The main purpose of this research work was to examine the effect of age, gender and students' attitude towards the study of Economics in some selected secondary schools in Calabar municipality of Cross River state of Nigeria. The sample for this study was 120 senior secondary two students selected from four secondary schools in Calabar municipality, thirty students were randomly selected from each of the four schools using simple random sampling technique. Four hypotheses were postulated as a guide to this study and a 20 items questionnaire divided into four sections was used to get the required information. A simple Pearson's product moment correlation was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05% level of significance. It was found out that there is significant relationship between ages, gender, interest and motivation of the students and their attitude towards Economics. Based on these findings, it was recommended that since there is a significant relationship between students, ages, gender and their attitude towards economics, both sexes should be encourage and motivated to study Economics. Also, the existing examination bodies and Ministry of Education should use the knowledge embedded in this work to improve on the contents of their syllabuses in order to make it more relevant to the needs of the students. Given its importance in a world like ours, the authorities of our various schools and even the Ministry of Education should endeavour to make Economics a core course in the secondary school programme.
The research went on in BUSHUMBA Grouping (Kabare Territory) and aims at assessing (evaluating) the production and commercialization (selling) of soya in this area, since it contribute satisfactory to the development of KABARE Territory in BUSHUMBA grouping particularly and South Kivu province generally. Through the inductive method, direct observation and investigation we came to the following results: 82, 1% of sample population state that the production of soya have reduced the rate of poverty in their home (s), 17,9% of them have rejected the fact. Then the following recommendations (suggestions) could be given: May the sensitization meeting about nutritious values of soya be organized by the medical staff in order to encourage the producer to benefit from their production. Secondly may the public service collaborate sufficiently with both sellers and producers so as to motivate to be creative and take themselves in charge (support themselves). Finally, may the local producer population accept willingly the (other) industrial soya seeds (hybrid-seed) so that they produce more.
The research went on in KAVUMU Rural Commune and aims at designing a duty reference of self-entrepreneur in a small agri-company as a strategy to reduce the unemployment rate in this area. Through this study we show how the unemployment rate is high for the schooled young aged of 15 and 35.The number of street children may also be increased by this situation which becomes now adays a more theatful than before. The young run the risk of being recruited in different army group that can promise them a well being in future. Trying to find an intermediate solution to fight against un employment of the young in KAVUMU Commune, we mention the following result: more than 50% of population chose the self entrepreneur but they face the problem of skills (needed skills) for resulting to a lasting management (the capacity to manage a firm) is the most important so there is the need of a professional training to clarify and the strengthen the self entrepreneurship in a perfect development.This may be implemented only by a curriculum of duty reference about self entrepreneur which integrate all the processor of training such as: Activities-Skills-how to do things-how to behave and the reassessment criteria and rules required to manage a company through small may it be.
This study was undertaken in the Irhambi/Katana grouping. The purpose is to inventory sources for to determine the flow or theirs spatial distributions, to liberate the correlation between water quantity and household also presenting state source that is to say source hawk and not hawk also those dying up the grouping. The direct observation method and interview was used as a stopwatch and the global positioning system (GPS) for the geographic coordinates and the measurement of flow. The results of this work demonstrate that geographically, sources are unevenly distributed across the grouping. From a quantities point of view most of sources in Irhambi/Katana produces little water. And according to altitude, the finding is that there are fewer sources upstream (high altitude) and more sources downstream, the shores of lakes –Kivu. Water supply sources are very affected by seasonal variation of their flow during the year and this explains occasionally the use of water stream and Water Lake in spite of the latter condition that is polluted and therefore undesirable consumption.
Erosion related problems has been on the increase in some part of Ekwusigo local government area and its environs in particular and southestern Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living in such area or erosion prone area. The research was embarked upon to assess the erodibility of soil over different parent materials in selected part of study area. Soil samples were collected from profile pits dugs in three different locations namely: Egbema, Nza and Ifite Oraifite. A total of fifteen soil samples in all comprising five samples from each profile pit with a depth of 2m and according to the clarity of the different horizons was collected. The samples were air dried, crushed and sieved in 2mm before subjected to test in the laboratory for both physical and chemical. Sand fraction in all the three locations showed porosity below 50%, the ECEC were found to be low likewise the organic content and the PH in the three locations. The properties exhibited by this soil indicate that the soil has been subjected to high rate of weathering and leaching they are easily detachable and transported by runoff, hence there stability is low.
