The current study has been commenced to interrogate the link between fund size and equity mutual fund performance in Pakistan, which was rarely discussed in Pakistan. Although, numerous different studies depict the performance of equity mutual funds in Pakistan, which helps the investor in making better investment decisions, but still this area of research is somewhat untapped and a room for the improvement still available. The study focuses to find out the relationship between fund size and mutual fund by taking 12 equity mutual funds of Pakistan as a sample size and further characterized them according to their holding assets (Small size, Medium size and Large size) and collected the net asset value of the last trading/transaction day of each quarter for the tenure of 5 years (2010-2014). The techniques used for the evaluation is regression and correlation. The results of the study demonstrate by using the statistics of 12 equity mutual fund company's average net asset value and standard deviation for 5 years (2010-2014) and the utilization of limited duration and limited variables as a performance measure predicts the limitation of the basic study and reported that the fund sizes (small size, medium size and large size) directly and positively impact over the performance of equity mutual funds in Pakistan.
The effect of aqueous root extract of Manniphyton fulvum (MF) on serum glucose concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) was investigated in Wistar albino rats treated with bonny light crude oil (BLCO) for 14 days. From the study, oral administration of 5ml/kg body weight of BLCO alone caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum glucose concentration and MDA level compared to control (group1). However, oral administration of 170mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of MF(group 4) resulted to significant (p<0.05) reduction in these parameters compared to group treated with BLCO alone (group 2). The result obtained from glucose concentration of group 4 was not significantly (p>0.05) different when compared to group1. Administration of 170mg/kg body of the aqueous root extract of MF alone caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in MDA compared to control. The result obtained from this study indicated that combination of high serum glucose concentration and increased oxidative stress in BLCO treated groups caused an array of imbalances and associated toxicity. However, administration of aqueous root extract of MF restored the imbalances and ameliorated the toxic effect of BLCO on these parameters investigated in wistar albino rats.
The aim of this paper, is to use a more realistic model which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and the thermophoresis for studying the effect of some control parameters on the onset of convective instability in a rotating medium filled of a Newtonian nanofluid layer and heated from below, this layer is assumed to have a low concentration of nanoparticles. The linear study which was achieved in this investigation shows that the thermal stability of Newtonian nanofluids depends of the buoyancy forces, the Coriolis force generated by the rotation of the system, the Brownian motion, the thermophoresis and other thermo-physical properties of nanoparticles. The studied problem will be solved analytically by converting our boundary value problem to an initial value problem, after this step we will approach numerically the searched solutions by polynomials of high degree to obtain a fifth-order-accurate solution.
This work is examining the sediments which results by Wesha river localated in Bukavu town. It opens out on two periods of five months each, from decemer 2009 to April 2010 and october 2014 to february 2015. On the first period, Wesha river lively average of 7, 4 tons of sediments suspension per a day and after five years ago result is 13, 9 tons of sediments, it increases of 85% percent. The specific degradation passed at ~0, 9 tons of the soil full out square meter of 1, 7 tons at square meter per a day. The 13, 9 tons of sediments which are observed at outlet, find out the originat 44% at the underwatershed of Cidorhwe river wich joins Wesha river at 1km to one's mouth. The new out break of sediments explain with speed up human activity in the watershed wich has 3000 household in 2009 to 5000 household in2014. The latter is responsible of soil bared on slopes sensitive to water erosion wich appears under aggressive climate (rainy period) of this region full of mountains.
Supplemental tooth refers to an extra tooth resembling a tooth of the normal series of dentition. Supplemental teeth are less common than supernumerary teeth and are often overlooked because of their normal shape and size. Such teeth may cause many complications like displacement, delayed eruption, and root resorption of adjacent teeth, esthetic problems and even cyst formation. The present case series displays varying degree of impact of supplemental teeth on permanent dentition and thereby emphasizes upon the importance of early diagnosis and treatment planning. A rare case of supplemental maxillary lateral incisor showing an unusual talon cusp is also presented.
The study consisted on dealing with inventory of environmental emissions organized by the Bukavu's Medias. None of effort inventories of the Medias is not done in that domain. The study makes environmental emissions due to the time, their repartition and the Medias handlers. Through the maintenance methods and documentary, the study has got the results such as: to 13 Bukavu's radios, 8 among which 61.53% organize 22 environmental emissions which are done within 670 minutes per a week. To 4 televisions from Bukavu, 3 among 75% organize 5 emissions which are done within 180 minutes per a week.
