The University Teachers´s Training is not only a specific training plan for each university, but also implies a way of improvement and a methodological change.
In the new educational environment (Iberoamerican Higher Education or the European Higher Education Area), the University teachers require new ways for educational tasks in order to bring closer the University to the social environment in which it is located.
In this context, teachers need to experience other new ways of teaching though in many cases they have not even received the necessary training - to be effective and successful.
University Teacher's Training Plans are necessary to provide the essential skills for a more efficient teaching task, according to the new requirements to improve the results in the student's assessment mainly focused on the acquisition of productive and valuable skills.
We present the implementation of an Educational Innovation Program for those students enrolled in the first year of the Degree in Labor Relations and Human Resources at the University Pablo Olavide, during the 2013-2014 academic year, with the aim of encouraging the participation of students in the continuous assessment of the Statistics course to promote the acquisition of practical skills.
Regarding to the methodology followed in the development of this experience we do believe that this principle is applicable in any University and -other University courses.
Since Platon, the primacy of the common good on the self-interest has been a great interest for political theorists. Beyond the breaking of considerations on the politics that we notice today, many thinkers remains unanimous on the event that as Saint THOMAS said: “The social life finds its unit and its aim in the research of the common good”
This work allows us to understand the common good as an objective politics to Julien FREUND. For him, the common is principally the total collective good in which individuals are integrated as members who attribute to themselves a state as institution. The common good is not to be confused as the privates neither to the amount of common good either of individuals or subordinate groups, these families or any other professional asocial nor to the state property as a state.
The common good as aim of politics is insured to citizen when a leader insures the exterior security and the interior harmony. That is why Julien Freund considers that the government activity consists essentially though not exclusively on the collectivity defency against any possible attack. If the security tends essentially towards the life conservation of the collectivity, sometimes on the price of sacrifice, the interior harmony of the collectivity allow to citizens to find a reason to live practically and spiritually.
However, for all time, it had been and remains the best task of the politics to organize the city as harmony as possible, according to the idea which seemed to be the best for giving to people, to a purely economic level, the possibility to satisfy well the need that they needs that they had experienced.
Having the needs of achieving to the common good, Julien Freund considers the combination of strength and cunning. Indeed, he considered that cunning is the political mean of the civilization and the strength is the one of the uncultured. It’s that he expresses in this manner: ”The history is frequently seemed to be scorned towards chiefs who had survived only by brutal strength and barbaric and by killing many persons, slaughter and massacre while it vaunts the calculator and clever chiefs address who had triumphed to the favor of the cunning and the mischievousness”.
To end, invited to manage the destiny of the daily activity, a politician can’t go beyond the moral. However, the choice of means in politics and the political responsibility is incumbent upon the first chief of people who hold the power.
The political and economic crisis that the Democratic Republic of Congo is faced to nowadays after fifty-six years is worrying to the extent that it is increasing. Violations rights are mentioned day to days in every corners of the country.
International N.G.O. never stop reporting balances of violations and sometimes they are contested by authorities of the countries.
Congolese citizen finds that he is very embarrassed and lived in bad condition in his proper country without a better future.
The consequences of that crisis are considered differently according to social position of each citizen. To authorities we mention a fair of future, instability of actions and remedy to antitrust as lie, corruption, embezzle of public funds, fallacious promises… To people, ignorance of rights, fanaticism, fear is added and increase misery which a large party of population is plunged in.
Face to that disconcerting politico-economic situation, the look of the way to go out becomes an obligation for every Congolese. It’s in this case that is intended this research that its foundation is philosophic.
We consider that the crisis problem in the DRC is reliant of the loss of realistic political engagement which could consist:
- To leaders a culture of true, sense of service and respect. They have to consider the power, not as career but as warrant to use for a profit of all citizens.
- To citizens, to engage with courage, without fanaticism to fight injustice and violation of their right.
- To International powers, to lead the democratic process by knowing that Congolese are able to take charge of their situation. Then, International powers will avoid imposing themselves in politic life of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
This scientific work consisted to the evaluation of relationship between chemical structures and pharmacological activities of Kalanchoe crenata extracts. An antdiarrheic plant founded in Bushi.
To arrive there we proceeded by the thin layer chromatography using two standards modems drugs used in diarrhea treatment. Final results revealed spots of analogical retention factor (Rf) with the standards used. Such as ciprofloxacin®, Negrame®.
