of two successful courses in America (Roseman and Brearton, 1989), and the UK (Sutherland et al., 1991).
In traditional teaching, assessment is an action that has an external characteristic, centered on the specific and final result of an action regarding an object that does not correspond to a mental program pre-established by the person using it, that is, it is beyond all internal learning process. It responds to an external manipulation of an internal process. An assessment culture is generated in educational institutions that lay emphasis on products. It emphasizes as well the power of those who have the authority as sole responsible persons for the generation, implementation, and decision making; and in the absence of other actors as creative and participants in the assessment process. The first explicitly stated Arabic curriculum for public schools in Egypt appeared in 1970 (Ministry of Education, 1970). It outlined a rationale for the teaching of Arabic in the Egypt and stated general and specific aims for teaching it. It described the theoretical framework and pedagogical practices by which these aims could be achieved and suggested ways for the evaluation of their achievement. In 1990, a new revision of the curriculum of Arabic was adopted and new teaching materials were prepared to implement it. This currently-used curriculum has introduced various changes and delineated general and specific objectives of Arabic language teaching in Egypt in more realistic and functional terms.