Horticultural products including vegetables play potential role in generating employment and are frequently produced on small plots thus are important source of additional income for poor farmers in developing countries. Objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of urban vegetable production for livelihoods of the households, to assess the strategies used in urban vegetable production and identify factors that hinder urban vegetable production. A sample of 35 respondents was simple randomly selected from 9 wards of Morogoro Municipality. The study used an explanatory cross-sectional design in which data were collected at a single point in time. Semi-structured interviews were conducted whereby questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions were used to gather information. Observation was another method used for data collection. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS computer analytical program. Research findings show that vegetable production in Morogoro urban contributes to generate income as well as for food security of the households. Also strategies used in producing vegetables include; intensification in vegetable production which is backed up by the use of means of improving soil fertility and pests and diseases control. It is concluded that, since majority of farmers rely on vegetable production then increased production in study area will contribute to improved people's livelihoods in terms of increased income, vegetable consumption and nutrition which will eventually contribute to improved health status. Therefore, there should be a review of present research-extension-farmers link to be more effective with a great attention that it provides knowledge, information and skills on vegetable products chain management to farmers.
This study was designed to describe the processing of a traditionally fermented fish named Adjuevan in Côte d'Ivoire. We studied the processing techniques, the percentage of salt used and the microflora composition of the Adjuevan prepared from Chloroscombrus chrysurus. The fermentation process is done in 4 or 7 steps respectively according to the size of fish: gutting, carving, washing, prefermentation, salting, fermentation and drying. Adjuevan is obtained with an average of 35.09% marine salt. A total of 72 samples of adjuevan were analysed. The Mean values of pH were 5.38 ± 0.27. The microbial load of adjuevan samples revealed a range of 2.1 105-2.8 105 cfu/g for the total count. The predominant microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria (1.3 103-1.2 104 cfu/g) followed by Bacillus (4.7 102- 3.3 103 cfu/g), with a frequency of isolation of 100%. Pseudomonas and E. coli were not detected in the adjuevan samples analysed but Staphylococcus was isolated with a prevalence of 60.65%. These contaminations can represent a risk for the consumers and also for the public health. It comes out that adjuevan is found not to be safe microbiologically.
Guinea ratified all the conventions of the rights of the children for the food in the health. In the absence of projects of sustainable public nutrition and wide scale, it benefits punctually from the assistant of foreign NGOS of fight against acute malnutrition. Further to the intervention of one of these NGOs in the municipality of Matoto, six health centers must to be integrated to assure the continuity of the activities of nutrition. In spite of the free of the departments of nutrition and care, was noticed more and more the abandonment of the program by the beneficiaries. It is within the framework of the better understanding of the reasons and the prevention of the factors of abandonment bound to the nutritional recovery that joins this work. A case control study allowed to identifying the family responsibilities of accompanying (44, 19 %) and the travels of accompanying (37.21 %) as the main reasons (P < 0.0001) of the abandonment. Among factors(mailmen), we identified that there are fewer abandonments when there was no absence (OR = 0,07 [ 0,03-0,18 ]) and more abandonments(relinquishments) when the likely duration of the recovery(recycling) was explained accompanying (OR=2,71 [ 1,28-5,70 ]). The improvement of this situation is very possible in Guinea. To reach there, we propose that are taken the measures of raising sensitization of accompanying, flexibility in the distribution of foods to the beneficiaries, thorough decentralization and extension of the activities of nutrition.
This research focuses on a subject has always remained relevant in the socio-artistic community in general and in the field of music especially interpretation, many findings have been raised about this in more synthesis with scope, briefly, on the phenomenon of anxiety or Stage fright, characterization, descriptive symptoms and ultimately practical ways to cope.
