Le nord du Burkina Faso, était jadis une région où les ignames communément appelées « yùyà » étaient très prisées et cultivées. De nos jours, cette culture est en voie de disparition. Cependant, quelques paysans ont su conserver les principaux groupes variétaux qui sont : « nyù » ; « waogo », « boussa » et « rogui ». La présente étude a été ainsi initiée pour connaitre les systèmes de culture, les variétés paysannes ainsi que les usages qui en sont faits. Une enquête menée à Arbollé, a permis de montrer que les « yùyà », groupe d'ignames du genre Dioscorea, jouent plusieurs rôles à la fois à savoir alimentaire, médicinal (traitement de diarrhée infantile, malaises après la ménopause, régulateur de tension, stimulant sexuel……) et aussi socio-économiques (offrande, vente) importants. Les pratiques culturales sont très peu diversifiées selon les connaissances endogènes héritées et les moyens financiers des paysans. Les uns utilisent la paille pour la protection et les autres les pieds secs de sorgho. Les principales techniques de fertilisation des sols sont l’utilisation de la fumure organique et la rotation des cultures.
In order to evaluate the proportion of the provided education for young people who probably consumed drug, an epidemiological investigation was carried out in 3141 pupils; out these 2135 were boys and 1006 girls. Among the interviewed pupils, 316 (10.06%) admitted having already consumed at least once of drug. Among them, 258 boys (either 12,08%) already consumed drug against 58 girls (or 5,77%). This study evaluated the proportion of the consumers by age bracket. Thus, three age brackets were considered to range from [9-13 years, [13 - 19 years, and [19 - 22 years]. The results indicate that 578 pupils from 9 years old and less than 13 years, 27 (that is to say 4,67%) consume these substances. Among the 13 years old pupils to less than 19 years, 173 on a total of 1634 individuals consume drug (either 10,59%) and 12,49% of the pupils from 19 to 22 years are also consumers. The consumption of drug was also evaluated at its subjects surveyed by level of study. Thus, the distinction is made between the first cycle and the second cycle. On this subject, one notes that on 1575 subjects questioned with the first cycle, 150 (either 9,52%) admitted having consumed drug against 166 out of 1566 pupils questioned (or 10,60%) with the second cycle. Our studies have shown that age and level of education would influence drug use.
The investigations have been conducted in Lubunga urban-rural area because of its direct connection to the survey sites, where exploitation, sale as well as artisanal transformation of rattans are current activities.
The socio-economic and ethno-ecological investigations on strategies of exploitation of rattans from June 2008 to December 2009. The survey has carried out in 12 villages in periphery of the Forest Reserve of Yoko and Lubunga. There were about 62 households of cutters - sellers, 14 households of cutters artist villagers, 13 households of artists of the rattan canes, 22 households of artists from Lubunga and 16 households of dealers of products made from rattan.
The findings showed that the techniques of selective cut (choice of mature stems) and reasoned cut (the cut doesn't make itself at the level of soil) for exploitation of rattan canes are practiced by the villagers.
The results revealed that exploitation, transformation and sale of rattans generate to the households daily incomes. A cutter-transforming and dealer has an income of 375 USD per month; a carrier by train has an income of 1137 USD per month, a carrier by bicycle has an income of 511 USD per month, a carrier by lorry has an income of 267 USD per month, a dealer of the articles has an income of 186 USD per month.
This study enabled to schematize the stages of work following principal centers of advantages of rattan sector, forest, via the village markets, 13 sites that 12 zones of rattan transformation and the Lubunga zonein order to better understand the socio-economic analysis of rattan sector surroundings of Forest Reserve of Yoko.
This descriptive part showed the existence of thirteen types of actors at level of rattan sector from harvest to consumption and of thirteen villages identified; twelve have been surveyed because the Forest Reserve of Yoko was excluded. The financial approach applied to these sectors showed that the activities of various agents are profitable. While the economic approach showed that the whole of value chain is not economically profitable.
The exploratory study revealed the existence of a sector under development precarious and nondurable because except the conflicts which exist between the riparian populations and the States which maintain them, the rattan moves away and nobody thinks of his replacement.
The present study was conducted to determine whether gratitude can work as a protective factor against depressive (pessimistic) attributions that people make about their lives. The study had two hypotheses; one expecting a negative correlation between the two variables and second expecting gratitude to predict lesser depressive attributions. For this purpose a sample of 328 participants (161 men and 167 women), with ages ranging from 17 – 40 years (x ̅=22.88, SD=4.244) was taken from various universities of Karachi city. Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ) and Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) along with a demographic information questionnaire were administered. Findings, using IBM SPSS 21, showed that the two variables have significant moderate negative relationship (r (328) = -.293, p<.001) and Gratitude was found to be a significant predictor of reduced Depressive attributions (β= -.45, t = -5.533, p < .001). Gratitude also explained a significant proportion of variance in depressive attribution scores (R2 = .086, F (1, 326) = 30.614, p < .001). It is therefore concluded that the attitude of gratitude or thankfulness does reduce the pessimistic view people develop about their lives.