Colonic lipomas are benign tumors. Very rarely, are complicated with colocolic invaginations. We report the case of a 39 year old patient who consulted for abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction. In the abdominal examination it was a soft consistency mass measured 15 cm. The rectal touch was normal. Colonoscopy showed a rounded lobed formation preventing progression and biopsies in the right angle colic. In computed tomography it was an appearance of an intussusception extent of the epigastrium in the right iliac fossa.The patient had a right hemicolectomy. The postoperative course was simple.
An investigation was conducted on ticks that infect cattle in the province of North Kivu, a province in agro-pastoral vocation. The method of sampling ticks on cattle was used. The result shows that in the North Kivu Province infestations of cattle tick are dominated by the species Boophilus decoloratus (59.7%; followed by Amblyomma variegatum (35.5%) and finally Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (4.8%). The source of these ticks rest from movement of cattle internally and those from outside by import.
Public authorities in Morocco are aware of the key role of innovation as a driver of the Moroccan economy competitiveness. That is why they have been working for over 15 years, in coordination with several actors from the private sector and civil society, to set up a National Technology Innovation System. These efforts are coordinated through a policy focused on boosting innovation and helping bring universities, industry and research closer together. However, till today, the results remain below expectations. In this paper, we propose to study the different strategies, programs and incentives for innovation promoted by public authorities in Morocco.The analysis is performed by distributing the innovation promotion programs and mechanisms into three components; the first component "Promoting the creation of innovative technology start-ups", the second component "Promoting the exploitation and the valorization of research results" and the third component "Promoting innovative activities within companies".
Islamic finance has grown considerably over the past three decades. If Muslim countries formed the starting point, the rest of the world, especially Western countries, do not stay away from the development of Islamic finance. Many western countries have modified their national legislation in order to benefit from the strong growth of this segment of finance. Islamic finance has always shown huge interest for Morocco. Since the early 1980s, several Islamic financial institutions have always been approaching the Moroccan monetary authorities in the perspective of implantation in the Kingdom. A study in 2012 by the IFAAS, 94% of Moroccans interviewed showed interest for financial products that comply with Sharia. Finally, the 103-12 law on credit institutions and similar organizations, which has just been published in the Official Journal in 2015 to be enforced, opens the floodgates of Islamic finance on Moroccan banks. Starting with simple financing modes, the interest of this paper is to make a comparison between the cost of Islamic finance and conventional finance in the case of mortgage credit (Moroccan context) given that volume of Islamic finance business remains moderate so far, despite a sluggish start in 2007 with the launch of three Islamic products (Musharaka, Ijara and Murabaha) under the patronage of alternative products.
The poverty which shakes the DR Congo and the province of Katanga in particular is the basis of social problems. It is known that poverty is accentuated in rural areas where the labour market in industry and services remain almost non-existent. To provide for household needs, household heads cope by seizing opportunities available in their areas. The present paper focused on rural income and household expenditures in order to apprehend rural poverty in two villages of Kipushi territory. This paper followed three objectives, especially the determination of the sources of incomes, the comparison between female and male headed household's income and the identification of the main household expenditures. To arrive there, an investigation aimed 80 household heads taken in a random way in 2 villages namely Mimbulu and Kamarenge. The results reveal that the majority of household heads are males. The main sources of income identified are agriculture, petty trade of agricultural products, charcoal production and artisanal mining. Artisanal mining provides the highest monthly income (US$ 150-158.3). No significant difference was observed between the two villages compared but a deep gap has been noted between the male and female headed households (P=0.016). The main posts of expenditures are food (72%), children's education (21%) and health (7%). The relevance of these results is that looking at income level and its different sources provides rich insights to help improve the understanding of poverty in rural areas.
This paper reviews the challenges of solid waste generation in major cities of Africa; their effect on urbanism, and the socio cultural and economic impact on urban metamorphosis. Paper studies urbanism as a dynamic index of urban metamorphosis, with focus on solid waste management. The need for governance policy, legislation, and an environmentally motivated and enlightened urban residents is a factor mitigating a clean environment. Public education and programs where they exist lacks required exposure, intensity, and connection to correct the apathetic outlook of most urban residents to waste disposal. Paper strongly affirm the need for adequate funding, equipment, human resources, technology and energy use required in dealing with urban metamorphic forces sustaining waste generation. And in conclusion suggests for success to be achieved, a holistic program that integrates technology, socio-cultural, economic, and psychological factors needed in managing urbanization and wastes, in order to boost the positive impact of urban metamorphosis on the continent's cities' sanitation and development.