The main goal of this project is to help people who lose their objects frequently and also to avoid stolen of object. Usually people get frustrated when they lose something such as wallets, keys, pen drives, laptop, etc. An object finder is capable of locating an object of interest in a 150 meters range. In this project we use android latest version 4.4 kitkat with Bluetooth low energy technology which having 4.0 version. Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. This project relates in general to systems and devices for enabling persons to easily locate and find lost or misplaced objects or items common to a household or office environment, and more particularly to a system utilizing a wireless transmitter (Android app) and plurality of wireless receiver (Bluetooth tag) attachable to objects or item needing to be located at various times. The object could be anything such as luggage, a car, a bicycle or even a person. We write code for android app in Eclipse Juno. Then the .apk file is installed in Smart Phone. The BLE 113 Bluetooth module is developed by Bluegiga technologies which is use in the tag. It will be programmed by smartbasic. There are two possible mode of project one is when user wants to find the object which having attached tag by using app then he have to open the app. Connect Bluetooth & transfer data to tag then tag will beep loudly. By hearing voice we can reach towards the object. So by using this we can find out our misplaced object. The another mode is when we activate the tag already by app and whenever the Smartphone is goes out of range then app will beep loudly by showing message you are not with your object. The first mode is explained in this paper. Our smart object finder is low cost effective. Because android is open source. So app is almost free of cost. Tag contains Bluetooth module with buzzer. CR2032 AAA size battery is required for supplying a tag.
The use of water from streams depends on their quality in often degraded by excessive nutrient loads such as phosphorus. The study of this nutrient by a method of sequential analysis in sediments aims to provide information on environmental quality, while determining the form of bioavailable phosphorus. This work aims to put the focus on the different forms phosphorus could be found in the aquatic sediments of the main rivers in the region of Meknes (Morocco). The determination of total phosphorus level in sediments is made using spectrophotometry applied on the supernatant after mineralization of the sediment with (H2SO4/K2S2O8) according to ammonium molybdate method using ascorbic acid as reagent. The chemical fractioning of phosphorus in the sediment is done following the Golterman fractionation scheme that uses EDTA as specific chelating agent that extract the mineral fraction without disturbing the organic phosphorus by adjusting the pH of extracting solutions to that of the sediment. This scheme will allow us to determine the proportions of five forms of phosphorus: water-soluble phosphorus (o-P), iron-bound phosphorus (Fe (OOH)-P), calcium-bound phosphorus (CaCO3-P), acid-soluble organic phosphorus (ASOP) and residual organic phosphorus (ROP). The results of these extractions showed that the sediment phosphorus of studied samples is mainly under its mineral form [Fe(OOH)-P + CaCO3-P]. These forms represent around 77% of total phosphorus with a predominance of the CaCO3-P fraction. The organic forms (ASOP + ROP) represent only 23%.
This work is a contribution to the study of faun-human interactions in the surroundings of the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The subject matter of our study focuses on human reports on the fauna, in the situation where will animals predators being plants, present some risks of human contamination. In fact, our investigation has shown that certain plants preferred by KBNP primates constitute a common point between the PBNK faun and Bugorhe population. The microscope analyses done in the laboratory show that the KBNP done in the laboratory show that the KBNP Baboons, pets and Bugorhe citizens have parasites, sometimes common to different groups. This presets the risks of zoo noses and other occasional diseases for both the PNKB faun and the Bugorhe population.
This paper presents the systematic way of hashing string values using NFO and NOF collision resolution strategies. NFO and NOF are techniques used for hashing numeric keys. The same principles and techniques for hashing numeric keys are deployed in the hashing of string values but with slight modifications in the hashing process and implementations. These variants followed the standard ways of evaluating and implementing algorithms to resolve collisions in hash tables. They are very effective in resolving the problem of collisions of string keys or values in the same slot of a hash table.
Planning and managing replenishment policies of items plays an important role in supply chain management. In this paper, a new mathematical model is developed to optimize replenishment policies of a two-echelon inventory system under demand uncertainty. The system consists of one factory warehouse at the upper echelon and three supermarkets at the lower echelon. A special case of this model is where sales price and scheduled inventory replenishment periods are uniformly fixed over all echelons. Demand at the supermarkets is stochastic and stationary. Adopting a Markov decision process approach, the states of a Markov chain represent possible states of demand for milk powder product. The objective is to determine in each echelon of the planning horizon an optimal replenishment policy so that the long run sales revenue is maximized for a given state of demand. Using weekly equal intervals, the decisions of when to replenish additional units are made using dynamic programming over a finite period planning horizon. A numerical example demonstrates the existence of an optimal state-dependent replenishment policy and sales revenue over the echelons.
