In this 21st era, the palm print is a new and emerging biometric feature for personal recognition as it provides various advantages over other biometric system. An individual can be identified effectively with the help of palm print. This paper discuss various research activities introduced which rectifies the difficulties faced in various palm print recognition stages like palm image acquisition, image processing, palm feature extraction and palm recognition. This paper also discusses various algorithms used for palm feature detection with openCV.
Kenya has been widely criticized for its on-going abuse of human rights and corruption in government administration more specifically the prison system. Moreover, the prison system in Kenya has been termed to be dilapidated since they were adopted from the colonial administration in 1963 after gaining independence. The paper looks at the utilitarian rationale of punishment that supports the prisons as rehabilitation institutions that aim to reform prisoners therefore reforming them towards proper societal norms. This paper critically reviews various studies carried out by other researchers and authors that disparagingly look at and have elaborated the understanding of the prison system in Kenya. Additionally, the paper identified the challenges of the prison system that includes the punitive and dire conditions in prisons since independence, inadequate legal representation, usage of drugs by inmates. Moreover, there is mistreatment of prisoners and lack of the privileges and rights, and eventually, lack of independence oversight of the prison system with regard to prisoners. At the same time, the challenges facing the prison officers or staff as identified in this paper include; inadequacy of skills, poor working conditions/environment and unfavourable scheme of service, inadequate in supply of food and clothing and varied perception by the civil society and corruption within the prison walls. The paper concludes that the correctional services are in dire need of reforms because of the earlier mentioned challenges facing both the prisoners and the prison staff. The paper recommends that reflective policies need to advocate for prison welfare and also securing their rights of prisoners. Furthermore, there is need for stakeholder participation, improved training especially those involved directly in the reforming the prison system.
Community policing is an integral component in ensuring that there is no insecurity incidence in the community. Accordingly, the Kenyan government introduced the concept of community policing which became effective in the Kibaki regime. It was seen as the interaction of the police and the community members, thus with the view of ensuring that they are safe from criminal activities especially from the vigilante groups. Community policing has been seen as an effort to prevent crime and at the same time ensure communal participation towards stamping out crime at communal level. This paper is a critical review of the various attempts to identify the concept of community policing, more specifically, identifying the benefits and challenges of Kenyan community policing system. This paper recommends that concerned stakeholders should devise ways of ensuring that policies on community policing reflect the needs and aspirations of all the citizens in all regions in the country. This can be done by ensuring that the Kenya government or successive regimes; and all sectors are committed towards community policing efforts. Critically, this will emphasize on the ability to address community policing strategies through public participation forums.
The concept of mobile learning was proposed by Revans from England in 1982 which has been more than 25 years (Revans, 1982). Revans offers an iterative model, successively alternating experience and preparation/reflection, which is a useful paradigm for mobile learning (McDermott et al., 2000). However, scholars perceive mobile learning in different ways. The following section contributes to various explanations of mobile learning by international scholars: m-learning is e-learning through mobile computational devices: Palms, Windows CE machines, even your digital cell phone (Quin, 2001). Mobile learning is a context-based learning by using mobile technology medium and is learner-centered. The flexibility of mobile learning in a proper location allow learners to interact with other learners and instructors and conduct technology-learning, content learning or context-based learning that is proactive, instant, distant /approximate, individual or group-centered. Moreover, learner will experience meaningful knowledge construction through this process (Young et al., 2005). Mobile learning is defined as any educational provision where the sole or dominant technologies are handheld or palmtop devices (Traxler, 2005).