Vertical electrical soundings (VES) method using the Schlumberger array was used in the study area. 20 VES were probed and the data interpretation was carried out with aid of computer softwares IPI2Win and surfer 8. The results revealed three subsurface geoelectric layers (top soil, weathered layer and fresh layer) at VES 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9and 10, and the rest VES stations have four subsurface geoelectric layers (top soil, lateritic clay, weathered layer and fracture/fresh layer). The top layer resistivity values range from 112-829 ohm-m, and thicknesses from 0.5-8.85m. VES 1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 with four layers, the second layer constitute the Lateritic clay and its resistivity values range from 34.9-406Ωm, and thicknesses from1.37-5.78m respectively. The second layer of VES 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, and the third layer of VES 1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 which constitute the Weathered zone has resistivity values that range from 8.99-339Ωm and thicknesses between 3.01-41.6m. The fourth layer of VES 11, 12, 17, 18 and 19 constitute the Fractured basement with resistivity values that range from 182-547Ωm. The third layer of VES 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, and the fourth layer of VES 1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 20 constitute the Fresh basement with resistivity values that range from 2090-19465Ωm. It was also observed that the Total Dissolved Salt values range from 12.797-778.643mg/l. VES has shown that it's very reliable for the determination of lithology and groundwater quality in the study area.
The tall-palm is a woody tree which one found in islets of stand in the natural vegetation in the localities of Ngam, Goundi, Kimri, Houndouma in Chad. Its trunk, being able to exceed 15m height, is used in the frames of the traditional and semi-modern housings. However, little of scientific and technical works have been performed on this wood to allow its rational use. This paper focuses on the determination of its anatomic and chemical features for the understanding of the physical and mechanic behavior of this wood. Anatomical analyses allowed us to quantify by mean 124 fibers per cm2 in the duramen and 77 fibers per cm2 in the sapwood. Chemical analyses performed equally allowed to determine a mean rate of: - 63.21 % of cellulose in the duramen and 61.89 % in the sapwood; - 9.60 % of hemicelluloses in the duramen and 11.32% % in the sapwood; - 19.36% of lignin in the duramen and 19.68% in the sapwood.
This paper seeks to determine the basic knowledge of medicinal plants that can be integrated in secondary schools within Bukavu city where this topic is developed as Social sharp questions. From semi-structured interviews, and open-ended questionnaires submitted to, 13 schools (with 668 pupils registered from classes 4 and 5) results showed that 80 medicinal plants are well known by pupils. There was highly personal interest and motivation for learning medicinal plants in schools programs. Valuable topics were suggested covering medicinal plants uses, the origins and nature of medicinal plants; cultural-based for medicinal plants conservation; economic values of medicinal plants; medicinal plants processing and conservation, cultivation of medicinal plants; plants identification; and developing clinics and plants sale enterprises in schools. Teaching medicinal plants may cover all curriculum programs in secondary schools.
Le cancer de l'ovaire représente environ 4 % des cancers féminins, responsable de plus de 5 % des décès par cancer. Les taux d'incidence et de mortalité tendent à diminuer avec les progrès thérapeutiques. Afin de déterminer quelques aspects épidémiologiques du cancer de l'ovaire au Maroc, une étude descriptive et rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 34 mois au CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca. 182 cas de tumeurs épithéliales ovariennes (TEO) étaient retenus, représentant 60% de l'ensemble des tumeurs au cours de la période d'étude. L'âge moyen des patientes était de 48,3 ans. Plus de la moitié des patientes était multipares (51%) et ménopausées (56,6%). Un pic des TEO (28%) entre 41-50 ans était observé. La douleur pelvienne (71%) suivie de l'augmentation du volume de l'abdomen (37%) était les signes cliniques les plus fréquents. Les tumeurs bénignes étaient les plus importantes (53,8%) contres 34,6% des tumeurs malignes. Les stades cliniques FIGO III et IV réunis représentaient 55% de l'échantillon. Les cystadénocarcinome (54,3%) séreux représentaient le type histologique le plus important. Les données échographiques ont montré dans 31 cas une échostructure solido-kystique dans les cas des tumeurs malignes alors que cet aspect représentait 50 cas dans les tumeurs bénignes. Les attitudes thérapeutiques les plus pratiquées étaient : HTSCA dans 25 cas, omentectomie dans 20 cas et curage ganglionnaire dans 15 cas pour les tumeurs malignes. Les cancers ovariens au Maroc sont découverts à des stades avancés. Des actions devraient être menées pour favoriser un diagnostic précoce et une prise en charge adéquate de la maladie. Des études à plus grande échelle doivent être menées.
