The paper studies the rising trend of prostitution in urban Africa and the upsurge in the use of hard drugs by the youths in neighborhoods. Effects of drug abuse, trafficking and prostitution on a city's local economy; with a consequential impact on its health, security, socio-cultural and economic sustainability is theme of paper. Prostitution and drug abuse is a key factor in organized crimes. Hence, the psychosocial consequence of drug addiction, crime and poverty on the urban workforce is a subject of discuss. Sexual exploitation of women and drug abuse in the US, UK and Australia is a comparative deduction to substantiate the dangers inherent. Paper recounts Colombia's organized crime experience and discourse that in order to help young people; a multiple strategy be utilized to check and withdraw youths from these vices. The paper affirms strongly that a veritable way of dealing with prostitution and drug related offences is to alleviate poverty. In conclusion, paper suggests that Urban Africa for industrial growth needs to evolve and sustain public education and programs, aimed at skills acquisitions, and create employment opportunities for youths that offer options for 'escape' thereby promoting healthy behavior and lifestyle.
Background: Ghana's pursuance of extensive reforms of her health care system to improve access, increase efficiency and ensure quality dates back to the colonial era. The recent attempt made to achieve this is the introduction of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) which has resulted in the increase of health care utilization. The aim of this study is to find out how this increase has affected client's perception of quality of health care delivery in Ghana under the NHIS. Method: A cross-sectional survey was used to assess client perception of quality under the NHIS. In a bid to gather information on fresh client experience at the hospital, exit interview was conducted using structured questionnaire. Moreover, at the point of service delivery, observation was utilized to collect data on customer and service provider interaction. Results: Albeit the service delivery fall short of the Ministry of Health (MoH) quality standards, most of the patients were satisfied. Regarding health facilities, clients need to be educated on their entitlement especially by health insurance schemes, on what they are entitled to whenever they visit health facilities. Conclusion: Generally, the introduction of the NHIS has resulted in increased level of utilization of health services utilization, however this has not been reflected in the quality of service delivery. Since the patients are not aware of their entitlements, they are unable to harvest the maximal benefits of the services.
This research assessed how small scale sawmills residues at Sokoban and Ahwia wood markets are managed and disposed off and suggested appropriate measures for dealing with the situation of waste disposal at these industrial estates. The study was conducted at two local timber markets in Kumasi and its environs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The study was a descriptive social survey design which sought to portray an accurate profile of persons, events and situations. To harness the needed information, a triangulation method comprising of questionnaire, interview and observation/photography methods were employed in gathering data. For primary data collection, systematic random sampling method was used to select a realised sample of 208 respondents from an infinite population comprising of wood processors, carpenters and timber sellers from the areas under survey. The study showed sawing and planing as the highest waste generation sources. Sawdust was the highest waste generated by the artisans while majority were also collecting their waste by manual clearing. The artisans have also resorted to open burning as the means of disposing their waste. There was general assertion that state authorities were not doing enough to manage waste at the surveyed sites. A significant positive correlation between methods of collecting waste and methods of disposal practiced were identified. Ideally, the easiest and most cost-effective way of managing any waste is not to generate it in the first place. Reassessing daily practices and overall product design of the artisans may significantly reduce the amount of wood waste they discard.
The continued development of the business industry makes the green property company must have a specific strategy to increase competitiveness and provide long-term capacity in the face of competition, especially in Pekanbaru city. This study aims to analyze the state of competition within the industry green property facing the company, analyze the internal and external factors affecting the Company's business development in Pekanbaru, and formulate what the main strategies that can be applied to improve the competitiveness of companies in the city of Pekanbaru. There are some alternative strategies that resulted from the analysis of the IFE, EFE, IE matrix, and SWOT analysis is then performed to select a primary strategy QSPM suggested for the Company. The results showed that the main strategies suggested to the Company in order to increase their competitiveness is to open a new project in Pekanbaru. For further research, researchers suggested to do the counting efficiency and effectiveness of alternative strategies generated.
