Currently, cooperative banks compete with the biggest capitalist financial institutions. In principle, the aims, values and governance of this banking model are not identical to those of conventional capitalist banks mainly oriented towards maximizing short-term financial performance. Indeed, the specific governance of cooperative banks presupposes a much more democratic vocation, equitable and sustainable. The originality of this work lies in the asking milestones or thought on the model of the cooperative bank is still unknown in Morocco despite his international success. More specifically, the objective of this paper is to present the specifics of the cooperative bank and analyze the governance mechanisms it adopts to ensure the balance between the cooperative identity and the economic and financial performance.
This study is performed on the Ramsar site of Sassandra Dagbego complex that houses important wetlands including the estuary of Sassandra river and mangrove forests. It has for objective to study the state of conservation of this wetland of international importance that is this site Ramsar. Its implementation was made from the exploitation of satellite images at medium resolution (Landsat TM and OLI) and of investigations on the ground. The processing of images on the implementation indices, colorful compositions and supervised classification was used to map land cover in 1986 and 2014 and to analyze the dynamics of natural habitats between the two dates. The results show a dynamic land use characterized by regression over time, mangroves and forests for the benefit of the cultivated and residential areas.
Background: The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a rare skin tumor with a low grade malignancy. It is characterized by a random and asymmetric local extension and a spontaneous tendency to local recurrence. This characteristic is the main difficulty in the management of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The aim of our study was to evaluate our experience in the management of this disease and to clarify the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics of this rare tumor.
Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center, covering 120 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans treated at the Institute Salah Azaiez, over a period of 21 years from 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2012.
Results: The average age at diagnosis was 41.5 years, ranging from 7 to 82 years. . Our population was consisted of 51 women and 69 men. The chief complaint most frequently found was the rapid growth of a nodule (39.2% of cases). The average consultation time was 51 months. The predilection was the trunk in 71 patients (59%) and members in 42 patients (35%). The average lesion size was 6 cm, with a range of 1 to 20 cm. The most common appearance was an isolated nodule in 60% of cases. Ultrasound soft tissue was done in 15 cases (12.5%). Therapeutically, our patients underwent a wide excision in 118 cases and adjuvant radiotherapy in two cases. We observed nine cases of recurrence after a median follow up of 29 months. We observed ten cases of sarcomatous transformation six of which have developed lethal metastases.
Conclusion: The prognosis of this disease depends on the surgery performed in first intention which must be complete from the start. Any inappropriate surgery increases the risk of recurrence, sarcomatous degeneration and metastasis.
The growing demand for local area communication are prominent for day-to-day activities, therefore, there is growing interest in optimizing the WLAN infrastructure so as to increase productivity and efficiency in the various school campuses, factories, hotels, among others. Regardless of the enormous benefits offered by WLANs, the environment, including building, trees, bushes, vegetation, climate, and interferences from other RF signals in which the WLAN operates play a critical role in defining the architecture and design of WLAN. In this paper, a mean path loss model was developed and compared with some well-known models and it showed some agreement indicating it can be used to effectively deploy WLAN infrastructure for effective coverage distance, improved client received signal quality, reliability of data transfer, and effective data rate on KNUST campus.
Despite the strengthening of routine immunization, Niger continues to register measles outbreaks in some health districts. The objective of the study is to analyze the database of notifiable diseases (DND) for 2003-2015.
A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. All suspected case of measles in the DND and the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) database were included. Data was analyzed using the software Epi Info version 3.5.3. A total of 173,997 suspected case of measles and 8,959 suspected cases of measles were recorded respectively for DND and the NRL database from 2003 to 2015. The age range of 1 to 4 years was the most represented with 36.78%. It was showed that 93.12% of the sample was not vaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. The sample having an adequate sampling state had represented 80.02% and 57.84% were positive for IgM. All regions recorded cases and deaths from 2003 to 2015 and there are many disparities across regions and years.
The study revealed that there are many variations and disparities across regions and years.
The significance of the security governs North Kivu post-election 2006 embodying the gray area in Congo - Kinshasa, radiates a geopolitical exhilarating contingency of armed conflict iterative multi causalities between the myriad armed groups mobilizing and stratagems strategies for both symmetric and asymmetric with moving contours, expressions safe modes ideological agendas and identity reviled. This context illustrates a real myocardial continuously inviting ipso facto, the caste of state and non-state recalcitrant involved in this game of decentralization of violence to undermine the revolution by their responsibilities as anchor forces presence to build an unmarked path ahead, the result of the invention of the new paradigm tropicalized to the extent of the issue leading to the actual practice of the culture of peace and security, guaranteeing the takeoff of sustainable development Contemporary North Kivu, by rethinking the authority of the State challenged to transform the geopolitical conflicts chaos in tropic observed on land between armed groups erected in ingredients career extractive economic resources in new geopolitical strategies to reconquer State emerge, the power of peace and hope in Congo - Kinshasa.