Entrepreneurial firms need to continuously undertake innovation seriously if they are to remain competitive. This paper examines the impact of marketing innovation and organizational innovation on business growth among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Kenya. The paper is based on a study of Doinyo Lessos Creameries in Eldoret, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive case study design on a sample of 169 respondents from the Creameries which is located in Uasin Gishu County. Response was received from 161 participants. Purposive sampling technique was used to identify the area of study, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the respondents from the target population. Questionnaire and interview schedule were the main instruments of data collection. Qualitative data was analyzed descriptively in form of frequency counts, percentages and measures of central tendency. It was clear that majority of the respondents concurred that new products had attracted many customers and in turn increased the sales volumes. Very few of the respondents disagreed that marketing innovation had led to improved sales. It was clear that lesser than half of the respondents agreed that Doinyo Lessos is fast to roll out new product to the market. It was further shown that more than three quarters of the respondents agreed that the company's management team members have relevant education and skills. All business units need to develop innovation policy so as to form the impetus of great thinkers within the industry. This will help to instil a desire to innovate among all the stakeholders in the dairy industry. Continuous innovation activities in any business should be sustained through R&D support, and employee motivation to ensure business growth is realized over time.
This article reviews conceptual and theoretical issues in municipal solid waste management. Definitions and explanation of different concepts in municipal solid waste management are assessed. This article also examines the integrated sustainable waste management framework to determine its relevance in developing countries context. It further analyses measures by different stakeholders in coping with the problems of solid waste management practices and factors that influence the choice of the coping mechanisms. Finally the article provides a synthesis in form of a conceptual framework that may be adopted in aiding in formulation and design of sustainable municipal solid waste management practices.
In this paper, the main independent variables that can impact the running cost of geothermal industries are analyzed, and these analyses are aim at finding the relationship between the impacts and cost. For the first, the development situation of geothermal is deployed and some negative barriers of geothermal are listed. Then, the main barriers are defined and introduced with the lectures researches, the degrees and the reason that these barriers can make extra investment to the geothermal are analyzed. The analysis help finding a new way to solving and utilizing the ground energy and with comparison with current hydrid and steam geothermal features, ground source heat systems is proved that it indeed can help to solve the listed problems of geothermal. And the conclusion of the advantages of the new technology can be used develop geothermal in future.
In present article, the 'space' is considered as a physical entity, and the gravity is discussed as a consequence of equal and opposite interaction between 'mass' and the 'space' around every mass. In order to explain the cause of gravity, a very new concept of root force is introduced as a fundamental nature of 'mass' and the 'space' both. The unit of root force is (?m?kg/s) or square root of newton. It is learnt that may be, it is a root force which gives mass to every particle and make existence possible. The exact nature of root force is beyond current understanding of physics. Another new concept of super-vacuum (absolute emptiness) is also introduced in this paper. This concept is essential to understand the importance of the 'space'. It is concluded that 'mass' and 'space' shares equal and opposite interaction, which causes gravitation. And magnitude of root force causes time dilation.
Mobile computing is a new emerging computing paradigm of the future. Data management and location management in this paradigm poses many challenging problems to the Mobile database community. In the past decade, Mobile communications have experienced an expensive growth due to recent technological advances in mobile networks and cellular telephone manufacturing. Location management is a very important problem among these challenges. It consists of updating the location of the user, searching the location and performing search-updates. When the host changes location, an update occurs. When the host wants to communicate with a mobile host whose location is unknown to the requesting host, a search occurs. A search-update occurs after a successful search, when the requesting host updates the location information corresponding to the searched mobile host. The goal of a good location management scheme should be to provide efficient searches and updates. In this paper, the different location management schemes, various update strategies are discussed.
The research paper discusses a microcontroller based building automation system for real time monitoring and control for a standard three-bedroom unit. Standard buildings designed and built in Nigeria are without any form of automation and with emerging technologies that support automation of certain sections/processes in buildings the intelligent building paradigm can be a realizable objective. This paper thus proposed a microcontroller based design interfaced with appropriate sensors, actuators and voice recognition abilities to develop a building automation system (BAS) that could open/ close two doors, three windows and turn-on a light bulb with the detection of appropriate control signals with the flexibility of leaving room for future improvement increased complexity.