A Low noise variable gain amplifier (VGA) was designed using TSMC 0.13 um CMOS technology. This design is proposed to work at frequency range of 40 to 950 MHz. In this proposed work a numbers of attenuators are placed after two stages of Low noise amplifiers [LNA]. Each attenuator is used to obtain variable gain of amplifier. Control Voltage is applied to each attenuator to obtain variation in gain. The first stage of amplifier is designed for high gain and low noise figure. The second stage is designed for high gain and high linearity. The proposed VGA have achieved the gain of -0.81 db to 29.08 db at 40 MHz and -3.14 db to 26.644 db at 950 MHz. The noise figure of proposed designed is 1.747 db at 40 MHz and 1.411db at 950 MHz when all attenuators are off and 4.032 db at 40 MHz and 4.995 db at 950 MHz when all attenuators are on.
Background: The endemic of toxoplasmosis infection is considered high in Yemen, but there has been inadequate information on the prevalence rate and risk determinants among female at age bearing time in Yemen. This study shed some light on the epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among women in Yemen. The aim of the present study to determine the Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among pregnant and non pregnant women in Sana'a city, its associated risks exposures as age, residence, education, history of abortion, contact with animals and undercooked meat or food. Method: This study was a cross-sectional study, the size of sample was 200, after a questionnaire applied to the pregnant and none pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM antibodies were studied by (ECL). Results: 86 samples 43% were seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and six samples 3% were seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. In The positive samples (86) for IgG the mean age of the women was ≥ 15 years and, the rate was 5% for age group 15-19 years, 16% for 20-24 years, 22%for 25-29 years, 20% for 30-34years, (20%) for35-39% and 17% for ≥ 40 years and, the prevalence rate of IgG 48.3% for females who, had abortion and 38.9% for females who hadn't abortion. For the residency 66% of infection was in urban, 34% was in rural. Conclusion: Increased Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis.
This study conducted at the Eastern DR. Congo, the island Idjwi on plants used in the treatment of asthma falls 21 plant species. The decoction is the preparation method most used remedies with 15 species (68.1%). The oral route of administration is the most used with 18 species (81.8%). Among the organs of plants, the leaves take first place as staff members with 16 species (72.7%). The disease is common in Idjwi, the most observed cases cardiac asthma is mainly because most of the patients neglect the onset of the disease and the symptoms are difficult to observe amber even by specialists in this field. These different forms of the disease are caused by either hereditary or even environmental effects.
Morocco is probably a platform with a great potential for the development of Islamic finance. The recent reform of the law, published during the month of September 2013 on securitization introducing Sukuk is able to stimulate the Moroccan financial market and give it its attraction both in terms of mobilizing internal resources underutilized or external resources especially from the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council. This research aims to highlight how these new instruments of islamic finance such as Sukuk can contribute to the funding of the Moroccan economy. We try to present the different types of Sukuk, their characteristics and their worldwide developments in recent years. In a second axis, we try to understand how these new financial instruments of Islamic finance can be considered as real levers of funding of the Moroccan economy.
In this work we present the design of the pressurized full triangular channel used frequently as drainage, culverts and storm drain. We use the universal equations of uniform turbulent flow, Darcy-Weisbach, Coolebrok-White and Reynolds number, we base on the referential model method to find a new and direct formulas for the calculation of the non dimensional normal depth and the linear dimension of the channel for value of Reynolds number higher than two thousand three hundred.
This study presents the results of a study on the inventory of honey plants and various bee products known to beekeepers Idjwi island in the South Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. To obtain reliable results we used three methods including surveys, observations and crops. This allowed us to find 111 species of woody plants alone account for 62 species or 55.86%. Liquid honey (Buki), the coaguleux honey (Sinde) and wax (Bishoko) are the three types of bee products known to beekeepers Idjwi. Honey is a basic element in the nutrition and health for island Idjwi.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides end to end transmission service which provide a significant contribution in congestion control in the network. TCP throughput is better in wired network than in wireless network, because TCP first designed to work in wired network. The main problem with TCP in wireless network is that no differentiation between network congestion and packet or wireless loss. Many versions of congestion algorithms has been built to accomplish an ideal state of congestion control in both wired and wireless networks. This paper provides a comparison study of congestion control in different popular versions of TCP designed in literature. The aim of this study is to pick up the best procedure to develop a novel version for wireless network which can be developed and used to solve the problem with congestion control in wireless network. According to the comparison, a hybrid TCP that use the network beside the sender and receiver to detect the congestion and processing it, will be the best choice to develop a novel TCP for both wired and wireless networks.
