Physics is the one of thinking rationally media and systematically and also train the ability of learners to be used to solve a problem that exist around them, so that they can develop their potentials and resources, therefore, physics learning should be constantly improved to achieve a better quality level. On the results of begining observation and the interview conducted at vocational high school (SMK) number 6 Tanjung Jabung Timur, gained the information in that school that have not had any light reflection props yet and also the laboratory, thus the learning process is not maximum and caused the low in mastery of the concepts on the reflection of light material. This matter showed that the existence of the props (media) in the study of physics is very important. By used the ADDIE method, this reseach got the testing validation and field validation, so the third assessment aspect such as suitability, convenience and attractiveness then it can be affirmed that the light reflection props that have been developed had the level of suitability, convenience and high attactiveness. Thus the tool is fit for use, especially for Physics learning material of SMK and students at the same level in General.
The study area is geographically bounded by latitude 50 51'N - 50 57'N and longitude 70 51'E – 70 58'E. The area is of the Nkporo shale. Fresh samples of shale were collected from different locations of Amuzu, Amangbara, Anofia Nkanu, Amacha and Ozizza. The samples were analysed and viewed under the microscope, to find out the presences of foraminifera. The fora encountered during the research include: Gavelinella cenomanica, Ramulina Sp, Robertina Sp, Flourensina intermedia, Gavelinella intermedia, Eggerellina mariae, Vaginulina kochii. Most of the fora encountered were calcareous benthic suggesting a shallow marine environment for Afikpo. The fora encountered in the area indicate that it lived at the time where the environment was favourable for its existence. The RobertinaSp, which is abundant in the samples, indicates Campanian – Maastrichtian age for Afikpo and its environs. The fora encountered in the study area are very important for biostratigraphy and can give relative dates to rocks as well as sediments. It was also observed in the study area that foraminifera like Eggerellina mariae and Globigerina belong to the unrestricted genera which inhabit wide range of salinities. This means that it may to large extent tolerate unfavourable environment for its existence. Benthic foraminifera, mostly calcareous benthic make up the highest abundant in the shales of the study area which also suggest that Afikpo and its environs was deposited in the shallow marine environment.
This study was conducted to describe product's pending order problem of personal skin care products (PSC) in PT. XYZ, to analyze the factors that caused it and to determine the root cause of the problem. Finally, this research was conducted to produce alternative recommendations or solutions to overcome PSC product's pending order problem in PT. XYZ. Factors that caused the problem of PSC product's pending order are obtained from exploration result or focus group discussion (FGD) of respondents that are selected by using purposive sampling. FGD was carried out with tools analysis such as fishbone diagrams with "6M" framework of thinking (consist of aspects of human resources, management / financial, equipment / machinery, procedures/ processes, environmental, and aspect of raw material) which are usually used to find the root cause of a problems in manufacturing industry. Moreover, these causative factors of product's pending order are used to create a perception questionnaire. Questionnaires in this conformation stage were filled out by respondents of product's pending order problem in PT. XYZ. Respondents were selected by using snowball sampling technique. The result of this survey of perception was processed by IBM SPSS statistical program version 20, with test of Kendall concordance (W), in order to confirm the result of FGD. Hence, analytical result concludes that both FGD and questionnaire methods are complementary to each other. Both methods are equally share result that the product's pending order in PT. XYZ is caused by inaccuracy of sales forecasting or demand distributor (DD) forecasting. Relate to inaccuracy of sales forecasting or DD forecasting, research result proposes four recommendations for PT. XYZ as a solution. First recommendation is to improve marketing's key performance indicator (KPI) related with sales target in unit. Second recommendation is the use of combination of quantitative with qualitative sales or DD forecasting technique. Third recommendation is to increase strategic stock for each product for short time period. The last recommendation is DD forecasting should be received by SCM of PT. XYZ from its logistic provider (PT. ZZZ) after having coordination with marketing division of PT. XYZ
The liquid level controlling is useful and important phenomena in industrial, domestic and many other applications. We designed a system to control the liquid level of a container/boiler or any other type of tank. There are many techniques use to control the level of particular tank like PID and PI. We used fuzzy logic technique for liquid controller. Our FLC consist of two input parameters liquid level in the tank and the consumption of the liquid from the tank. To control these two input parameters one output parameter valve is used. The technique used by us involve the FIS with define rules.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is known to be a multicarrier digital communication scheme which helps in addressing problems of interference which are the Inter-carrier Interference (ICI) and Inter-symbol Interference (ISI). OFDM gather large number of low data rate carrier to build a complex high data rate communication system. OFDM is a technique for transmitting data in parallel by the usage of large number of modulated subcarriers and the said subcarriers are separated in frequency after dividing the available bandwidth so that they are orthogonal. OFDM problem is that it is sensitive to frequency offset caused by the relative motion which occurs between the transmitter and the receiver (Doppler shift) which introduces Inter-carrier Interference (loss of orthogonality between sub-carriers) in the OFDM symbol and the use of ICI Self cancellation method will help to reduce the ICI which has been analyzed in this paper and the MATLAB simulation was carried out on the receiver and its transmitter in terms of carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR).