Statement of the problem: Research on the human face has seen a surge, especially with rapidly developing new concepts of dynaesthetics. Besides dentistry, medical specialties like surgery, forensics and ophthalmology have found renewed interest in studies on human face. In dentistry, specialists from the field of orthodontics, prosthodontics, orthognathic surgeons and aesthetic dentists have done considerable research on various landmarks of human face especially measurements between different landmarks. While researchers have focussed on different methods of measuring, none seemingly has focussed on the significance of stabilizing the subject on which measurements are made or the device with which measurements are made. Purpose: To review the literature related to the methods used to measure facial parameters. To design a new device that firmly stabilizes subject as well as measuring device. Materials and methods: An innovative device was first designed from data obtained from measurements of average head sizes of various races. Thirty dentulous and thirty edentulous subjects were then selected on whom the reliability of the instrument was verified. For dentulous subjects three different observers measured predetermined facial parameter whereas for edentulous subjects, vertical dimensions were measured on the newly designed device called Subject stabilizing device. Vertical dimensions incorporated in the denture were approved in a two stage procedure. Results: Distances between various different landmarks of the human face were measured without the subject having to move his/her head and without ever removing the measuring calliper from the device. Conclusion: The device is reliable in measuring different clinical landmarks and can be particularly useful in research where measurements need to be standardized when large populations are studied.
The present study reveals the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive constituents of different parts such as root, stem, leaf, flower and latex of medicinally important plant Baliospermum montanum using seven different solvents. Qualitative study of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Steroids, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Saponins, Fatty acids, Tannins, Protein and Amino Acids, Gum and Mucilage, Terpenoids, anthroquinones and Phenols showed variable of results in different solvents. Quantitative estimation revealed that phytochemicals are in between the following range alkaloids (6.2 -9.5%), flavonoids (35.63-43.33%), Saponins (9.9 to 13.2%), phenolics (38.43 to 43.44%), tannins (13.26 to 18.3%), terpenoids (25.36 to 33.4%).
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are the emerging field, which deals with a set of communicating vehicles that are able to deploy Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). In this kind of networks, it is difficult to make an ideal configuration of the communication protocols. In this work, we consider a problem which lies in configuring the File Transfer Protocol configuration with the aim of optimizing the amount of data transferred, the transmission time and the number of lost packets in realistic VANET scenarios. In order to do this we have used metaheuristic algorithms, which lie in searching efficient parameters setting of VDTP protocol. The VDTP protocol has been tested by employing five different parameter settings: PSO, DE, GA, ES, and SA. For our tests, two different environment instances of VANETs for Urban and Highway scenarios have been taken. The experiments using ns-2 prove that PSO outperforms all the compared algorithms.
In this paper, we have shown that applying Hermite Normal Form (HNF) for the matrix formulation algorithm in NTRU public key cryptosystem substantially Increases it efficiency as compare to other PKC, such as Nayak et al.
This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a world-wide-mobile-call-back burglar alarm system. The principle of operation of this burglar alarm is based on that of a Passive Infrared Sensor as motion detector to sense movement of people, as well as, versatility of an Arduino board and a Global System for Mobile Communications Shield. When the motion of a person is detected by the PIR sensor, the alarm is triggered and a signal is sent to the Arduino board which in turn activates the shield. The shield interfaces with mobile network whose Subscriber Identity Module is used to make call to a pre-programmed mobile line of a property owner. The received call from the particular line thus alert the property owner and/or security personnel of the presence of an intruder on the monitored property.
This study sought to investigate the factors that influence access to debt finance by Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Chwele Town, Bungoma County. The categories of firms under study were all registered MSEs in operation at the time. The study examined the following objectives: to determine the effect of Collateral security on access to debt finance, to establish effect of financial information on access to debt finance and to determine the effect of managerial competence on access to debt finance. The study employed a descriptive research design. The target population was 256 MSEs from which a sample size of 120 MSEs was selected using Nassiuma (2000) formula. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The raw data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression. The first study objective sought to establish the relationship between the Collateral security and access to debt finance by MSEs in Chwele Township. It was established that most of the respondents had not pledged Collateral security for finance while. Most of the indicated that the nature of the Collateral security offered was private property which included their land. The study further established that respondents who could not provide Collateral security had their finance requests declined. From the regression analysis it was established that Collateral security and access to debt finance are positively related. The second objective aimed at establishing the relationship between financial information maintained by the firm and access to debt finance by MSEs in Chwele Township. It was established that most of the MSEs owners did not maintained their financial records and that the records maintained were mostly business plan, income statements and balance sheet. On access to debt finance, the study found out that most firms which kept financial information had their applications for debt finance approved while those that never maintained financial information had of the application declined. Thus the denial rate for debt finance was high for the firms that did not keep financial information. The analysis of regression revealed that financial information and access to debt finance had a positive relationship. Thus, a firm that maintains financial information was likely to obtain debt finance compared to one that does not. The last objective sought to establish the link between managerial competence of firm's owner and access to debt finance by MSEs in Chwele Township. In the study, it was found that most firm owners had an education level up to KCSE while a few had bachelor's degree. In terms of experience, most respondents had operated their firms for a period less than 4 years while a view had and experience above 20 years. The study established that; Collateral security, financial information and managerial competence influenced a firm's access to debt finance.