Fruit spread is a well–liked food product because it contains less sugar and more fruit ingredient. The potential of a nutritious underutilized red (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and white (Hylocereus undatus) dragon fruit flesh and peel is used to formulate a fruit spread which caters to the growing number of health conscious consumers and to minimize the waste produced in dragon fruit processing. This study aims to determine the consumer acceptability and physico–chemical content of the red and white dragon fruit spreads. Sensory acceptability was performed with 50 untrained consumers, wherein both dragon fruit spreads were determined to gain very high scores. There is, however, a significant difference between spreads from white and red flesh dragon fruit. Spread from red flesh dragon fruit has a sensory acceptability comparable to the commercial fruit spread in all sensory attributes. The content of the red and white flesh dragon fruit spread are: water activity (0.82 & 0.85), pH (4.90 & 5.12), soluble solids (⁰Brix) (38.65 & 37.67), moisture (46.63 & 40.45), ash (0.68 & 1.16), and fat (0.44 & 0.97). Consumer response on the spread from white and red dragon fruit was deemed to be highly acceptable. The physico-chemical composition of the spread is not comparable with the commercially available spread in terms of pH, fat content, and ash content.
A study was conducted to determine the species composition of fruit flies attacking mangoes and, the extent of mango fruit losses in selected areas of eastern Ethiopia. Fruit flies were collected using two methods; rearing from mango fruits and trapping with the use of Para pheromones. Six species of Tephritidaewere reared from mango fruits:Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitiscosyra, Bactroceracucurbitae, Dacusbivittatus, Ceratitisquinaria and Ceratitiscapitata. 83.1 %, 12.8%,. 2.7%, 0.7 %, 0.4 % and 0.21%, respectively. Nine fruit flies species, four of the genus Ceratitis, (C. cosyra, C. quinaria, C. capitataandC. fasciventris), three of Dacus(D.bivittatus, D. telfairaeandD. apoxanthu), and two of Bacterocera(B. invadens and B. cucurbitae),were collected using different parapheromones (Methyl eugenol, Cuelure, 3Component lure, Trimedlure and Terpinyl Acetate)from mango farms in eastern Ethiopia. Using pheromone traps three new fruit fly species were identified. Out of all species Ceratitisfasciventris were dominant followed by Ceratitiscosyra and Dacusbivittatus. All species has no relation with altitude. The extent of mango infestation on the average ranged 21 to 35% in different locations of Eastern Ethiopia. The overall mean percentage of mango losses is 30.4%.
The present study related to the agro-ecological analysis of the area catchment Okoriko in the district of Toui at Ouèssè (department of the hills). The degradation of the resources through the operating systems is at the origin of the analysis agro-ecological to understand the evolution of the catchment area. From this analysis, an inventory of the various agricultural activities undertaken by the population of the catchment area was made, an evaluation of the impact of the agricultural activities on the environment is also made. The data processing collected on the ground, made it possible to note that in the area catchment Okoriko, the principal operating systems are : agriculture, fishing, the breeding, and forestry exploitation. Agriculture and the forestry exploitation are the most practised activities and occupy more half of the population. Indeed, more than 67 % of the ecosystems are occupied by agricole lands and nearly 10 % of the population have their activity directed towards the forestry exploitation. Only 21 % of the households undertake activities like the breeding, and fishes it. These activities are factors of pollution water, ground, vegetation, watery fauna.
This paper discusses the relationship between the traditional chief in Niger together with the process of decentralization. The democratic process initiated in the early 90s in most of the African countries helped to establish a multi – party system as well as kept good government structures. The initiative could solve the excessive centralization of government powers in African countries. In order to understand the decentralization process in Niger, we should not only refer to the democratic context but also we should understand certain historical facts. Besides, the context of democracy, it should be noted that the claims of the armed rebellion (1989) based on federalism have led to peace agreements, in the October 9, 1994 and April 24, 1995 between the organization of armed resistance (ORA) and the Government of Niger, to adopt decentralization as a form of governance. The option is a full communalisation by changing the townships (sedentary and area nomadic) in commune status. The communes are headed by an elected mayor. The logic is to make these structures as real poles of local development. But in the same way and during a long time at the head of same township there is a leader who administered his people according to traditional mode. This two kind of powerful can create a social conflict if some rules are not defined. I am interested to region of Tahoua, particularly the two urban communes.