Aims: The aim of this study was to correlate the "PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE" as measured by miniature Wright Peak Flow Meter in normal school children between 5 – 18 years with Weight. Objectives: This study was done to correlate Weight of healthy school children with PEFR. Study area: R.G.M. School Sindhanur. Study design: This is an observational study of 495 urban school going healthy children from SINDHANUR. This sample comprised of 268 boys and 227 girls in the age range of 5- 18 years. Results: PEFR increases progressively with increase in Weight. The correlation of PEFR with Weight was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study has led to the following conclusions. A. There is a positive and statistically significant correlation between PEFR and Weight in the sample of children selected. B. Weight has a less closer correlation with PEFR than height.
The aim of the study was to examine the influence of institutional factors on the adoption of improved cook stoves in Homabay County, Kenya. The economic, social, ecological and environmental roles and benefits of forests are obvious and need no emphasis. Inefficient use of fuel wood is considered one of the main causes of deforestation. Use of more efficient improved cook stoves is proposed as one of the measures that can reduce demand for fuel wood and charcoal and help in lowering the annoying deforestation rate in many developing countries. During the 2000s several programs aiming at testing and disseminating energy saving technologies were implemented in Kenya. One of these technologies was improved cook stove (ICSs), which was intended to increase the efficiency of using energy from biomass sources. The global focus on ICS and clean fuels has increased because of their potential for delivering the triple dividends: household health, local environment quality and regional climate benefits. However, ICS and clean fuel dissemination programs have been met with low rates of adoption. This study was carried out to examine the adoption rate and the factors affecting adoption of improved cook stoves in Homabay County. The study is based on primary data collected through personal interviews with husbands and wives in 220 randomly selected households. In Kenya all the household domestic tasks, particularly food preparation and related activities, are considered women's responsibilities and all the decisions related to them are taken by women. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers households selected using systematic random sampling from the households in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 households and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. The results showed that the device's adoption rate is low. Results of the study indicated that that, access to credit, participation in extension, participation in cooperative society and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of ICS. Whereas, the study found no evidence to show that tenancy status influences adoption of ICS. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension training, strengthening cooperatives and social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of ICS.
The hydrochemical characterstics and quality of ground water in and around Joda have been evaluated collecting seventeen ground water samples in pre-monsoon and post monsoon periods for analysis of various physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TDS, total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO32-, HCO3-, SO42,- NO3-, PO43-, Cl-. The recorded pH values ranging from 6.00-7.32 show that all the samples in pre-monsoon and most of the samples in post-monsoon periods are acidic in nature. More or less all samples are suitable for domestic use with respect to other parameters as per the BIS and WHO guidelines. Piper Trilinear plots indicate that the predominant hydro-chemical facies are Ca-HCO3 type in both the seasons and according to Gibbs diagram the source of ions are mainly due to rock weathering. Along with weathering of rocks and minerals, mining and domestic activities are the contributing factors for the addition of various ions in the water bodies. Wilcox diagram and other indices like % sodium, Sodium adsorption ratio, Residual sodium carbonates and Kelly's ratio reveal that most of the samples are suitable for irrigation. U.S Salinity diagram indicates that the water samples have low to medium salinity hazard and low to medium sodium hazard. All the samples are corrosive with respect to pH in pre-monsoon period and 76 % samples are corrosive in post monsoon period but all are free of incrusting property in both the seasons. The corrosivity ratio indicates that all samples are suitable for industrial use.