Until a decade ago, sharing and utilizing knowledge has been regarded as a major contributor to an organization's competitive advantage. But more recently, different facets of managing organizational knowledge-related risks, or knowledge risk management KRM are fast gaining recognition for their role in bolstering an organization's competitive advantage. For any organization to deliver its products and services on time and on budget, while maintaining desired levels of quality and innovation, it needs to manage information and knowledge related risks. It is the unique and vital knowledge that keeps the day-to-day operations in motion, drives creativity and innovation, and sets it apart from the competition. That's why KRM focuses mainly on safeguarding knowledge, preventing knowledge loss, and minimizing the underutilization of organizational knowledge base.
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in and for education is rapidly expanding in many countries and is now seen worldwide as both a necessity and an opportunity for improving and enhancing the education offered to citizens across the globe (UNESCO, 2006).This study was conducted to investigate teachers 'preparedness in the integration of Information Communication Technology in public secondary schools in Kieni East District Nyeri County-Kenya. The objectives of the study are to (i) establish E-learning sustainability (ii) explore attainment of computer skills and (iii) establish funding strategies in place. Questionnaires were administered to teachers and students. Findings indicated that 90% of the teachers felt that learning computers contributes to the development of the country and especially vision 2030. The study revealed that 68% of the students had no access to internet though 95% can browse the internet using the computers. The level of teachers' preparedness and awareness is low. These findings indicate that majority of the teachers have not yet integrated ICT in the teaching learning process in public secondary schools in Kieni-East District.The study recommends that teachers are taken through workshops that target use of ICT in the teaching learning process. Teachers should be encouraged to buy personal computers which they can use while in and out of school to increase teachers' perception on ICT.
The attitudes and aspirations of parents and of children themselves predict later educational achievement. International evidence suggests that parents with high aspirations are also more involved in their children's education (Gutman & Akerman, 2008). This study was set to investigate gender differences in parents' involvement in their children's learning in public secondary schools in Kieni-West District Nyeri County-Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (i) Investigate gender difference in the nature of parental involvement in their children's learning; (ii) Establish gender differences in factors influencing extent of involvement children's learning and to (iii) Explore parents' views towards the teachers in their involvement in learning. One hundred and ten parents who had their children in public secondary schools were randomly selected. The research study employed a mixed method approach using both qualitative and quantitative techniques in collecting and analyzing data. The study used face to face interviews with fathers and mothers. The findings of the study indicated that 89% of the mothers participated in school events and activities compared to 83% of the fathers. Further findings indicated that 70% of the fathers communicated to their children in mother tongue while at home compared to 61% of the mothers. Majority of the fathers had attained secondary education while majority of the mothers had primary education. The study revealed that mothers experienced painful experiences during their time than the fathers. Major recommendations include among others attending parents teachers' conferences and encouraging parents to communicate to their children in English.
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to analyze genetics, development, and signaling for nearly a century. About 60% of the genes that are believed to cause human disease have found to a recognizable match in the genetic code of the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), and 50% of Drosophila's protein sequences are similar to those of mammals. Fruit flies are mostly used in disease analysis of human because their gene and protein similarities are included in an organism with only four pairs of chromosomes, the X/Y sex chromosomes and three autosomes, numbered 2, 3 and 4. The advantages of using Drosophila are that they breed and mature rapidly, are inexpensive and easy to grow, produce several hundred offspring per generation, and need very little space. The fruit fly is also an ideal candidate for human disease studies because simple mutations cause obvious phenotype differences and its genome map has been fully sequenced.