Unequal clustering is an elementary method for manipulative energy-efficient and mountable in distributed sensor networks. Heed* is top most dynamism efficient clustering protocol. By using this protocol, the message overhead is squat and cluster heads are circulated unequally across the entire network. In our distributed clustering protocol, heed*, which improves heed, leach and equal clustering of heed* protocol to realize energy adeptness with three methods: 1. Native clustering, i.e., whenever a cluster head guzzles a constraint part of its energy, it only notifies its participant nodes to hold cluster head designations for the forthcoming curved. Therefore, clustering is performed natively (in difference to performing it universally). 2. Dropping the number of message interactions and each iteration over abolishing redundant cluster head messages. 3. In heed*, each node with radical amount of residual energy is considered more eligible applicant for determination as a cluster overhead. Also, each node discovers a communication cost, and a consistent (non cluster skull) node picks the cluster skull with the lowest communication rate to connect to. Simulation results show that the protocol outstrips heed, leach and equal heed* protocol in standings of network lifetime.
In this paper we consider theoretically study of many pocket stone catcher. The quality of cotton fiber depends on primary qualitative processing of raw cotton. One of the operations of cotton processing consists of cleaning cotton from various impurities such as small and large things like a heavy stone. Such extraneous things must be removed before ginning process. To separate the heavy things of cotton, stone catchers are needed, that is installed between separator and cotton gin. Constructions of stone catchers are in different form such as cylindrical, rectangular in pipe bends. Cotton from bale transported by air at high speed through pipelines with a diameter of 0.2 - 0.3 Air speed is 15-20 m / s. In the rotary section of the pipeline installed stone catchers. Due to centrifugal forces of inertia, heavy impurities separated from the cotton move to the working chamber and stone catcher. There is need to examine the trajectory of cotton and heavy impurities in order to install the pocket Based on these considerations viewed the probability approach to the stone catcher: determined the effect of catching depending on the geometric dimension of stones, studied movement of cotton and heavy impurities at the entrance of the separation chamber. Equations of motion such as character movement, trajectory of cotton and heavy impurities are obtained with the help of principle of d'Alembert. According to the theory of motion of heavy impurities and raw cotton, found the optimal location of the pockets at the bottom of impurity.
Test oracles are mostly written manually by the user once test data are generated. This is because of the fact that each bug requires a different input and different data. This is a very difficult and time consuming task as the tester must produce quick and meaningful test cases for testing. However, the major problem of this approach is that they can cover only one goal at a time. They are dependent on one another and sometimes are not replicable. This paper presents a new approach by which test oracles are generated automatically by the usage of evolutionary algorithm. This method has successfully allowed bug identification in thousands of classes and it is quick to use.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have concerned much attention in recent years. The prospective applications of WSNs are massive. They are used for collecting, storing and sharing sensed data. WSNs have been used for various applications including habitat monitoring, agriculture, nuclear reactor control, security and tactical surveillance. Wireless sensor networks are threatened by numerous attacks. Therefore, security is now becoming a significant new path of research and attempts to counter these attacks.
Cloud computing is one of the most emerging networking technology, which has been considered as significantly effective among different types of users. Using cloud computing can be cost effective and organisation can focus more on their unique business idea instead of IT infrastructure or developing software, if they use IaaS or SaaS according to the business needs. However, there are issues with security of critical business data that is stored on cloud service provider's server. There are many concerns in regards to cloud computing security, which have many vulnerabilities and threats. In our previous paper, we have investigated security issues for cloud computing environment, where we have revealed the lack of awareness of cloud service providers to ensure the security. In this paper we have discussed about more threats and vulnerabilities of cloud computing, which cover some of the technical aspects of this burning issue. We would like to propose a cost effective and efficient security model for cloud computing environment after identifying the security risks involved in this sector of modern computing.
The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of using knowledge management and data mining for supporting marketing decisions. It shows how the data mining techniques and tools can extract hidden purchase patterns that can help to make better decisions by the marketers. Practically, knowledge management and data mining techniques are really useful for marketing especially for organizations which have huge amount purchase transactions. Knowledge management and data mining also can help to increase the profit because of the correct decisions made by marketers. The paper also shows how knowledge management and data mining can be used to provide better answers from huge amount of data of customers and purchase transactions.