Floristic Survey of wild food plants in Irhambi-Katana, Bugorhe and Miti Districts, South-Kivu, D.R. Congo. To encounter periods of food shortages and undernourishment problem domestication of wild food plants is very essential. We present here an inventory of the edible plants of Irhambi-Katana, Bugorhe and Miti counties of Kabare Territory in the surrounding areas of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. This is essential in view to establish these plants as food source after subsequent Chemical evaluation. From 226 respondents interviewed 13 plant species belonging to 12 families are known to be edible in these rural communities. The species of Capparidaceae family is more frequent (16,3 %) followed by species from Pteridiaceae and Myrsinaceae families (13,4 %) and species from Dioscoreaceae (7,8 %). Other plant species less frequent are respectively from Melastromantaceae, Musaceae, Solanaceae, Cyperaceae, Hippocrateaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae and Verbenaceae plant families. Plant leafs are the most consumed parts. Fruit trees are less known and must be more popularized.
In Congo, it is estimated that between 9 to 11% of the general population present hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Little data are available on the seroprevalence of markers and risk factors for this virus in blood donors in Brazzaville. This study aimed to determine the prevalence markers and factors associated with HBV infection in blood donors. Six hundred and forty eight healthy blood donors samples collected from October 2013 to June 2014 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Demographic data of these donors was also studied. Out of 648 patients included, overall prevalence estimates were 6,6%(95%CI:4.8-8.8) for HBsAg, 1,1%(95%CI:0.3-2) for HBeAg, 8.2%(95%CI:6.2-10.5) for anti-HBe, 13.6%(95%CI:11-16.4) for anti-HBs and 62.7%(95%CI:59-66.2) for anti-HBc. HBV infection was significant associated with Categories of blood donors (adjusted OR=1.70; 95%CI:1.08-2.67), age (adjusted OR=17.61; 95%CI:9.67-32.02), occupation (adjusted OR=2.25; 95%CI:1.53-3.31), sexual risk (adjusted OR=6.14; 95%CI:2.42-15.61) and families with a history HBV (adjusted OR=5.87; 95%CI:2.68-12.85). The seroprevalence rates found in this study were higher than those in other countries, suggesting high rates of HBV infection and a persistent risk of transmission of HBV in blood donors in Brazzaville.
The goal fundamental of this work, consist in studying the state phytosanitary of cassava in the rural area on the west coastline of Lake Kivu in South Kivu Province (DR Congo). So five illnesses have been signaled like constraints to the culture of cassava in the rural area of the South Kivu. The higher incidence of Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) has been recorded in Mudaka grouping with 77.6%. The severity in that area was 3.25. The lower incidence was found in Irhambi-Katana area with 67.3%. The overall average of CMV incidence in the rural area was 69.49%. The overall average CMV severity was 3.14. The Cassava Green Mite (CGM) was signaled in the rural area with an incidence of 27.38% and severity of 2.49. The highest incidence was found in Miti area with 52.17%. The severity in that area was 3.08. The anthracnose was signaled in rural area of South Kivu province with an incidence of 8.59% and severity of 2.39. The higher incidence was recorded in Mudaka area with 15.68% and lower incidence in Miti area with 5.46%. The Cassava leaf disease task was signaled in the rural area with an incidence of 49.3% and severity of 2.36. The highest incidence was recorded in Miti area with 65.44% and lower incidence in Irhambi-Katana area with 40.29%. The Mealy Bug (MB) has been signaled in the rural area with an incidence of 12.11% and severity of 2.3.
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a major pest of tomatoes in Morocco. Since its spread in the 1970s, chemical control was the main method of control. However, reduced effectiveness of some of the recommended insecticides has been observed since the 1980s. This study aims to propose alternative solutions based on the use of natural products "bioinsecticide" to fight against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), which is considered a serious threat to tomato production in Morocco and worldwide. To achieve this objective, we evaluated the toxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum L. buds against larvae of Tuta absoluta. Bioassays were performed in the laboratory in petri dishes 9 cm in diameter, at an average temperature of 26 ± 2 ° C and a relative humidity of 60 to 70%. The determination the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of this essential oil has been made via an analysis by probit method using the software BioStat Pro 5.9.8. The values of LD50 and LD100 are respectively 0.0047 and 0,0111μl/cm² calculated after fourths hours of exposure confirms the high degree of toxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum L. buds on filter paper against the larvae of Tuta absoluta.