This study aims to quantify the pollution levels in the main Lakes of El Kala National Park; Mellah, Oubeira, and Tonga, which constitute an important source of water supply and a National Heritage according to Ramsar convention, by monitoring five heavy metals (Al, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb) and the phosphates content. This park contains up to 33% of the population of El Kala district, which liquid wastes are discharged directly in the lakes ecosystem. Results revealed that the Aluminum is present in the three Lakes, Lead was detected in the lakes of Oubeira and Mellah, Zinc and Cr were inexistent in the three lakes, Copper was detected only in Oubeira Lake. Phosphates were present in three lakes with a maximal content of 6 mg/l. This value remains superior to the limit content of phosphates for a lake eutrophication (0.2 mg/l). This situation threatens seriously the Lakes water quality and then its ecosystem.
The global business environment of today requires companies to be flexible, in order to quickly react and respond to the ever-changing market. Business-to business application integration (B2BAI) can be seen as a tool which enables companies to stay competitive and it is often regarded by the theory as a must for survival in today's fierce business environment. Even though the employment of a B2BAI strategy can generate a lot of advantages and opportunities for companies operating within today's global business environment, there are still many challenges and problems to overcome in order to have a successful B2BAI solution. It is based on this assertion that the researchers found it highly interesting to see whether the theories on B2BAI could be supported by an empirical research. The researchers in this study, have therefore studied and identified the underlying reasons and the contributing factors to why or why not companies choose to integrate externally, from the perspective of businesses/institutions that have integrated externally and those that are yet to implement it. Further, the practical benefits associated with B2BAI have been identified with possible strategies employed by Ghanaian companies and the reasons for choosing those strategies. Besides this, a description and an explanation regarding the concepts covered by the field of B2BAI have been made in order to facilitate the understanding for the reader. Since the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons behind and the contributing factors to why or why not companies choose to integrate, questionnaires were sent out to Thirty (30) companies within Eastern and Greater Accra regions. This was done purposely to gather information from both people who have experience in the concept in order to achieve the purpose of the essay. As mentioned earlier, the scope for this research was all registered companies in Ghana, however it was delimited to a selection of the population, where the sample consists of thirty institutions situated in the Eastern and Greater Accra Regions. It has been gathered from the empirical findings of this study that globalization is a central factor contributing to why companies chose to invest in B2BAI which also agrees with the theory in regards of that. However, the respondents do not discuss all the advantages of B2BAI mentioned in the theory and emphasize slightly different underlying reasons for choosing to employ a B2BAI strategy. The most central reason for not choosing to employ a B2BAI strategy was according to the respondents due to the lack of knowledge regarding issues relating to the phenomenon and this have not been discussed in the literature review.
Surface Roughness is an important aspect in mechanical engineering design depending on the application of the component in usage. Friction, wear and power transmission depend on material surface and contact environment. Objective Consideration may be with respect to aesthetic view, stress condition, precision fits, smooth motion etc. However, the critical constraints are surface roughness, tolerances and nominal size for the selection criteria of the parts. Since Taguchi method systematically reveals the complex cause and evolves the relationship between design parameters along with taking consideration of performance. Many researchers have used Taguchi techniques for design of experimental studies. The present study focusses on the investigations made on drilling using Taguchi Techniques.
Concrete shrinkage is a main concern of engineers due to its direct relation to cracking. Shrinkage and shrinkage cracks jeopardize durability and increase maintenance as well as rehabilitation cost. To enhance the durability, normally shrinkage reducing admixtures is used, but the chemical admixtures are not eco-friendly and economical. The chemicals are patented and manufactured in developed countries and soled to developing countries at exorbitant price. The manufacturing also emits toxic chemicals which significantly contribute to global warming. To alleviate this situation, research work was undertaken to determine the suitability of plant extract (Blue Gum extract) as shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) for concrete. Extracts from the bark of blue gum tree was prepared by boiling the bark in water. Mortar slabs were prepared for different percentage of dosage and flow level, which were then exposed to the environment, thus permitting measurement of shrinkage and cracks for different times (5hour, 3day, 7 day & 28 day). Results obtained indicate that the use of Blue Gum plant extract reduced shrinkage and cracks due to shrinkage on cement mortar.
In the past the success of individual often has been equated with high IQ. But in the last two decades Gardener, Salvoey and Meyer, Goleman and other has researched in the area and found out that it is not IQ but EQ which determines one's success in life. The one who has high on emotional intelligence is found to be better in handling the situations of life than one who has low level of emotional intelligence. The parents who had high influence in the life of children especially at the initial phase of life are responsible to enhance EQ with good social and emotional environment. This will help the child to cope future exigencies. As, the children in the age group of 14-16 years pass through the phase of life which is considered to be crucial therefore, it is imperative that they are able to handle and control their emotions as it has implications for their immediate and future life. Children of this age share a different kind of relationship with their parents. Therefore, it is very pertinent that parents should understand their emotions and try to act according to it. Parents adopt different parenting style to rear their child. Authoritative parenting has been considered as optimum parenting style for the various developmental parameters of a child and it has been true in case of emotional intelligence. But most of the researches are being done in western population. The present study was conducted in the Indian urban setting wherein students and their educated mothers had participated. The result indicated that authoritative parenting style was not all correlated with emotional intelligence of the boys, girls or students. Though, some components were correlated with emotional intelligence.