Granitic Igneous rock is commonly found as granite dust on most quarry site, this form of igneous rock possess the same elemental composition with feldspathic and kaolinite minerals found in-situ, granitic igneous rock found along Klington Quarry Site was characterized using XRF to determine the percentage composition of the granitic Igneous Rock and XRD to understand the mineralogical phase distribution. The granite dust was mixed in proportion with feldspar and wood ash respectively to detect the best functional composition suitable for forming a ceramic glaze. The mixture was fired to a temperature of 1250oc with composition G4 exhibiting the most promising result.
Through this study, we tried to study the different types of knowledge management strategies and objectives. The aim is to raise the policy type most appropriate to the context of public administration. A case study was conducted in the Department of Marine Fisheries, who thinks implement a knowledge management approach, based on semi-structured interviews with twenty actors directly involved in the knowledge management process the Department.
We tried, first, to present a synthesis of the literature on knowledge management and strategies of KM. In a second, we presented the results obtained in our study that demonstrate the importance of linking the two types of existing KM strategies with the objective to guarantee the success of the strategy known within the Department of sea fishing.
The textile industry generates a large amount of wastewater containing various pollutants (dyes, heavy metals, salts, etc.), which cause severe problems to the environment. The treatment of these effluents by classical methods (activated sludge and physico-chemical) is very expensive for developing countries. In this context, alternative low-cost technology may be investigated. Among others, the treatment efficiency of a perforated intermittent sand filter was studied on a textile industry effluent in Abidjan. Various filter configurations (perforation area: 150, 300 and 600 cm2) were used. Conductivity, pH and light absorbencies at 436, 525 and 620 nm of the effluent and the filters filtrates were followed up. The relevant results are a decrease of pH from 11 to 6 and 9, desalination and a discoloration of about 45 % of the raw effluent at 436 nm. The best pretreatment of the raw textile effluent was obtained with the perforated intermittent sand filter having 150 cm2. The intermittent filtration of textile industry effluent on a perforated sand filter wise an area of 150 cm2 seems to be a promising alternative for the pretreatment of textile effluent.
In textile industry, production and consumption of textiles produce huge amount of waste every year, rendering its main conclusion that it is one of the most polluting industry. To counter the problem, reinforcing waste textile fiber with polymeric materials is one of the measures for reducing textile industry’s negative contribution towards environment. In the current work, waste textile fiber reinforced polypropylene composites were prepared using hot press machine at different fiber loading (10, 20 and 30 wt%). Mechanical properties of such composites were investigated by tensile, flexural, impact and hardness tests. Generally, their mechanical properties showed a decreasing trend except impact strength that followed increasing trend. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were also carried out for the characterization of the composites. The FTIR analysis of the composites showed increase of fiber content. Tensile fracture surface morphology and thermal stability of the composites were examined by SEM and TGA analysis respectively.
A sample of 68 wells left again in the four districts of the City of Basoko had been the subject of our investigations for the analyses physicochemical and bacteriological. Also an investigation in the 350 households into the behavior of the house holds screw-with screw of water of domestic use was carried out.
The bacteriological analyses raised the presence of the indicator germs of the pollution in analyzed water of the wells, like some pathogenic, whose quantitative average of the colonies is 79,05; 443,39 and 3, 22 units by water 100ml, respectively for the fecal coliformes, streptocoques fecal and Salmonella or Shigella. This observation shows that all the investigués wells are polluted. The identified germs, in addition to the Salmonellas or Shigella, are: C. frendi (33,8%); E coli (26,7%); Klebsiella spp (18, 3%); C intermédiare (12,7%) and Enterobacter (8,5%).
As for the chemical physico analyses, the pH of water of well takes varies from 4,92 to 7,38; while their temperature ranges between 25 and 33° C the average values of the proportioned chemical compounds are: 8,635 mg/l for the ions chlorides; 13,225 mg/l for calcium; 8,02 mg/l for magnesium; and that the alkalinity of water of the wells analyzed was 85,6 Mg / L.
It comes out from our investigations that certain households draw and store water in the buckets without lids, (42, 23%); others clean their containers of storage or drawing up that once per week (3,33%). Moreover, it ya of the households which preserve water of domestic use during in the month 3jours (5,78%). 88,22% of the households do not treat water before consumption. In addition, certain households do not have toilets, it is - with - to say défèquent with the free air (10,44%); and that 9,55% of the wells of supply water are located at less than 50 meters of the toilet.