Chronic Stress plays a significant role in the progression of tumor angiogenesis through the secretion of Catecholamines, which take part in increased production of IL-6 & VEGF. Chronic psychological stress induces secretion of catecolamines such as epinephrine (E) & noreepinephrine (NE) from adrenal medulla & sympathetic neurons which activate β-adrenergic receptors on tumor cells, which in turn enhances increased production of IL-6. IL-6 then plays a significant role in VEGF production through STAT3 activation. Il-6 follows a series of signaling cascades including cAMP/PKA & MAPK. NF-kB activation through MEK/ERK is crucial for IL-6 production. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculatures is mediated by VEGF. It also takes part in cell proliferation, cell migration & vasculogenesis, thus leading to tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to know the relationship between chronic stress and tumor angiogenesis and to highlight the therapeutic point where further works may proceed on.
The survey is aimed at evaluating the geological parameters and establishing the surface and downward trends of a suspected quarry rock material, through resistivity variation characteristics, prior to the location of a rock quarry as well as estimating the overburden thickness. Geological study revealed that the dolerite has density of 1,200kgm3. A total of six (6) vertical electrical soundings (VES) and four (4) horizontal resistivity profiling (HRP) were carried out using Abem Terrameter SAS 1000 with Schlumberger array of electrode spacing of 200m and Wenner electrode array configuration were carried out with 10m respectively, field data were processed using different forward and inverse modeling computer Res2Div software. The VES results revealed that dolerite occurred at VES 5, VES 8 and VES 9 positions with thickness ranging from 12meters to 25meters but dolerite did not appear at; VES 2, VES 3 and VES 7. The results of the horizontal resistivity profiling HRP line trending north-east and south-west reveals that the intrusive rock occurs in boulders form scatter beneath the overburden in a very limited quantity while north-east direction indicates abortive. Results of the analysis show that the overburden thickness is not uniformly distributed, it decreases toward the natural hills (places of appreciable elevation and decreases as one approaches the low land areas (valley). The estimated volume of dolerite is 34, 92000.00 million tons.
The present study was aimed to assess the levels of heavy metals in Abakaliki and its environs, south eastern Nigeria. A total number of 15 water samples (12 boreholes and 3 hand dug wells of groundwater points) were collected from different locations of the study area and analyzed for the concentration of heavy metals: As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer of Perkin-Elmer Analyst 100 Model. The pH of the water samples were determined using Hanna digital pH meter. The result of the analysis showed that water samples from the area have pH range of 6.0-7.8 which falls within the acceptable limit of WHO, 2008 standard permissible limit for portable water. The concentration of these metals in groundwater were found in the ranges of As (nil-2.40mg/l), Cd (0.06-0.41mg/l), Cu (nil-3.10mg/l), Ni (0.08-1.15mg/l), Pb (0.10-0.90mg/l) and Zn (nil-1.35mg/l). The result also revealed that some water samples in some locations such as Hausa quarters, off Onwe road, Azu-Ebonyi, Mechanic village, Ogoja road and Building Materials contained As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb that exceeded permissible limit recommended by WHO standard. It also showed that the distribution of these metals was found in both the two sources of waters sampled (borehole and hand dug well) in the area. The reason for these heavy metals in groundwater could be as a result of hydrochemical activities within the rock formations that bear the groundwater in the area. As a result, adequate hydro geological studies should be carried out when locating boreholes in the area for health reasons and domestic use.