To generate greener environment, the alternative sources are necessary. In alternative sources, less emission energy sources are needed to control the emission and fossil fuel depletions. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have the benefit of zero emission, quick start up, easy implementation, long lifetime and low operating temperature. Performance of PEM fuel cell is depending upon the various operating parameters and geometrical parameters. The performance is mainly caused by the geometrical parameters such as flow field, flow channel, catalyst layers. In this paper, the different flow channel cross sectional shape and the effects of the flow channel designs on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell are reviewed. The major performance increment is depending upon the flow channel cross section. Because of the varying cross sectional areas, the fuel is forced on the gas diffusion layer and enhances the chemical reaction that increase the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell.
The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of synbiotic on growth performance, hematological (TEC, Hb, PCV, ESR) and biochemical (Cholesterol, Uric acid) parameters in broilers during high environmental temperature. A total of 30, at 7 days old (Cobb-500) broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6). Heat stress broilers were held at 35 ± 2°C temperature and 70±5% relative humidity respectively where as normal temperature was 25 ± 2°C and relative humidity was 60 ± 5%. Normal control group (NE-T) fed the normal diet with normal environmental temperature. Heat stress groups consisted of HS-A as heat stress control group fed the normal diet; HS-B as synbiotics group fed 0.1g prebiotic and 0.1g probiotic with normal diet. The results revealed that supplementation of synbiotic produced a significantly (p<0.01) increased of the live body weight as compared to normal and heat stress control group. The highest weight gain was recorded in HS-B as synbiotic group (1710.00a ± 3.54 gm) and the lowest weight gain was recorded in HS-A as heat stress group (1303.00e ± 4.899 gm). The hematological parameters (TEC, Hb, PCV, ESR) also significantly (p<0.01) differ compared to the both control. The biochemical parameters in uric acid was a significant (p<0.05) difference among groups and there was no significant (p>0.05) difference among the groups in serum cholesterol after treating with synbiotic. Therefore, it is concluded that synbiotic is essential for the maintainance of broilers performance under heat stress condition.
Objective. – This work aims to contribute to the improvement of the management of waste arising from care activities involving infectious risks, which is currently a real health and environmental concern, especially in diffuse medium. Workers and methods. – This is a descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study was carried during 2011 in the Gharb region in Morocco. A census of medical analysis laboratories in the city of Kenitra with an anonymised questionnaire. Other methods have been used such as interviews with those responsible for the medical laboratories. Results. – The participation rate in the survey was 83.33%. Almost 80% of the laboratories sorting the sharp waste and soft infectious waste, while only 50% use special containers for this waste. Only 25% meet the standard for disposal and collection time. Approximately 70% of the sharp waste discharged separately, while the soft infectious waste is mixed with household waste to 70% of laboratories. Almost 62.5% of medical laboratories eliminate the infectious waste by a single contribution to the recycling center which generates mismanagement disposal of infectious waste. While 37.5% eliminates this waste through a collection company and 66.7% of them have an agreement with a company to collect and only 33.3% were satisfied with the management of these companies. Conclusion. – The management system of solid and liquid infectious and highly infectious waste is a major concern for health staff and people. This study supported the need reminders of information for health professionals on the management rules through continuing education, personal sensitization and the implementation of an adequate organizational plan based on the use of well-adapted approaches, regular assessment and coordination between those responsible.
Within the context of the achievement of the goals of education for all (EFA), it was recommended that we proceed, in each region of the world and even in each country with its different administrative units, to the assessment of both the expansion and the quality of EFA. This last type of assessments is crucial inasmuch as it is better not to educate people than to offer them a low quality education. It is with the concern for the assessment of the quality of EFA, in its section regarding primary schooling, that this research was undertaken. The aim was to find out the level of study where the loss of acquired knowledge in reading and writing was more perceptible between Swahili and French for students who drop out of school prematurely.