Attempts to develop new technologies for reduction of nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions are still carried out all around the world. However, most of them as literature survey suggests is focused on emission control from power plants and mobile vehicles. Fewer investigations are conducted on the NOx emissions abatement from the chemical industry. While the growing concern to preserve our environment is critical to society and consumers, industries also realize additional benefits of higher production efficiency and lower costs. Current research has focused on identifying the key points of emissions in fertilizer industry by undertaking the life cycle assessment of products. Little work has been done on establishing methodologies that standardize these attempts. The results of research focuses on existing approaches, identifies commonly utilized methodologies and look beyond emissions criteria for sustainable manufacturing. This paper also discusses possible technological approaches to alleviate shortcomings in current process design in fertilizer manufacturing, focusing on NOx emission abatement, as new techniques for the manufacturing of nitrogen (N) containing fertilizers are available that can lead to drastic reductions of NOx emission.
This study makes it possible to contribute to the comprehension of the management of domestic waste and especially waste plastic in the commune of Ibanda. Analysis of the data, it arises that the households of the Commune of Ibanda have a bad practice on the modes of management of the plastic sachets because some throw them in main street of the commune, others without Trier nor to recycle them, throw them in the lake Kivu, the Kawa river or the Ruzizi river. Indeed, due to the practice of not controlled wild discharges, waste is currently carted towards Lake Kivu, and this phenomenon contributes to increase the imbalance of this ecosystem. In this Commune, the day laborers production of waste by the population is on average of 0,96kg/j. Vis-a-vis the impacts of these risks, the commune of Ibanda, must put public dustbins in the principal arteries of the commune at least 200 with 500m separating them.
The mathematical notion of "dual" and "duality" or "proposal dual" in its federating release, unifying, generalizing and simplifying (fugs, in acronym) studied in Linear Algebra (specifically in the areas of theory vector), is a concept that is a common denominator in several branches of mathematics. It appears, in fact, under diverse forms and with apparent differences on the semantic level, both in projective geometry, set theory, topology in differential geometry and crystallography, to name but a few illustrative examples. It is legitimate to ask about the relationship between these different aspects of duality and our purpose in this article is precisely to show that the duality which we call algebraic - that is to say one that is studied in universities in the theory of vector spaces - is one to which identify themselves in one way or another, all other forms of duality studied mathematics. While it must be acknowledged here that, in some cases, the relationship between some of these forms of dualities with algebraic duality is not always easy to establish at first.
Cloud Computing (CC) is a internet based computing technology having shared scalable infrastructure that can be used as service by users. Simply CC can be referred as hardware & software deliverable using internet that is also as a service. An outstanding innovation & technology getting popular due to lower-cost, flexibility and scalability as per user's requirement. Regardless of its popularity large organizations, enterprises are reluctant to move on cloud computing due to its security issues, especially user's data security. Organizations have expressed concern over data security as their confidential and sensitive data needs to be stored by service provider at any location globally, that's why security can't be compromised at all. CC has different security issues at different levels like software security, platform security, infrastructure security etc. This research shall take a review and to focus on user's data security i.e. data storage security issues and how to minimize unauthorized access to data, then available solutions will be presented and an access control model will be suggested. It'll help the reluctant users to easily decide to shift on cloud while understanding the risks associated with CC.
The gregarization in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria and its trans-generational characteristic were controlled by the maternal gregarizing factor which secreted in the egg pod foam by the female's accessory glands. The comparison by SDS-PAGE of the contents of these glands showed the presence of a supplementary proteic band specific of gregarious phase with a molecular weight 30 KDa, absent in the solitary phase. The synthesis of the maternal gregarization factor was determined in gregarious accessory glands under the control of another factor, obtained by SDS-PAGE in the haemolymph of gregarious females. The trans-generational specificity of the maternal gregarizing factor was revealed in the presence in gregarious oocytes of a protein band of the same molecular weight (30 KDa) as that observed in the accessory glands. Analysis of gregarious egg pod foam by Thin Layer Chromatography showed the presence of a supplementary spot. No solitary phase specific spots were obtained in solitary foam matter. In gregarious eggs, a proteic band of molecular weight 263 KDa exists throughout the first 6 days of embryonic life. It disappeared since the first day in solitary phase. Gregarious hatchlings also showed a difference in the proteins content of their haemolymph; a proteic band of molecular weight of 66 KDa was observed in gregarious phase, absent in solitary one.These results prove that gregarious egg pod foam represents a physiological transporter of the maternal gregarizing factor from the female accessory glands to oocytes.