This research gives detailed knowledge on the lithic- geology and brief knowledge on trace fossil analysis of the study area. These lithofacies have been organized into six main lithostratigraphic units namely: Unit A, Unit B, Unit C, Unit D, Unit E and Unit F. The lithic fills of the area show an undulating topography with thickness increasing towards the eastern, south eastern and north eastern parts. Six uneastablished lithofacies(Unit) were encountered which includes fine grained friable Sandstone, dark grey Shale, White to pink clay, fine to coarse grained Sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone and heterolithic Sandstone and clay facies coined out from the establish Ajali and Nsukka Formation that underline the area. This formation was dated upper Maastrichtian with the Ajali Sandstone underlying the Nsukka Formation. Sandstone sedimentological analyses b (sieve, grain size analysis) and record of Scoyena and Skoliths ichnofossils indicates a parallic environment (Delta platform and Delta slope realm).
By sharing knowledge, organizations are able to enhance their efficacy, decrease cost of training and moderate risks due to lack of certainty. In the age of knowledge, find a way to motivate employee for sharing knowledge with others is the most difficult issue in term of managing knowledge. Therefore, factors influencing knowledge sharing are particularly vital. This paper was conducted to encompass understanding of the trust and motivational factors that influence knowledge sharing behavior in organizations. It is important that no known study examined the influence of motivational factors onto knowledge sharing behavior through trust as a moderator. In this research we proposed a theoretical framework that combined motivational factors with Theory of Reason Action (TRA) to describe the relations among two types of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic), trust and worker's intentions and attitudes toward knowledge sharing.
Introduction: Fertility is generally used to indicate the actual reproductive performance of women or group of female individuals. But generally fertility indicates the number of children, which were produced by women. In every society fertility is very essential to find out the birth rate and other factors which influenced this rate. Fertility is very important indicators of any society and family structure have its own important in demographic studies and planning the many of programs. Methods: In a cross sectional study, study the unit for anthropological demographical date was ever married women. A socio-economic demographical house to house survey method used for collection of data was conducted by interview 112 females belong to 119 household of district Sagar of Madhya Pradesh. by using a pretested semi structure interview schedule. In semi structure interview schedule collected demographical data viz. age, sex, age at first birth, fertility detail such as total numbers of live births, numbers of children died, number of child surviving pregnancy experienced by mothers, reproductive wastage. The fertility history was arranged and developed for Bidi workers via. using the demographical and fertility measurements. By using these variable and measurements to estimate the fertility rates and ratio such as Child women ratio. Crude birth rate, general fertility rate, age specific fertility rate, general marital fertility rate, gross reproduction rat, total fertility rate. Results: That a largest proportion of mothers 66.2% were given births at 15-19 years of age and 33.03% at the age of 20-24 years of age. It is indicated the prevalence of early marriage among Bidi workers of district Sagar of Madhya Pradesh. The CWR has been found 361.5 and comparatively low with other population of central India.CBR among Bidi workers were computed to be 24.6 General fertility rate was 100 and General marital fertility rate was 138.2, whereas total fertility rate was 5.5 and Gross reproduction rate was 2.69. Conclusion: Bidi workers of District Sagar of Madhya Pradesh, a part of central India are one of the known occupational groups of state. Bidi workers who are low wage earner and lagging behind in socio-economic, health status and demographical indicators. The most of the Bidi worker are illiterate and passionate under socioeconomically backward condition. Among them the female literacy rate is very poor, which directly or indirectly influenced their fertility mortality rate and their reproductive performance. They are also lagging behind in awareness of the sanitation and their living condition. Under all of these circumferences, there for is urgently need a program which tackle and improved these aspects problem.
Introduction: Vitex negundo L. (Nisinda locally), belongs to the family Verbenaceae, found almost everywhere in Bangladesh is a medicinal aromatic shrub. Materials and Methods: An attempt was taken to its micropropagation from field-grown explants (shoot-tip) in Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with various concentrations of phytohormones. Results: Experimentally, the best shoot induction was observed in full strength MS medium supplemented with BAP 1.0mg/L and Kin 0.5mg/L. However, 0.5mg/L IBA in half strength MS medium was enabled to induce 80% root initiation with the highest root number and longest shoot length. Well-developed roots were successfully subjected to hardening process and acclimatized. Conclusion: Regenerated plantlets were same as the natural plants and showed 80.56% survival frequency with frisky and seductive appearances without any abnormalities.