This leaded us to conclude that there are similarities between some principles ingredients contained in Kalanchoe crenata and the witness moderns drugs used in diarrhea treatment.
This scientific publication consisted to do a phytochemical screening and evaluate the antdiarrheic extracts activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Kalanchoe crenata, a medicinal plant of Bushi (crassulaceae). The process consisted to the qualitative chemical analysis of naturals substances contained in this plant and biological activities test of their aqueous and ethanol extract on bacterial stumps of Escherichia coli, vibrio cholerae; Shigella flexineri and Salmonella polyvalento.
The obtained results showed that among of founded substances in these plants extracts some of them were efficient on bacterial studs and others not. Some of these extracts were efficient as are some witness antdiarrheic drugs.
These justify the using of Kalanchoe crenata plant in traditional treatment of diarrhea.
The vegetation forests and wildlife reserve of Abokouamékro are under strong anthropogenic pressures. The aim of this study is to identify the types of land occupancy and to analyse the landscape dynamics under the effect of bush fires. The diachronic approach from remote sensing using the Landsat ETM satellite imagery of 2000 and Landsat 8 Oli-Tirs of 2016, as well as the verification of the checkpoints and the assessment of the field results were the methods used. The results underscored that this forest surface declined from 1.75% of the total area from 2000 to 2016. They are most affected because they experience a drastic decrease of 357 hectares during this period. On the other hand, burnt areas increased by 242 hectares, that is to say 1, 18 %. Stable areas have experienced disturbances provoked by agricultural activities and bush fires. Generally speaking, the vegetation in this reserve has undergone serious change, due not only to the abundance of human activities, but mainly to the bushfires because of the armed revolt of the neighbouring villages. In that respect, these bush fires have more disadvantages than advantages.
The changes in the global economy in all fields, have had a significant impact on banks as the primary interface for any economy, So the commercial banks to work efficiently to carry out its functions to the fullest because of the strong competition it faces, and this is done by improving performance, increasing revenue, and mitigate the risks, and increase the level of services provided by even facing the new banking environment requirements, which became operates.
The study aimed to clarify how it uses the CAMEL model to evaluate the performance of commercial banks, In giving a clear and complete picture to reveal the winning in the Gulf Commercial Bank's performance in early time, As the importance of the study by subjecting banks to supervise and control appear to maintain the integrity of their financial positions and come to a banking sector properly, maintain the rights of depositors and investors, the study analytical method used by financial indicators for a form CAMEL for a period of 5 years for the period from 2011 up to 2015.
The study concluded that all the model indicators were positively eye-catching, which stands behind that good management of the bank and take the right decisions in all of its actions, while the study recommended to work to increase profitability by employing deposits optimally and exploitation of the excess liquidity in the bank and invested in new projects as well as the need to work on the banks evaluated under the mentioned model, the assessment includes all the civil and government banks.
Structural change in developing economies and African countries in particular is inducted by the convergence of agriculture to other sectors. It is generally agreed that African countries have a competitive advantage in agricultural products and processed agricultural goods can be an excellent way to increase the value added of the industrial sector. The objective of this paper is to check to what extent the performance of the agricultural sector promotes the industrial development and the acceleration of the process of structural transformation of African countries. Considering samples as Africa and five regions of Africa (Southern Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, East Africa and North Africa), we found several relevant results. The transformation of the agricultural products can be used to support the development of the industry but some obstacles must be eliminated. It’s necessary to reconcile the economic opening, the improvement of human capital and the orientation of funds in profitable investments. However we noticed that for the regions of Central and Southern Africa, there is a contribution even if it is low of the agricultural sector in the industrial development of these regions. As for West, Eastern and Northern Africa, the results can be inferred that the agricultural value added has a strong negative and significant impact on the industrial sector. Given the characteristics of each region and the heterogeneity of the continent, we took recommendations in terms of economic policy on the assumption that the ultimate goal is to implement an industrialization strategy of the African countries.
Human beings use languages to communicate. The effor made to protect and conserve the environment recourse to languages. This is the case of radios of Bukavu town. They use languages such as French, Swahili and Mashi in the environmental broadcastings to communicate and educate people about how to preserve the environment. This study has revealed the impact of languages on the degree of understanding of environmental message broadcast though radios. The results show that the more broadcasting are broadcast in the languages well mastered by the population, the better the message conveyed is understood and assimilated. According to investigations, messages broadcast in the environmental broadcastings on the radios of Bukavu town are well listened to thanks to languages well-known buy the listeners. On average, 88, 8% of investigated people master the three languages used in the radio. We have used the investigations in the households of Bukavu town to collect the data. These investigations have been made on a sample of 2100 people belonging to these households.