The present study is an attempt to identify agricultural crop combination region of Baramati tahsil in Pune district for its better landuse planning. Baramati tahsil is situated in east part in Pune district covering 1382 square kilometer area and having 429690 populations (2011). This taluka consists of 117 revenue villages with one urban settlement. Administratively, this taluka has divided into six revenue circles. Population density of taluka is 311 persons per square kilometer (2011). The study region extends from 18º 2? 44'' N to 18° 23?19'' North latitudes and 74° 13? 8'' E to 74° 42? 47'' East longitudes. The region falls under scarcity zone having rainfall between 400 to 500 mm. Monsoon generally commences in June, occurring highest rainfall in June (158 mm) and lowest in December (12 mm). The highest mean temperature is observed in May (34.60 centigrade) and lowest in January (18.50 centigrade). The slope of region is towards northwest and southeast. The study area has basaltic base having step like topography. Baramati tahsil is somewhat rectangular in shape. The study region is mainly agrarian having 84.89 percent net sown area of the total geographical area. Rafiullah (1965) modified Weaver's method and introduced a new method known as "Maximum Positive Deviation Method" apply to compute crop combination region for Baramati tahsil because of its accuracy.
The purpose of this article is to review Lean manufacturing strategies and implementation to understand their implications. Based on these findings an attempt will be made to create a novel method of implementing lean principles into a new organization. If a novel method cannot be identified, areas of new research or possible theory building will be highlighted. Lepine's review centric strategies will be utilized to "summarize previously established studies and concepts, pinpoint potential problems (such as factual errors), and inspire new discussions and directions for further research activity (Lepine, 2010)." Lean manufacturing implementation can be seen as dependent on four main factors; Inventory control/reduction, Alignment with organizational goals, Cost allocation, and Management accounting. Lean principles and strategies are rarely effective without some level of control in these four areas. Time is a major limitation to thoroughly completing this task. It would be preferable to have more time to thoroughly delve into the questions and concerns found during this review. In addition Real world testing of the theories explored and developed through article exploration. For example surveys, interviews, and implementation of pilot programs based on theories. The current business climate is rapidly changing and advancing. Methods of continuous improvement are becoming the standard for organizational survival. Organizations that try to implement lean strategies in a hurried non-methodical manner can be as open to poor performance as organizations that don't recognize the need for continuous improvement. This research will hopefully be a first step to helping new comers to lean principles recognize the current state of their organization. This will better enable said new comers to plan a methodical approach to implementing lean principles.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a broad term that includes all technologies for the management and communication of information. The information needed by a good teacher is very crucial to his or her responsibility such that, tools and technologies that would fast track up the documentation, management and information conduct are not only vital but professionally essential. The value of precision, exactness, wholeness, significance and appropriateness are characteristics of information which ICT systems do breed to meet teacher's information needs. Seeing the critical roles of ICT in the humanity, the main objective of this paper is to investigate ICT usage as predictor of teachers' productivity in Schools/Institutions in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The target population for this study was Teachers in both Government and Private Schools/Institutions in Kumasi Metropolis. Twenty Schools/Institutions made up of Junior High schools, Senior High Schools and Tertiary Institutions such as Teacher and Nursing Training Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities thus both private and Government in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana was used. Cluster sampling was employ to select respondents across all the Institutions in the Kumasi Metropolis. The population was divided into clusters of Teachers and lectures in fifteen Government Institutions, and teachers and lectures from five private Institutions were randomly selected. The findings of this study have discovered that Schools in Kumasi Metropolis are currently making head ways towards participating in the global acceptance and use of ICT. The paper recommends effective human capacity building and user education programs for sustainable use of ICT in Kumasi Metropolis Schools.
This study proposes a conceptual model that investigates the factors affecting nurses' behavioral intention to use a Blended E-Learning System (BELS). We integrated motivation, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to create a theoretical model to explain and predict the intentions of learners to use BELS. Additionally, in the research model, motivation is proposed as a formative second-order construct driven by intrinsic motivation. Self-reporting questionnaires were distributed to local community hospitals, regional hospitals, and medical centers in Taiwan. Among the 589 distributed questionnaires, we received 528 valid responses, yielding a response rate of 89.64%. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the results indicated that perceived usefulness, attitude, and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions toward BELS. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and motivation considerably affect attitudes related to use. The present study demonstrated that the two antecedents, intrinsic and extrinsic of motivation, are crucial components of motivation. This study concludes with a discussion on the limitations of the study, and its implications in further research and practice.