Image re-ranking, Image Search engines mostly use keywords and they rely on surrounding text for searching images. Ambiguity of query images is hard to describe accurately by using keywords. Eg: Apple is query keyword then categories can be "red apple", "apple laptop" etc. In this paper, we have a tendency to propose a completely unique image re-ranking framework. Four steps: A query image is 1st classified into one in every of many predefined intention classes, and a particular similarity live is employed within every class to mix image options for re-ranking supported the query image. Query keywords are enlarged to capture user intention, through the visual content of the question image hand-picked by the user and the image agglomeration victimization fuzzy c mean algorithm, Image pool is enlarged to contain additional relevant pictures. The query image is additionally enlarged by victimization keyword growth. The Experimental analysis shows that our approach considerably improves the exactness of top-ranked pictures and conjointly the user expertise.
The goal of our study is to characterize the effluent of the municipal slaughter-houseof the Bukavu city and to recommend a suitable treatment, thus reducing the harmful effect which undergoes the receiving environment (Ruzizi River) and to also mitigate the loss of this hydrous resource in recoverable matter. The physicochemical characterization of raw wastewaterrevealed that this liquid rejection is very charged of organic matter expressed in termsof COD (Avg.= 219.52 mg/L), in BDO5(Avg.= 181.34 mg/L), in Suspend Matter (Avg.= 482 mg/L) and mineral matter expressed in terms of Chlorides (Avg.= 237 mg/L), Electric Conductivity (Avg.= 1360.5 μs/cm) and Alkalinity expressed in CaCO3(Avg.= 201 mg/KL) with a pH of 7.5. The average content of Nitrates isabout 1.74 mg/L. Although this wastewater presents a high organic load (BDO5/COD report = 0.83 and SM/BDO5= 2.66), it has a satisfactory bio deterioration. The COD/BDO5 report examination = 1.21 underlines well the biodegradable character of mixed wastewater of the Bukavu city municipal slaughterhouse to which, a biological treatment appears completely suitable.
The work we have done has been devoted to study the antifungal activity of essential oils of three moroccan aromatic and medicinal plants towards of three strains of dermatophytes responsible for superinfection of a contact dermatitis. The essential oils of the three plants studied: Thymus vulgaris, Mentha spicata and Citrus limonum, showed significant inhibitory activities on the three fungi tested. The antifungal activity is linked to inhibition of mycelial growth with particularly high concentrations of essential oils. Thus, the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris showed the greatest activity against dermatophytes compared to other oils. According to their sensitivity, the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species showed a high sensitivity to essential oils more than other dermatophytes.
Sen's capability approach differentiates between "being and doing"- with doing defined as what individual is capable of doing. And since individual's capability is dependent on as diverse factors as political voice, education, health, and social facilities, in this way culture turns out to be one of the primal factors affecting behaviors and capabilities of individuals, and that in turn can lead to economic and social development.
Aims: This study focused on the assessment and identification of key insect pests on sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) plantation in Tony farm of Dire Dawa town. It was also explain the abundance of key pests and effective controlling methods. Methodology and Results: The farm lands of sweet oranges stratified in to nursery stage and adult stage by using stratification method technique. Then random sampling method of data collection was carried out in both strata. By this method direct observations were taken place and the data collected from this area were analyzed. The larvae and adult stages of key insect pests of sweet oranges were identified by using the dissecting microscope. Citrus leaf miners, leaf dogs and cottony cushion scale are key insect pests of sweet oranges in this area. From these citrus leaf miners are highly dominant where as orange dog is less in abundance. Conclusions: Citrus sinensis plants in Tony farm are highly damaged by these key insect pests particularly nursery stages of plants are devastated.