The tie between economic growth and system of education seems sufficiently established to collect a large consensus of the economists. The profits of the education go well beyond their contribution to the human capital in the production of goods. To shortcoming this survey carrying on the" role of the woman's education: Arbitration between work and fertility", it was question to understand the interrelations between the woman's education, the use and the fertility in urban environment, and more especially in the city of Goma. The data have been collected with the help of a questionnaire and the results have been analyzed thanks to the methods statistical, inductive and comparative. To this effect, the software packages Eviews 3.0 and Sphinx Plus allowed us to make econometric analysis of the survey.
After the analyses, we noted that the elevated instruction level pushes the woman to look for a salaried job (rather than to remain in the domestic works). With regard to the influence of the woman's education on the wanted births, it is little meaningful.
It would be useful for the state to take some measures in terms of policies and strategies in view of to control well and to master the dynamics of the populations. To this consideration, let's signal that the demographic explosion has some ties with the poverty of the countries of the South. With regard to the households, the awakening of conscience concerning education and fertility can contribute to the improvement of their life conditions.
Public transit in the city of Bukavu requires that every player involved will be performing. This study from research data from January to December 2015 is intended to analyze the performance and demonstrate the importance of roads and transport as key factors for the development of the medium. Indeed our study of 200 players divided into the three towns of Bukavu reveals that transport is poorly organized there (56.6% of the population) and this has consequences for the socio-economic life of the population while the number of vehicles that are growing at a cruising speed. The population making use conveyance believes that to improve transport conditions in the city of Bukavu, it should create new routes (21% of the population), expand the city to the suburbs (17.5%), create parking (18.5%), regulate traffic (20.5%), take regular vehicle inspection (7%), fight against police harassment (6%) and regularly recycle drivers (9.5% Population). These findings reveal the importance of the involvement of the authorities both political and administrative in order to make easier the mobility of the population.
With the advent of the idea of preservation of archaeological and heritage buildings as well known, architects adopted the principle of restoration in general as a mechanism for the maintenance and conservation of these buildings, however, with the development of concepts to keep gradually turning this concept of guaranteed protection of historic buildings to the concept of sustainable preservation to include the retention and preservation of Origin side by the process of field to the side, taking into account the values of perception its relationship to the urban fabric, characteristics of the society who is included, and the connections to it.
The principles of sustainability appear in traditional housing in its compatibility with the environment with all its pluses and minuses according to a framework of protection and adjustment, There are several basic principles, which were based on the building of traditional housing, the principles of sustainability include: planning and dealing with the site, design thinking in traditional housing, environmental design and conservation of energy, natural ventilation in traditional systems, and building materials.
As multiple preserve the architectural heritage levels depending on the size and type of heritage and its importance, and are: to maintain the heritage elements, keep one building, such as restoration and renovation of the buildings of heritage and turn them into museums or tourist attractions, and the preservation of a group of buildings, or complete a heritage area.
Maintain policies that include two parts: preventive preservation and therapeutic preservation, which includes: protection, preservation and strengthening construction and renovation, restoration, rehabilitation, reproduction and re-construction, maintaining mechanisms: policies and other degrees of intervention, as policies also include renewal, refinement, repair, maintain, restore neighborhoods retrieval, replacement, re-representation, and redevelopment.
The research aims to highlight the importance of architectural heritage of Dubai represented by Sheikh Sa'eed's House (1896), which represents a model for arts of architecture in arabian Gulf region in the nineteenth century, and represents – as traditional architecture - the height of architectural modernism, and to highlight the importance of policies of architectural conservation and sustainable for this house, which is integrated with the design of thought and traditional architecture. And deals with the problematic of preserving the architectural heritage and sustainability, where highlights a comprehensive picture of traditional architecture, where architects adopted the principle of sustainable preservation order to protect the historic building, and awareness and appreciation of a comprehensive environment-urban and urban heritage and fabric, and design using local building materials and simple techniques studied, according to the principles of sustainability.
Wavelet analysis was applied to the standardized rainfall time series in the south-eastern in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in order to determine periods of rainfall fluctuations in this region at interannual and decennial timescales and to assess the influence of regional or remote climate phenomena on the rainfall of that sector between 1940 and 1997. The local, the global and the scale-averaged wavelet power spectrum of the rainfall time series of that sector indicate an important fluctuation between practically 1960 and 1970. Wavelet coherence spectral analysis shows that the southern oscillation El Nino phenomenon, the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool, the Atlantic Ocean climate variability and the Indian Ocean dipole have a very weak influence on rainfall on this territory. Scale-averaged wavelet coherence in 2-16 years band is lower than 0.5 whatever the climate index considered. Other factors must also be considered in the study of rainfall variability in this study area.