Therefore, the issues of communication environmental education are not found on the level of languages used for the broadcasting. They could be located elsewhere.
The entomophagy or feeding on insects provides nutritional and economic opportunities. We studied the nutritional value of bee larvae harvested in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Bees (Apis mellifera L.) named « Bukavu », which come from beehives set in the region of Bukavu and its surroundings (~60 km radius) in a region known traditionally as Bushi, were studied in September 2014. Bee larvae from Bukavu were compared to those available in the Province of Namur (Belgium) and larvae of the wax moth. In Belgium bee larvae were collected from local beehives whereas the larva of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were bought from the supermarket.
Quantitative analyses of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and glucose based on specific enzymatic reactions performed.
The composition (weight/dry weight) of the Bukavu larvae was made of 20.68% for lipids, 15.40% for proteins and 7.36% for glucose. That of Namur larvae was made of 13.75% for lipids, 31.94% for proteins and 18.43% for glucose. Larvae of the greater wax moth contained 40.14% for lipids, 16.7% for proteins and 0.14% for glucose. These results are equivalent to 251 kcal for the Bukavu bees, 416 kcal for Namur bees and 312 kcal for moth larvae in 100 g of dry weight samples.
Mineral element composition (w/dry weight) was 3.07% for Bukavu bee larvae, 6.86% for Namur bee larvae and 2.41% for moth larvae.
The nutritional value of bee larvae from Bukavu and Namur depends somehow upon their origin, the environmental conditions including the availability of melliferous plants, and other factors.
We conclude that bee larvae (Apis mellifera L) and larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L may be used at a large scale to fight against protein deficiency and malnutrition among the local populations in the region of Bukavu.
Their production can be integrated in the management plan of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Our results are similar to the findings published by other authors on Apis mellifera and Galleria mellonella larvae.
The polymorphism of lysosoma ß- galactosidase (EC. 188.8.131.52) and N- acetylglucosaminidase (EC. 184.108.40.206) has been established taking into account the variation of their specific activities at both the larval, pupal and adult stages. These activities have been decreased from the larva stage (22.03 ± 4.3 nmoles/min/mg of protein) to the adult stage (5.30 ± 1.27 nmoles/min/mg of protein) via the pupal stage (20.4 ± 1.78 nmoles/min/mg of protein). The N- acetylglucosaminidase activity has been about 10 times as higher as that of β-galactosidase. That activity of the N- acetylglucosaminidase is 200.88 ± 31.39 nmoles/min/mg of protein for larvae, 115.00 ± 21.02 nmoles/min/mg of protein for pupas and 9.48 ± 2.23 nmoles/min/mg of protein for adults.
The activities of both 2 enzymes have followed the MICHAELIS-MENTEN law as they were positively linear as well in function of the enzyme concentration and the incubation time as in function of the substrate concentration. The temperature has influenced their respective activities according to ARRHENIUS law, the Q10 being around 2.
The cathepsine C (EC. 220.127.116.11) activities have been equal to 2.03 ± 1.18, 0.95 ± 0.54 and 0.76 ± 0.39 nmoles/min/mg of protein for larvae, pupas and adults, respectively. For the acid phosphatase (EC. 18.104.22.168), the activities have been equal to 6.29 ± 2.87, 6.89 ± 2.69 and 8.51 ± 4.51 nmoles/min/mg of protein for larvae, pupas and adults, respectively. These activities are weak comparatively to those of the former two glycosidases at the 3 development stages of Apis mellifera L. Conversely, the venom acid phosphatase has been very active (25.32 ± 6.94 nmoles/min/mg of protein), an activity almost 20 times higher than that of both cathepsine C, β-galactosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase.
The β-galactosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase from larvae and pupas have all the characteristics of lysosoma enzymes. They have a maximum activity at acidic pH, i.e. 5 for the β-galactosidase and 6 for the N-acetylglucosaminidase, and present a latency property that is annihilated by detergents. A fraction of their activity being sedimentable in the used experimental conditions, these 2 glycosidases are most likely lysosoma acid hydrolases and indicate the presence of lysosomes in Apis mellifera L. In addition, as their activities vary during the bee development stages, it becomes evident the 2 glycosidases are involved in the bee metamorphosis and are thus polymorphic in Apis mellifera L.