This study was intended to examine the correlation between students' attitude towards leaning writing lessons through receiving training on the learning strategies of writing and their writing performance to discuss relevant contents, organize contents appropriately and use accurate grammar, appropriate vocabulary and correct mechanics. To this end, the selected Year-I students of Hawassa University were taught lessons of the Basic Writing Skills course with training in the strategies. At the end of the program, the students were made to fill in a five-point scale questionnaire intended to explore their attitude towards receiving training in the strategies, and to take a writing test. The correlations were examined through the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r). To determine the strength of a correlation, the cut-off points suggested by Cohen were applied. Moreover, the coefficient of determination was computed to see the extent to which the students' attitude towards receiving training on the strategies predicts their writing performance. Thus, this research employed a quantitative-methods design. The Pearson r demonstrated that there was a strong positive correlation between the students' attitude towards leaning the writing lessons through receiving training on the strategies and their writing performance on each of the aspects of writing (r-values > .766; p-value = .000)). The coefficient of determination also revealed that the students' attitude towards receiving training on the strategies predicts their writing performance at above 58%. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made.
The comparative study of chemical properties and electronic bond structure of amorphous carbon (a-C), hydrocarbon (a-HC), carbon nitride (a-CNx) and hydrogenated carbon nitride (a-HCNy) is reported here. The spectroscopic analyses suggest that the presence of oxide layer is not only the prime cause but the presence of nitrogen is partially responsible for the chemical shift towards higher binding energy. In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), C 1s spectra of a-HCNy film shows higher chemical shifts compare to a-C, a-HC and a-CNx. Raman spectra display a strong fluorescence effect of a-HC and a-HCNy where as a-C and a-CNx exhibits a promising G and D band at room temperature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra show a large NH-OH over lapping region in a-HCNy compare to a-HC and a-CNx film whereas it is negligible in a-C. FTIR spectra show that the a-C, a-HC and a-CNx films are dominated by sp2 bonded region while a-HCNy is the mixture of sp2, sp3 and hydrogen bridging bond.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cardiac disorder of unknown origin associated with a high risk of mortality (50%). Echocardiography confirms the diagnosis by showing a left ventricular dilatation and a decreased ejection fraction. Up to date, the treatment remains symptomatic. The authors report the case of a woman of 36 years old who presented a peripartum cardiomyopathy.
The authors report the case of a 26 years old woman with a medical history of three late fetal loss (between 20 to 22 weeks) who benefit in her actual pregnancy a recue cervical cerclage at 20 weeks of gestation. It allowed the continuation of the pregnancy until 38 weeks after elective suture removal at 36SA. The patient give birth by natural delivery to a baby girl in good condition. Prophylactic cerclage was recommended to the patient in later pregnancies. Through this case and based on recent literature reviews, the authors discuss the indications, contraindications, technical aspects and prognosis of rescue cervical cerclage.
Polyurethanes are versatile materials used widely in many applications. Annual production of polyurethanes is increasing day by day. The most important application of polyurethane covering its major market is polyurethane foam. Different type of foaming systems and foaming processes are used for synthesis of foam. There are two major types of polyurethane foam which are flexible foam and rigid foam. This review has been structured to present an overview of different types of foam, foaming systems, and processes used for production of foam. Also major applications of polyurethanes are presented.