The production of waste throughout the world is often related to the importance of the human populations in the areas, their concentrations or dispersions like their activities. However their management is dependent on the degree of civilisation and instruction of the people. The rural center of Walungu has said "Walungu Center" knows a demographic explosion without preceding for one decade busy by 1064habitants in 2006 to 2000 individuals in 2014 on only 4Km2. This demographic boom which attracts the curiosity of more than one person is particularly related to a positive migratory balance (40.6% emigration and 59.4% immigration), consequence of the massive escapes of the populations in prey of insecurity in the peripheral villages (bands armed), a high birth rate (55%0: Third world) but also attracted by the medical infrastructures (General hospital of Walungu, EFSKI), school (five secondary schools of reputation and the Teaching Institute of higher learning of Walungu, ISP/Walungu), administrative (chief town of the territory), usual E, sedentary (camps of the Mission of the Organization of the United Nations for Maintains Security in Congo, MONUSCO as well as the presence of the Armed forces of the Democratic republic of Congo, FARDC) and commercial (market power station of Mudwanga). This center which, today appears like a city, knows inter alia problems waste and their management. Indeed, it is observed in this center of waste of various origins (domestic: 85%, schools, market, church, hospital: 12% and of the camp of the MONUSCO: 3%) and of various nature (organic: 75% and inorganic: 25%) The latter are badly managed however their good management would constitute more advantages than of disadvantages being given their natures: 75% organics and of domestic origin, not of industries which would produce toxic wastes except the MONUSCO. Although the near total of this waste is used as fertilizers (58%), the latter involve not bad environmental and consequently socio-medical problems: air pollution (breathing), of water and the tablecloths (hydrous diseases), of the ground (cultures)… to which the local populations assist powerlessly.
Textile industry represents a significant share of total Moroccan industrial production; it is one of the first industries purveyors of employment in Morocco, which shows the importance of studying performance aspects of this industry. Indeed, among a multitude existing performance models, the BSC (Balanced scorecard) is chosen because it is considered simple, comprehensive and the most used in the world. We specify that axes related to the performance of the textile industry in Morocco, require a study that takes into account the realities and constraints in the sector. In this paper, we studied the importance given to the different axes of the BSC related to the textile and clothing industry in Morocco and we classify them in order of importance following the results of a survey we launched with industry professionals. Finally, the results of this work have as perspective the development of an overall performance model for this industry.
In recent years the most perceptible topic for electrical engineering is power quality. Basically, Power quality is simply the interaction of electrical power with electrical equipment. If electrical equipment operates correctly and reliably without being damaged or stressed, we would say that the electrical power is of good quality. On the other hand, if the electrical equipment malfunctions, is unreliable, or is damaged during normal usage, we would suspect that the power quality is poor. Voltage sag is one of most severe problem among the power quality issue. Despite being a short duration (10ms to 1s) event during which a reduction in the RMS voltage magnitude takes place, a small reduction in the system voltage can cause serious consequences. Nonlinear loads are major source of voltage sag. A load is considered non-linear if its impedance changes with the applied voltage. The changing impedance means that the current drawn by the non-linear load will not be sinusoidal even when it is connected to a sinusoidal voltage. Most commonly non-linear loads can be primarily found in heavy industrial applications such as arc furnaces, large variable frequency drives (VFD), heavy rectifiers for electrolytic refining, etc. In this paper a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) system is proposed to overcome from the problem of voltage sag. Dynamic Voltage Restorer is a series connected power electronics based device that can quickly mitigate the voltage sag in the system and restore the load voltage to the pre-fault value. This paper first gives an introduction to relevant power quality problems for a DVR and power electronics controllers for voltage sag mitigation. Thereafter the operation and elements in DVR is described. In this paper proposed utilizes the error signal to control the triggering of the switches of an inverter using Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique. Modeling and simulation of proposed DVR is implemented in MATLAB SIMULINK.