The Female Genital Cut (FGC) is a widespread practice in a significant number of communities in Kenya such as Somali (97%), Kisii (96%), Kuria (96%) and the Maasai (93%), but relatively low among the Kikuyu, Kamba and Turkana. The practice is associated with short-term and long-term health effects including pain, bleeding, infections, and in extreme cases, death of the initiates. This study focused on socio-cultural factors influencing the practice of FGC among the Maasai community and adopted a cross-sectional research design, which employed a mixed method approach to generate both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was obtained from a randomly selected sample of 200 respondents, while quantitative data was generated from Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as key informants (KI) interviews. The study found out that the Maasai (71% of the respondents) considered FGC as a cultural right whose main value is a rite of passage from girlhood to womanhood, enhancing marriage-ability, and acted as a rite of passage to adulthood. FGC was also considered as a traditional demand, enhanced easy childbirth, and reduced promiscuity among girls and women in the Maasai community. The authors conclude that FGC continues to persist in the Maasai community despite various effort put to eradicate it by different stakeholders. This is because of socio-cultural issues associated with it, which by far outweighs other risks associated with the 'cut'. For intervention programmes to succeed, the authors recommend that efforts should focus on targeting custodians of culture among the Maasai community who are largely the elderly women. This will create an opportunity for change agents to device appropriate strategies to curb the practice in the Maasai community. The devised strategies will inform various Anti-FGC interventions not only in the Maasai community, but also among other practicing communities in Kenya.
In this paper a new path computing algorithm named as Disjoint Path Algorithm (DPA) to ensure the efficient load balancing in MPLS networks to minimize the congestion and prominent use of network resources to support the traffic engineering feature of MPLS (MPLS-TE). This algorithm finds the alternate path called as Disjoint Path (DP), for selected flow sharing no common path to other flow paths. Then routing of flow via Disjoint Path is done by using the explicit path routing technology of MPLS network. Network Simulator (NS2) is used as simulator tool for analysis of the performance of algorithm. Simulation results shows that DPA effectively balances the load between the links in the network to improve the real time traffic service quality by lowering end to end delay, packet arrival time and packet drop rate and increasing throughput while reducing the congestion and improving the network utilization.
Recent political and economic developments in Algeria led to educational reforms. This article reports on a qualitative study that explored the beliefs of French and English teachers on a new curriculum that was introduced in Algeria. The results indicate that there is a mismatch between the teachers' beliefs and the innovation. The study explored the factors that underpinned this incompatibility from a socio-political perspective. As a conclusion, it is argued that the beliefs of the participants had not in fact been challenged before the implementation of the new curriculum. It is suggested that training which encourages reflective practice must be given priority. It is also recommended that policy makers and teachers should strive to promote dialogue in order to improve the education situation in Algeria.
This research work is aimed at determining the nature, scope and reasons for increase in the frequency and the scale of political violence in Nigeria. It will adopt the use of past records of political violence in Nigeria using journals, newspapers, textbooks on political science and some internet materials on the case study. The research work therefore identifies poverty, a culture of impunity, weak penalties, a lack of effective governance, and small arms proliferation, amongst others as reasons for political thuggery in Nigeria. Furthermore, the influence of godfatherism in Nigeria politics further entrenched the culture of violence within the political space. Also, political violence is an expression of systemic and leadership failure in Nigeria, it shows weakness of the apparatus of the state particularly the police, state security service and national intelligence system. The research work also looks at the effects of instability and violence in Nigeria society, it's recommended and proffers a number of solutions ranging from sustainable development, security sector and electoral reforms, and anti – corruption measures.
The object of this work is to test two applications: Artificial destratification and Selective Racking to fight the eutrophication of lake. For this we consider a jet described by the equations of Navier stocks whose resolution is based on the finite difference method. For the first treatment (artificial Destratification), the idea is to consider a rectangular area filled with water, and start the jet from the bottom to the surface. For the second treatment (selective Racking), it considers another rectangular field full of water, but the jet will now be on the left lateral border into the hole located in the right side border.
The goal in this work is to map the fracture network in the department of Sinfra (center-west of Ivory Coast), located in substratum area. The methodology used in this study also provides a method to validate the obtained map of fracture network. To achieve this objective, Landsat TM and ETM+ images (197-55) respectively from 1986 and 2003 are processed in order to extract the fracture network. This network is the characterized by statistical analysis methods in order to reveal the main directions followed by regional fractures and those followed by fractures in general. The second parameter to be analyzed in the context of this analysis is the statistical correlation between the number and cumulative length of fractures. The processing of satellite images has produced a dense network of fractures 8877. The distribution of number of fractures orientation in the overall fracturing field gives two main direction namely N0-10 and N90-100 in respective proportions of 16% and 12%. The distribution of orientation of the cumulative length of fractures has also two main directions, the same as before: N0-10 and N90-100 with 14% and 13% respectively in proportion. Five secondary directions were also identified: N10-20, N20-30, N70-80, N100-110 and N110-120. Thus, in the department of Sinfra, mega fractures follow both directions previously identified: EW and NS. This study also showed that the number and cumulative length of fractures are two parameters that are linked with à linear correlation coefficient R = 0.68.