A survey based on thirty units of kilishi manufacturing units "kilishierie" was conducted in the three regional cities of North Cameroon (Ngaoundéré, Garua and Marua), in order to characterize the actors, their organization, their technology, their building and perception of kilishi quality (a dried meat or smoked meat sliced, seasoned with a cocktail of ingredients and roasted or not over wood fire). It appeared from this survey that, the technical system was 77% dominated by the Hausa, 47% were cameroonians, 27% nigerans and 3% nigerians. The organization was essentially tribal with very few relations between the actors of the different production units. The production technology varies from one producer to another and according to the spaces, mainly in the technique of unwinding, drying and the formulation of seasoning for coating the slices of dried meat. The meat used for kilishi production came from 61% of Goudali zebu, 30% Bororo zebu and 9% Fulani zebu. Of the 105 carcass muscles, only 09 muscles (slice tender, sirloin steak, walnut lodge, round of lodging, fillet, rump, scoter, slice and chuck) were used and implied the frenetic research for noble meat. The investigation revealed two types of unwinding meat, the 15cmx5cmx5cm and along the muscle and 2 drying modes (drying in the sun and dry-smoking), which resulting in a dozen of types of kilishi. The construction and perception of quality by actors at the level of all unit operations were identified. The main limiting factors of the technical system were related to the variability of the quality and the availability of meat, the technical constraint of the unwinding techniques, the practice of uncontrolled drying and packaging. The major consequences of these factors are the low hygienic value of the product and its variability. The control of these factors is therefore an important issue for the improvement of this technical system. The annual production was estimated at about 132.5 tons of kilishi for a cash value of about 1.650 000 000 FCFA.
This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effects of institutional quality on the attractiveness of FDI by the Cameroonian economy. In order to do this, the research attempted to explain the relationship between the variation in the explanatory factors generated on the volume of FDI entering Cameroon through econometric modeling by adopting the VAR (Vector autoregressive modeling) approach for 1996 to 2014. The results of the research revealed a negative and significant effect of corruption and political stability on FDI in Cameroon. Thus, economic policy measures will have to focus, on the one hand, on the stepped-up implementation of the means of combating corruption and on the other hand, the continued maintenance of political stability in Cameroon.
The present study has been conducted in the biology laboratory of Bukavu Teacher Training College (Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de Bukavu), in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is intended to check the assumed antifungal properties of Allium sativum extracts, given that its commonplace use in the fight against human mycoses. Therefore, various aqueous extract concentrations of the above mentioned species have been tested on the air mold cultivated on Sabouraud agar to get reliable scientific data. The results showed that these extracts inhibit altogether the development of molds from 50% mass concentration. These antifungal properties proved experimentally would be taken advantage of to take up the main challenge related to the prevalence of several cases of mycoses, the rarefaction of antifungal products, and the destruction of farm products by fungi and their infection by mycotoxins.
In this study, related to the design of sex education by Logo students living in the city of Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we worked with a sample of 80 subjects from six institutions of higher education and university. Using the survey method, data collection was done using a questionnaire. In the end, we realized the respondents have a varied consequence of sexuality. The purpose of sexuality is multiple, including offspring, exercising in future marital life, discovering each other and having fun with the opposite sex partner. Respondents also expressed a negative opinion about pre-marital sexuality, although they were interested in any discussion of sexuality. The experience of morality and sexuality is at once disordered, commerce, sometimes a voluntary act. The nature of sexuality is to be discouraged. For some, it is imposed, while for others, it is responsible and does not prepare for married life. Similarly, the respondents stated that they were not introduced to morality and sexuality, although sexuality is considered an initiation to marriage and intimacy. High school is the most cited information channel.
One of today's key research challenges is now to provide and anticipate climatic changes so that we can respond and adapt to these future developments. Global reheating of the earth and weather forecasts are a growing risk of climatic changes that are not without consequences on the ecosystems whose the watershed of Oueme. The objective of this study is to analyze the availability of water resources with the climatic variability in the lower Oueme valley in south of Benin.
The data and methods used are rainfall, ETP, planimetric data, land use extracted from Landsat 8 OLI / TIRS 2016, ArcGIS 10.1 software for mapping, Khronostat 1.01 for detection of ruptures and field observations, etc. This information after treatment helped to determine the physiognomy of the climate in the lower Oueme valley.
The results obtained show an unequal distribution of rainfall marked by the continuous changes of the natural conditions of the basin. The study identifies three phases in the evolution of rainfall. The first 1987-1990 is marked by rainfall surpluses. The second is characterized by rainfall deficits between the period 1990-2006 and the last one characterized by a very strong instability in the evolution of the rainfall, concerns the period 2006-2016. The application of Pettitt test to this chronologic series revealed a break in stationarity at the 95% threshold, thus highlighting two sub-periods, 1987-2006 and 2007 -2016. This rainfall decrease anchor decrease of superficial flow between 0,2% and 1% in the lower Oueme valley.
