Our study was about access on drinking water in the urban rural population of Bumba. It was about getting ways how the population of this city could organize themselves to provide drinking water for themselves, which they need for their life. In fact, in a particular way, an emphasis was put on the quality of the water that they use and its repercussion on the public health.
Water, considered inaccessible and of bad quality according to the investigations, is responsible for hydric diseases. Its inaccessibility, to the population, is specially due to deterioration of the installations, to the dysfunction and long distance to the water providing wells. Water quality problems in Bumba is explained by the lack of treatment of consumption water by the majority of its population, impotence of the public powers, the e lack of voluntarism as far as improvement of population life conditions is concern, lack of mobilization and programs integration "water and health". Bad practices in Hygiene and cleaning makes populations vulnerable, mostly infants who are the most exposed to all hydric diseases (dermatosis, gales, diarrhea, intestine infections, parasitosis, etc.) "Drinking water for all" question has become, since some years, the target of many international conferences and preoccupies the whole humanity.
Generally, these results reveals to us that, not only drinking water accessibility and its basic cleaning are difficult in Bumba, but also the population behavior.
Drinking water treatment and waste management have alarming dimensions in rural DR Congo, particularly in the Bengamisa region, and are currently experiencing continuous and permanent degradation. Also, there is a disparity between cities and within cities and this is expressed in terms of quality and quantity of drinking water between well-equipped areas (regular areas) and poorly equipped areas (irregular areas).
However, water scarcity is characterized here by the abundance of dirty water whose use is a hindrance to the economic and social emergence of the population. The criteria for water scarcity in the Bengamisa region are lack of or poor access to drinking water, the preponderance of water-related diseases and above all the "doubt" that consumers have about the quality of water. of this resource. In general, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of plastic bottles in the treatment of drinking water by solar radiation, but also on human health. To achieve the objectives, we treated the drinking water by SODIS method, which consists in exposing under water the water contained in the PET plastic bottle for its purification. Thus, the following physicochemical parameters were the subject of our analyzes: pH, M.O, color, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, total iron and temperature; and this before and after photo-purification of water. Indeed, it is clear from our investigations that the photo-purification of water does not change the physicochemical parameters of the drinking water so much. Similarly, it should be noted that not all plastics are innocuous and we must be wary of buying not only bottled water but also other products / foods packaged with plastic. But, it is rather important to know what kind of plastic you have to do; and that all codes, in general, are mentioned on the bottom of bottles, containers, corks, etc. To do this, the plastic bottle based on polyethylene terephtalate (PET) is more recommended than the others, because of its performance in solar recipe. It should also be remembered that consuming bottled water harms the wallet, the environment, and "could" harm health.
A study on the etiology and management of hypertension was conducted in the urban-rural town of Basoko. Its objectives were:
- Determine factors that cause high blood pressure;
- Assess the management of the disease at the Basoko General Reference Hospital;
- Implement adequate therapeutic strategies for the management of high blood pressure, based on the recommendations of the High Authority for Health (HAS-2005).
A sample of 32 hypertensive subjects was diagnosed and treated at the Basoko General Reference Hospital. After analyzes, it was revealed that high blood pressure affects people over the age of 55 or older, and predominantly male. Stress, age, alcoholism and smoking are factors that predispose individuals to high blood pressure in Basoko. The treatment of this disease is based firstly on the hygiene-dietetic measures, then follows the treatment with the antihypertensive. The majority of hypertensive subjects hospitalized at the Reference General Hospital were discharged from the hospital with an improved state of health.
A sample of 57 diagnosed children and treaty for case of typhoid fever at the Général hospital of reference of Basoko had been the subject of our investigations. After the analyses, it was revealed that the typhoid fever is observed more during January, Mars and October with Basoko over the twelve months of the year. The children whose age bracket varies from 3 to 5 years are reached than the others.
Paludism and helminthiasis are the pathologies most associated the typhoid fever. Hyperthermia, the abdominal pain, gargouillement, the cephalgia, the stiffness of the nape of the neck and the physical asthenia are the clinical signs most characteristic of the typhoid fever. The current treatment of the typhoid fever rests on antibiotics with strong intracellular penetration, especially intra-macrophagic. With this intention, the synergy of cephalosporine of 3rd generation with the phénicole one, associated Dexaméthasone into intravenous slow during 10 minimum days constitute a treatment of success, with a reduction of mortality of 10% against that of 50% without Dexaméthasone.
The factors of risks the most accused in the contamination of the typhoid fever in the children are insufficient hygiene and the consumption of the fruits without washed. The diagnostistic difficulties are due to the lack of the equipment of biological diagnosis specific, to the limits of the clinical signs in the zones of endémie and the bad interpretation of the sérodiagnostic of Widal Felix.
: In Kisangani, 100 taps two major networks (low and high pressure) water distribution REGIDESO were selected for bacteriological analysis.
From a quantitative point of view, the results of our study showed a high bacterial’ biodiversity in the REGIDESO distribution network: the number of bacteria varies from 6,10 to 290,10e bacteria / ml in the circulating biomass and from 4 106 to 90,106 bacteria / cm2 biomass biomass fixed generally, bacterial densities are highest in the biofiim than in the aqueous phase.
The most identified genera Escherichia, Kiebsiella, Salmonella, Citrobacter Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Micrococcus, Alcaligenes, Corynebacterium Bacillus, Enterobacter.
Maintaining the quality of drinking water should be characterized by stability of bacterial growth. The treatment plant and water distribution in the DRC must control the sources of the reduction of microbial contamination and limit microbial degradation of drinking water.
A sample of 68 wells left again in the four districts of the City of Basoko had been the subject of our investigations for the analyses physicochemical and bacteriological. Also an investigation in the 350 households into the behavior of the house holds screw-with screw of water of domestic use was carried out.
The bacteriological analyses raised the presence of the indicator germs of the pollution in analyzed water of the wells, like some pathogenic, whose quantitative average of the colonies is 79,05; 443,39 and 3, 22 units by water 100ml, respectively for the fecal coliformes, streptocoques fecal and Salmonella or Shigella. This observation shows that all the investigués wells are polluted. The identified germs, in addition to the Salmonellas or Shigella, are: C. frendi (33,8%); E coli (26,7%); Klebsiella spp (18, 3%); C intermédiare (12,7%) and Enterobacter (8,5%).
As for the chemical physico analyses, the pH of water of well takes varies from 4,92 to 7,38; while their temperature ranges between 25 and 33° C the average values of the proportioned chemical compounds are: 8,635 mg/l for the ions chlorides; 13,225 mg/l for calcium; 8,02 mg/l for magnesium; and that the alkalinity of water of the wells analyzed was 85,6 Mg / L.
It comes out from our investigations that certain households draw and store water in the buckets without lids, (42, 23%); others clean their containers of storage or drawing up that once per week (3,33%). Moreover, it ya of the households which preserve water of domestic use during in the month 3jours (5,78%). 88,22% of the households do not treat water before consumption. In addition, certain households do not have toilets, it is - with - to say défèquent with the free air (10,44%); and that 9,55% of the wells of supply water are located at less than 50 meters of the toilet.