Home security is essential for part for a safe home. This paper aims in developing a low-cost and intelligent security system using thermal heat, passive IR and proximity sensors. Arduino Uno board which act as a microcontroller unit receives continuous data from all these sensors and processes them. The arduino will trigger an alarm and alert messages will be sent to user's mobile via GSM in case of untoward situations. Sensor LM35 (temperature sensor) is used to prevent fire damage to human life by detecting temperature change beyond a certain limit. Proximity sensor uses Hall Effect principle to detect any intrusion through doors and windows whereas the low-power Passive Infrared (PIR) detectors take advantage of pyro-electricity to detect a human body that is a constant source of infrared radiation. Use of artificial intelligence to generate patterns of intrusion based on map of the house and entrance will help in configuring the device individually thereby further increasing the safety of the house. Hence the device serves the purpose of safety and security.
In recent periods urban development has been vigorous and unsustainable in Nigeria. By using a combination of analytical and evaluative techniques this study investigated the reason for this phenomenon and made suggestions on ways of making Nigerian cities more livable. The study discovered that despite several policies and programmes of the successive governments in Nigeria on urban development such as the promulgation of planning laws like the Town and Country Planning ordinance of 1946, Land Use Act to control issuance of permits for housing construction, The Urban and Regional Planning Act to streamline the responsibilities of each level of government on physical planning and preparation of Physical Development plans such as Master plans, Layout plans and Land Use plans, Urban Renewal plans, Zoning of land use, and other Development control principles, which can be classified as policy issues, urban degeneration has continued to increase. The study attributes this to massive population increase in the urban areas, For example the residents of urban centers in Nigeria in 1950 were less that 15% of the population and by 1975, and this proportion rose to 23.4% and in year 2000 was 43.3%. Nigerian urban population growth rate of 4.8% annually was markedly higher than growth rate of 1.2% in Developed countries. This has created several problems some of which are expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between the rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure. The study therefore recommends that Rural-urban drift will continue to increase in Nigeria, in the absence of any clear cut policy on rural - urban migration. Moreover there should be appropriate implementation and monitoring of master plans for major towns where they exist and the preparation and implementation of new ones where they are non-existent or out of date.
In this study, the analysis of soil samples was carried out to determine the concentrations, distribution and the pattern of Radiogenic Heat Production of some heavy elements in soil samples inside a steel rolling mill in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria within latitudes 6033'N and 6046'N; and longitudes 4044'E and 4054'E. The distribution of K, U, and Th was particularly investigated in this site. Soil samples were collected from thirty (30) points along three traverses at a space interval of 20cm covering a survey area of 80cm by 60cm within the Rolling mill. The analysis of the soil samples using a cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector reveals that the contents of the radioactive elements in the soil fall below the WHO's critical values of contaminated soil. Field observations and soil properties show that the soils were derived from weathering of pre-existing sedimentary bedrocks which constitute the geology of the area. The results also show that the contribution and rate of heat production of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the samples vary significantly with geological locations, with 40K as the major element which predominates in heat production for the Upper profile of the study area, while 238U and 232Th are trace elements. The radiogenic heat production elements (RHPE) contribution shows that all the points on the sites have the same pattern of radiogenic heat production contribution of the elements to the radiogenic heat production (RHP).
The Region of Tangier-Tetuan (Northern of Morocco) experienced an important urban development in the last decade. For this reason, groundwater's quality is highly susceptible to deterioration by liquid and/or solid waste pollutants. Nevertheless, rural and some per urban residents are still pending on springs supplies for drinking water, irrigation and domestic activities without any treatment, so they are exposed to water diseases. In order to evaluate the hygienic quality of these springs, a study was conducted during 2013. Fifteen springs were selected for the investigations on chemical and bacteriological parameters. The physicochemical results showed that the majority of the studied springs are considered acceptable, except some springs that don't meet the standards recommended. Our study revealed also a serious contamination of groundwater by microbial agents, the concentrations of different microbial indicators differed, dependent on the spring's location with respect to the different sources of contamination. Monitoring the chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water is essential to prevent the population to health risk.