Another enzyme, i.e. the hyaluronidase (EC. 22.214.171.124; MW 37 kDa), has been identified in the bee venom.
This study was aimed to determine the physicochemical and functional characteristics of flours from Imbrasia oyemensis larvae and fish (Thunnus albacares) in order to identify appropriate uses (nutrition and food technology). As dried fishes, dried larvae were purchased and ground in a blender to produce raw flours. The physicochemical parameters and functional properties were determined following conventional methods. Data recorded were subjected to statistical analyses. The results showed that the larvae flour is richer in protein (33.57 ± 0.23%) and carbohydrates (38.27 ± 0.38%) than fish one. By cons, it was a low ash content food (3.17 ± 0.01%). Besides, larvae flour is richer in energy with 462.25 ± 3.22 kcal/100 g. While considering their low moisture content (4.70 - 5.56%), flours can be stored for a relatively long period. Furthermore, larvae flour presented the best water absorption capacity (159 ± 3%) and oil absorption one (113 ± 13%). In addition, the values of emulsifying activity (63.88 ± 0.92%) and emulsion stability (103 ± 1%) of larvae flour are statistically identical to those of fish. Despite their low foam capacity (2.21 ± 0.01%), the larvae flour recorded the most stable foam (2.31 ± 0.01%). Its bulk density (0.54 ± 0.01 g/cm3) is lower than that of fish (0.61 ± 0.01 g/cm3). Thus, these flours can be used in the broiler diet. In addition, the study of the functional properties revealed that larvae flours can be recommended in the manufacture of foods for infants and children. It also showed that these flours can be used in the formulation of foods as texturing agent and thickening one. Besides, they could contribute to the fight against certain nutritional diseases due to protein and energy deficiencies. The use of these flours in these areas could add value to these products.
The aim of current research to develop a program that works on the development of some mental life skills to students in third grade of the secondary school at Hail city, and measure the effectiveness of the program in the development of those skills.
To reach this goal has been prepared research tools which were represented in the list of the most important life skills and mental development of the students to be a decision-making skills, problem-solving, critical thinking, creative thinking, planning.
The implementation of the program applied to a sample of third grade secondary students, during the first semester of the academic year 2015/2016, in accordance with the specific plan period.
The findings resulted in the progress of the experimental group students in their knowledge and performance for their peers in the control group, which supports the idea of the search, and confirms the effectiveness of the proposed program. The study presented a number of recommendations and suggestions that the researcher saw the need to apply them.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has been put in crisis since AFDL rebellion in 1996, which has touched the eastern part of North-Kivu, South-Kivu, the north of Katanga and Ituri.
This last province is the one of the actual division of the twenty six (26) provincies of DRC from the apportion to make materialize the constitution according to the management of the national territory of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
In fact, Ituri and other provincies quoted here above have been characterized to the conflict army of any kinds, including many national and stranger actors.
Rich in minerals, Ituri province is the object of desire to all kinds of adventures who sometimes become direct or indirect instigators of security situation and take advantages of it for many years.
Analyzing basic factors of the crisis security persistency in that part of DRC, what emerges from these factors are primary and second factors: those which primary can concern the configuration, the geopolitic structuring and Ituri geostrategic; while those from secondary factors concern politic, strategic factors, economic and technology.
Facing to those factors, many attempts of the crisis resolution have been under taken but in vain because of armies group and the mistrust between the local communities who continue to be nourished by the warlike (aggressive) minds whose end is uncertain.
Introduction: The rapid diuretic furosemide is the temporary loop that is used in the states of edema associated so far in the liver, kidney and heart especially by oral and intravenous routes of administration but its quality control remains a problem in the administration of this drug in the DR Congo.
Method: A cross sectional study was performed on three brands of furosemide 40mg sold in pharmacies Gerva Foundation More and Biosadec of Bukavu in the South Kivu Province. A sample of 60 tablets in the newly approved three pharmacies or 20 tablets per drug were dissolved in water as a solvent and analyzed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 nm to determine the concentrations of active ingredients. The Anova test at significance level 0.5 and linear regression using the Past version1.9.1 and Excel 2010 were used to compare quantitative variables.