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has a long and varied history associated with the evolution of the concept and the definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). on the other hand, although it is possible to see CSR fingerprints around the world, formal writings have been most evident in the united states, where a considerable number of publications have accumulated. this movement of corporate social responsibility began in the 1950s in the United States before it appeared in Europe in the 1990s. indeed, from the appearance of the book «Social Responsibilities of the Businessman (SRB) » of Howard R. Bowen who is identified as the founding father of the concept of corporate social responsibility, different definitions have been written in relation to this concept, and to this day no definition seems to have the consent around the world to achieve universal thinking. our objective through this document is to highlight the conceptual evolution of corporate social responsibility and we also present the various most widely used definitions that are exhaustive in nature.
Elections are very important for the survival of representative democracy. They regulate competition over the exercise of power and consequently allow citizens to freely choose their representatives. Electoral engineering, through electoral cutting tools and the voting system, can make this competition more transparent. The specificity of each political power inspires these tools. A progressive political system, such as the case of Morocco, attempts to make them perfect whenever the political and social circumstances require it. The political history of Morocco, after independence, shows indeed this disposition of the Moroccan political system to progress on the path of democratization. The electoral system and the electoral division represent, among other things, elements that contribute to this democratic opening, especially after the year 2002. These two tools on which electoral engineering depends are constantly adapting, for the Moroccan case, with the socio-political demands that are more and more freed.
En jetant un regard sur la vitesse de croissance, trois engrais organiques incluant un sol non amendé ont été testés sur seize jeunes plantes de Moringa oléifère pour évaluer leur croissance. Les trois engrais organiques étaient issus des bouses de vaches, balle de riz et sciures des bois provenant respectivement de l’abattoir, des rizeries du marché ELILA et de procure de Kindu derrière la cathédrale Saint-Esprit.
L’essai a été conduit en pépinière suivant le dispositif expérimental complètement randomisé à 4 répétitions. Une analyse de la variance a été réalisée sur les hauteurs, les diamètres au collet et sur les nombres des feuilles de chaque traitement après tous les sept jours, et cela pendant deux mois. Les résultats obtenus ont relevé que l’application des fumiers organiques avaient une influence des jeunes plantes de Moringa, mais à l’absence de fumier organique il y avait comme résultats :
- La moyenne générale était de 35,75 cm de hauteur ;
- La moyenne générale en diamètre au collet était de 0,97cm ;
- La moyenne générale en nombre des feuilles était de 15.
Avec l’application des fumiers organiques, il y a eu les résultats suivants :
- Bouse des vaches 33,5 cm de hauteur comme moyenne générale ;0,99 cm de diamètre au collet, et 15,25 feuilles comme moyenne générale ;
- Balles de riz ont donné comme résultat en moyenne générale 21,5 cm de hauteur ;0,77 cm de diamètre au collet et 14 feuilles ;
Par contre avec la sciure de bois ont donné en moyenne générale les résultats qui suivent :
- Hauteur :20,25 cm ;
- Diamètre au collet :075 cm et
- Nombre des feuilles :12.
L’application des fumiers organiques étant satisfaisantes, le test de ppds suggère l’application des bouses des vaches comme engrais organique approprié car il ya eu une différence significative entre les traitements.
La présente recherche avait pour objectif de comparer le rendement en racine tuberculeuses de différents types de boutures de manioc cultivé à Kindu. Pour matérialiser cette étude un dispositif en carré latin avec 3 répétitions et 3 traitements a été mis en place.
Les résultats obtenus ont montré que le rendement obtenu avec les boutures de la variété Butamu (améliorée) a été de 62,3% supérieur au rendement obtenu avec les boutures de la variété Kindewe (nouvellement locale) et 66% supérieur au rendement obtenu avec les boutures de la variété Kabombo (locale). Ceci serait dû au fait que les boutures de ces deux variétés (Kindewe et Kabombo) ont été sensiblement attaquées par la mosaïque Africaine de manioc et qui ont finie à donner des racines de faibles poids qui étaient à la base de leurs faibles productions bien que leurs reprises soient bonnes. Par contre les boutures de la variété Butamu étant améliorées ont données un rendement meilleur, car ils gardent encore leur performance physiologique. Notons que ces boutures de la variété Butamu ont fait une bonne reprise, bonne croissance et la production a été largement supérieure aux autres.
The subscribers of the GSM network in provinces of the East of the RD Congo in this case of the North and South-Kivu, are sometimes taken beforehand in charge by the GSM network of Rwanda without any agreement of international Roaming.
Our survey aims to clarify the problematic of reflection of the waves radioelectric of the GSM antennas implanted to the borders of Rwanda and the RD Congo. The reflection of the waves radioelectric influences the quality of telecommunication in Bukavu following conductivity of the Kivu lake that separates these two regions.
At the time of the implantation of the issuing antennas of the radioelectric waves, the geographical coordinates, the technical features of the antennas and issuing are consideration.