Now days, Web services plays a very important role in universal technology for distributed and heterogeneous application completed the internet. WS-BPEL is a general principle that executes basic deployment, and then it must perform the static analysis. An important use case for WS-BPEL is defining around the enterprise business connections in which the business processes of unique enterprise contact through the Web Service interfaces. Therefore, WS-BPEL facilitates the strongest ability to model the need of relationships between partner processes. Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) motivation on gathering existing web services into higher level web services. However, these type of standards demonstration some short comings about modularity and flexibility and reliability. In this paper, we support an aspect-oriented technique for web service composition and AO4BPEL, for present and future, an aspect-oriented extension to BPEL4WS. With aspects programming, we eliciting and analysis the web service composition in a modular approach and the composition becomes more easy and feasible for dynamic change.
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola is the causative agent of bacterial blight, a destructive disease of cowpea in Africa. Laboratory studies were conducted with the objective of detecting variations among X. axonopodis pv. vignicola isolates which were collected from three different cowpea growing zones (Makurdi, Guma and Gboko Local Government Areas) in Benue state. The isolates were designated MKD388-1, GUM391 and GBK205-8 respectively. Isolates were cultured on Nutrient agar, tested for their Gram-staining reaction and their capability to utilize asparagine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. They were also subjected to biochemical tests. The genetic diversity of the isolates was assessed using Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) primers. Four primer combinations selected based on their reproducibility and amplification were used to differentiate the X. axonopodis pv. vignicola strains. Following these tests, the three isolates showed variations in color and growth character of colonies ranging from yellow to creamy colony color with mucoid growth. Variations to different biochemical tests were also observed among isolates. Primer assay showed genetic variation among the isolates as strains from Makurdi and Guma Local Governments showed high levels of molecular similarity while Gboko strain was distant. This study has lead to an understanding of the dynamics of pathogen variability that can be used to develop resistance gene pyramiding or gene deployment strategies. This will prevent selection for new virulence, which are effective against the currently available genetic sources of resistances genes.
The problem of controlling the chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is addressed. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a state feedback controller is designed to make the system states track desired references even when the system exhibits chaotic behavior. Both cases of certain and uncertain systems are considered. System performances are maintained in spite of parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations are then presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
In Ethiopia almost most greenhouses are equipped with fixed ventilation owing to the fact that its influence on CO2 concentration, indoor temperature and RH% which affects plant growth is not clearly understood or due to lack of capacity. Particularly, relative humidity in the greenhouse not only affects plant growth but also major factor for pest-disease which should be maintained at the required range. In this study, the influences of fixed ventilation opening on indoor CO2 concentration, temperature and relative humidity which consequently affect yield were investigated. To execute simulation and examine the influence of ventilation opening on indoor climate and yield a generic tool or a model set up in Matlab software was employed. For the existing ventilation configuration, simulation of indoor climate was conducted and the result illustrated that low CO2 particularly during day time and high and low temperatures are major problems in the greenhouse. The observed indoor climate beyond the required range inhibits growth. The result of the sensitivity analysis for summer period showed that one percent increase in ventilation opening increases the CO2 concentration by 0.013%, decreases canopy temperature and vapor concentration by 0.065% and 0.114% respectively and increases yield by 0.328%. During winter period, a percent increase in ventilation area resulted in 0.036% and 0.075% reduction in canopy temperature and vapor concentration respectively, 0.012% increased indoor CO2 concentration and 0.03% increment in dry matter harvest. A yearly base sensitivity analysis illustrated that, a percent increase in ventilation opening area increases the dry matter harvest and interior CO2 by 0.231% and 0.012% respectively and decreases the canopy temperature and vapor concentration by 0.057% and 0.102% respectively. Thus, production in Ethiopian highland can be improved by providing better ventilation so as to increase the CO2 concentration and reducing extreme high temperature and vapor concentration in the greenhouse which influence the rate of photosynthesis. However, increased ventilation opening should be taken into consideration in relation to evapo-transpiration as a consequence of outdoor wind effect and the cost of insect screen to cover the larger ventilation opening.
One of the main reason for the loss of productive land in irrigated fields is the buildup of salinity in the soil. In Amibara irrigation Scheme, though no systematic appraisal and mapping has been made before, large tract of land has been abandoned because of salinity problem. Hence a study was conducted to appraise the salinity problem of the Amibara irrigation farms in Middle Awash Basin and to generate thematic maps using Arc GIS for further management recommendation. A total of 249 surface soil samples representing 15,256.22 ha Amibara Irrigation farms were collected and analyzed. Standard methods were followed to measure pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and soluble cations. Arc GIS 9.3 was used to map the overall salinity and sodicity problem of the area. Results showed that around 34 % (5239.79 ha) of the command area has been mapped as saline soil (ECe > 4 dS/m and SAR < 13). On the other hand, only 0.05% (9.13ha) scheme was classed as saline sodic (ECe > 4 dS/m, and SAR >13). From the thematic maps generated, it is concluded that proportion of the land taken up by salinity is rapidly increasing. More and more land is fully abandoned due to salinity problem. The water table control by rehabilitating the subsurface drainage system seems to be the only feasible way to improve sustainability of the scheme.