Result: Three brands of furosemide (New cesamex Techno economic services Frusina) Frusina shows slightly high test percentage of 99.6% and the two other marks techno economic services and New cesamex show respectively a percentage of the testing of 98 , 75%. A non-significant difference was observed between the three brands p> 0.05 with R2 = 0.99.
In the process of modern society edification, a major fact has led to the irreversible changes in people’s ways of working, thinking, trading, communicating, learning, and so on. These changes concern the rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies and their ability to impose themselves as an absolute must in all sectors of activity, including education. This article attempts to analyse the issue of the diffusion and pedagogical integration of new technologies in primary education in the district of Bouaké. This analysis aims at highlighting the level of popularization of these digital tools in the primary schools of this district in Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, it assesses the policy of educational integration of information and communication technologies in primary schools. The questionnaire was implemented on the basis of the study objectives and hypotheses, together with the exploitation of numerous documents from the Internet and other specific works, has permitted us to get the following findings. In the primary education of Bouaké district, the level of diffusion of digital tools is still very low. Therefore, the pedagogical integration of Information and Communication Technologies into primary education remains laborious. In that respect, till now, primary education does not benefit from the added value of these technologies in the process of transmission and dissemination of knowledge.
Nigella sativa. Known by the common name "black cumin" is a medicinal plant from the Ranunculaceae family. Widely used in traditional medicine and as a food condiment in the Arab world. Basing on the seeds of this plant.
The Nigella Sativa extract prevented bacterial growth; yet their efficiency remains different. The effect of Nigella sativa extract, on Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the method of aromatogramme, shows that these bacteria are inhibited.
The extract of Nigella generated a zone of inhibition of 30, 25, 20, and 10mm respectively, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Evaluation of antioxidant power, which was conducted using the method of trapping the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), said the methanol extract showed an antioxidant activity (IC50 = 12 256 mg / ml), higher than that recorded in the ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.097 mg / ml).
Our concern was to know if the recommendations made at the end of the study conducted in Kisangani, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on variables related to the student explaining differences in performance of schoolchildren may be applicable without difficulties in the concerned town, a question of their feasibility.
Thinking about it, we concluded that:
- Economic, security or professional constraints may prevent compliance with the age of the beginning of primary education.
- Bilingualism or multilingualism rest the intermediate way instead of exclusive and early of the French learning.
- The influence of the disunity of couples depends from one country to another, from one culture to another.
- Maintaining permanent contact with children in case of no cohabitation compensates for the problem.
- Material goods return to the family's socio-economic problems; most of the parents are economically disadvantaged.
- The involvement of mothers to the homework must be supported and backed by other members of families.
- There are some situations leading necessarily to change schools. It is nevertheless recommended to keep the child in one school up to the end of the cycle.
The proposed recommendations are relevant and justified, applicable in a conducive and stable socio-economic context. Nevertheless, three issues are to be considered: the socio-economic conditions; the security conditions and the will to put them into practice.
The current paper deals with the reading of dimension of identity within ‘’ Ici ça va’’ belonging to Charles Djungu - Simba, a renowned Congolese star of literature for the last two decades. To carry out this study, we have had recourse to two approaches including: socio-critical and thematic methods. The interest resides in the fact that in this activity, the image of a Negro as represented in this novel reveals two facets: national identity as well as a borrowing one. A black man is violently bloated; the identity in this novel has become a motif to justify an exile. After setting a conceptual device, this article focuses on two major aspects: on one hand, the painting of African power as the source of chaos, on the other hand, the eradication clash to justify the identity crisis in the host country. The text questions the pertinence of words used in the narrative.
The present ethnobotanical study focuses on plants use to treat several diseases of the digestive system, The study aims to collect data on the plants used, their names, the parts used, the technics of preparation of the products, as well as the administration way of the drugs. In this study, we inventoried 87 plants used in the treatment of diseases connected with the digestive system in Kinshasa and neighborhoods. The families of Euphorbiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae and Rubiaceae are the most represented in this disease category. To improve more understanding of the importance and traditional value of medicinal plants inventoried, the present study further describes the vernacular plant names with their languages as possible. Although these plant species constitute a less expensive source of medicine for people with low income, the study also advocates sustainable management and rational use of plants mentioned to achieve access to health care and sustainable development.