The three financial techniques known under « Ijara », Murabaha » and « Musharaka » were introduced to Morocco in 2007 in the context of an international convergence towards Islamic finance. However, the integration of such techniques in traditionally-oriented Moroccan banks is facing various challenges. Marketing these products has proved to be limited. The present article targets the description of the so far adopted financial techniques and the analysis of the challenges they face, especially in terms of marketing. It also targets the provision of suggestions about their development through the synthesis of available studies as well as through a series of opinions given by bank managers, advisers and specialists in the realm of Islamic finance.
Environment can be understood as the space where human live and on which depend the quality of their life and health, taking into account those of future generations. Some environment components are: property which forms part of cultural heritage, characteristic aspects of landscape, rocks, air, soil, under soil, fauna, flora, forests, water, and sea. Use and management of sea resources are under specific prescriptions.
In this paper design of a wideband power amplifier is presented. The operating frequency of the power amplifier is from 880 MHz to 960 MHz. The circuit is designed using two 5 W GaN-HEMT. The Wilkinson power divider/combiner is used which is designed using microstrip line. The RF input applied to the power amplifier is divided into two using power divider. The RF signal is amplified in the two amplifier stages and combined. By using linear simulations, a GaN power amplifier circuit was optimized with the input and output return losses obtained as less than -15 dB. Isolation of the PA is approximately -30 dB and the maximum gain is 16.243 dB. The power amplifier is designed in Advanced Design System. The designed power amplifier is useful for GSM application.
Software quality plays a very important role in the success of software projects, it is a point of interest of all stakeholders in the software development cycle, using a variety of approaches and models to describe and measure software quality. However, these approaches and models are little far from presenting a description of the quality reliable and faithful to the needs for the users. As well as the absence of an approach allow the capitalization of the experiences accumulated during the cycle of software development. For this, the Framework QMGenerator is done to overcome these obstacles by facilitating quality modeling, and making profile reuse experiments using an extensible knowledge base that provides direction and guidance to stakeholders the software development cycle.
Real-Time Database Systems (RTDBSs) are designed to manage the majority of current applications which manipulate a large volume of data and have a great need of real-time computation. One of the main issues in the DBMSs is to control the access to the same data items by the transactions in incompatible mode. In RTDBSs, this problem becomes more complicated since the transaction manager must not only avoid data access conﬂicts, but it has also to provide mechanisms that help transactions to meet their deadlines, to maximize the transactions success ratio. In this paper, we describe The SCC protocol (Speculative Concurrency Control) which is one of the first concurrency control protocol RTDBS. It is based on the transactions duplicating transactions. However, the SCC raises some problems; we propose a new extension of this protocol to solve these problems and to increase the number of transactions meeting their deadline.
The study examined the effects of postharvest losses on selected fruits and vegetables among small-scale farmers in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State. Purposive sampling was adopted in selecting four different local fruits and vegetable markets, in each of the markets selected 30 respondents (fruits and vegetables producers) were selected randomly, making a total of 120 respondents. Structured questionnaire was administered on the respondents through interview. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results of the findings revealed that 55% of the producers were female, 38.2% were age between 21-30 years, 85.8% had family size of between 1-5 persons, 36.7% attended tertiary institutions, 62% were farmers and 56.7% had farming experience of between 1-9 years. The results further revealed that 48.5% lost about $30.5 on annual basis, 35% lost at least 1,000Kg of fruits and vegetables on annual basis, 57.5% lost produce due to non-availability of buyers, 55% of the produce were tomatoes, there was a significant difference between effects of postharvest losses and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents at (P<1). It is recommended that government should provide infrastructure for fruits and vegetables processing industries to be established in the area to avoid fruits and vegetables wastages.
The objective of this paper is to show that Public Administration and Marketing are not two opposing fields. We will try to understand the contributions and limits of the application of the practices marketing to the public sector in Tunisia. We are based on four interviews with public administration agents from different Tunisian Administrations.