This paper represents the analysis of Quality-factor and Bit Error Rate of an Optical signal in WDM system of a Fiber Optic communication network by using SOA. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is used as a transmitter. It is observed that by varying the frequency of bandwidth up to 34GHz a low BER with a high Q-factor is obtained. At 34GHz bandwidth maximum Q-factor of 13.1248 and minimum BER of 1.16972e-039 is obtained for 100km optical fiber length.
Over the last couple of years, the realities of massive generational change have dawned on many business leaders. While the issues of an ageing population and a new attitude to work have literally been emerging for a generation, it has been a sudden awakening for many organizations. In fact dealing with these demographic changes and specifically recruiting, retaining and managing 'Generation Y' has emerged as one of the biggest issues facing employers today. Based on a library research and a review of existing literature, this paper examines the employers' perceptions of Generation-Y employees with a view to proposing ways to improving relations at the workplace for organizational cohesion and success. From the existing literature, it is documented that employers mostly consider Generation-Y employees as: spoilt/entitled, lazy, having poor work ethics, showing little respect for authority, being too self-centred and individualistic, having overinflated/unrealistic expectations, not committed to work, exhibiting little or no loyalty to their employers, lacking in social skills and a needy lot. Scholars suggest that, to improve work relations and organizational performance, employers need to make necessary adjustments to their perceptions of Generation-Y employees. These adjustments include, among others: approaching younger workers differently, providing constructive criticism that reflects confidence in them; accepting that there may be multiple ways for workers to accomplish their tasks as exhibited by Generation-Y employees; offering flexible work schedules, adjusting the belief that workers need to "put in the hours at the desk" to be effective, and developing a work culture that is pleasant and positive; realizing that asking Generation-Y employees questions can often lead to answers and solutions that are actually more efficient and effective; finding the right mix of individual and team projects that allow these workers to grow professionally; redesigning and rebuilding some of the old career ladders that were destroyed with the flattening of organizations and greatly expand telecommuting and remote working arrangements, and developing a stronger commitment to keeping employees even in bad economic times.
Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture.The beans are subject to post-harvest treatments in the first stage in chocolate production. The current study is designed to investigate the incidence of mycoflora in cocoa beans samples collected from Yamoussoukro and Soubré (Côte d'Ivoire) and the presence of ochratoxinogenic fungi on these samples using direct and dilution techniques. In this work, we evaluated the correlation between physicochemical factors (moisture content and pH) and fungi and mycotoxins contamination. This study highlights the physicochemical composition of cocoa beans, fungal contamination frequency and the fungus population description in different samples of cocoa beans. Our results revealed that the fungi contamination frequency varies according to physicochemical factors; on the one hand it increases proportionally to the moisture content. On the other hand, it decreases with the increase of pH rate. Mycotoxicologically, these results revealed the importance of the initial rate of pollution with a ochratoxinogenic species, as it reflects the risk of the toxinic impregnation, in other words, the higher the rate is, the more considerable the risk of finding mycotoxins in foodstuffs is.
The Internet has continued to span great geographical space and generality interests. It has provided enough space for social interaction and information exchange. It is hard to imagine a world without the internet. Like other fields of human endeavours, the internet is no doubt revolutionising the act of researching, especially in the sciences. Regardless of any viewpoint, research outlines formal, methodical and rigorous processes, specifically the application of scientific methods of problem recognition, definition, solution development, data collection, analysis and conclusions. Expectedly, the introduction of the Internet heralded the upswing of the new soft form of learning; with the aim of achieving speedy and cost effective diffusion of knowledge. Secondly, the internet has also helped in aggregating with ease such knowledge which can be shared amongst geographically-detached partners. So, whether it involves fundamental/pure or basic distributed research, action, applied research or research and development, the internet could be effectively employed to improve and meet the limitations of information synchronization, speedy information verification, and reduce the time and the cost of conducting research. In this paper, we propose a structured step-by-step internet-assisted research model that explores known methods like web surveys, nonreactive Internet-based methods, web-based psychological testing and web-based experimenting. They include research features such as Research and Grants Acquisitions, Information Aggregation, Communication and Collaboration, Data Selection and Analysis, Publishing. Also, it involves exploring popular internet services like electronic-mail, web directories, World Wide Web (WWW), VoIP Conferencing, News/Mailing Lists, Chat Applications, File Transfer Protocols etc. The internet is surely one remarkable point for engaging various tools for research that cannot be ignored by modern day researchers.