High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels were developed primarily for the automotive industry to replace low-carbon steels in order to improve the strength-to-weight ratio and meet the need for higher-strength construction grade materials. During this period, micro-alloyed or HSLA steels became an indispensable class for different applications like automobile industry, ship building, line pipe, pressure vessels, building construction, bridges, and storage tanks. Different welding techniques are used in this study to evaluate the mechanical properties of weldments of HSLA steel. Weldments are prepared using three welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state technology that has attracted considerable interest since it was invented at TWI in 1991. Structural integrity issues in welding of HSLA steels are associated with different problems encountered in friction stir welding of these steels. The other important problem in welding HSLA steels is to prevent brittle fracture of welded joints due to increased strength of HSLA steels. The solid state characteristics of FSW eliminate the susceptibility of porosity and cracking. The objective is to determine the best welding process for HSLA steel by evaluating weld metal microstructure and mechanical properties including weld metal tensile strength and Charpy V-notch impact toughness are investigated. Charpy impact and tensile tests are performed on standard notched specimens obtained from the welded and main sections of the material. The hardness distribution measurements on the differently welded specimens are conducted in order to gain a deep insight of different welding processes.
Scheduling algorithms allow one to decide which threads are given to resource from moment to moment. Various process scheduling algorithms exist and this paper focuses on the scheduling algorithms used for scheduling processes in a multiprogramming system namely First-Come-First-Served (FCFS), Round Robin (RR), Shortest Job First (SJF), Shortest Remaining Time First (SRTF) and Lottery scheduling. Each algorithm has been discussed and a comparison was made on the basis of eight (8) parameters significant in processes scheduling. In fact, compared to other papers, this research made use of more parameters for the analysis. These parameters include CPU utilization, throughput, waiting time, response time, fairness, starvation, predictability and preemption. From this analysis, we showed that there is actually no scheduling algorithm satisfying the conditions of an ideal algorithm and concluded that further studies which improve current scheduling algorithms need to be done.
When using electronic devices such as mobile phone, invisible electromagnetic waves are generated. These waves can be absorbed by lossy material such as human body tissues. The radio frequency field emitted from mobile phones penetrates the exposed tissues and the absorbed energy is converted to thermal energy. This thermal effect can cause harm by increasing the temperature of corresponding tissue, and damaging biological tissue, especially those of head and brain. This paper presents a critical analysis of Specific Absorption rate (SAR) at 900MHz and 1800MHz (2G-GSM) communication frequencies by considering the various gap distances between a numerically simulated human head model and source of radiation (i.e. mobile phone). It is shown here that by increasing the distance between user and mobile phone the effect of absorbed radiations can be minimized. All the numerical results are obtained by making the use of Finite Element Method (FEM).
The ability of biofilms formation was studied by utilizing fifty Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from both environmental and hospital samples. The support utilized for strains fixation was in polystyrene and contained two liquid media: Luria-Bertani and Mineral Medium supplemented with Hexadecane as the sole source of carbon and energy. The results obtained showed that the Bioﬁlms-forming ability depend on both media carbon source and the P. aeruginosa strain variety. When the carbon source is hard to degrade or toxic, like hexadecane or derived substrates, the formed biofilms presented a high density; however, when the carbon is easy to degrade by the strains; like that one of L.B medium, the formed biofilms have a slight density. Furthermore, this density is also influenced by the strains although they belonged to the same species; at this purpose, the ERIC - PCR analysis, showed that P. aeruginosa strains studied are various because their profil ERIC present a percentage of similarity which not exceeds 60%.
The scope of human resource development has become global and holistic and sociological concepts and perspectives have been incorporated to get a good knowledge of the social networks, values norms and other social as well as political institutes of the society which affect in one or another way the individuals, organizations and even nations. The core purpose of the study was to study the knowledge, attitude, and practice of PIDE students about social capital as a crucial factor in determining shape and pace of human resources development. Pakistan being a developing country is in dire need of trained, skilled, and educated work force. We tried to find out that the global changing trends do have an effect over here in Pakistan by using the KAP analysis. Structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from the respondents (PIDE students) selected through simple random sampling. Focus Group Discussions (FGD's) was also held for M.Sc., M.Phil. and PhD students. The results explained a lack of knowledge on the part of students about social capital or its importance. The social capital was an unheard word for the students of all level and they render it less important for any particular development policy. This baseline survey has opened up new vistas of opportunities for further digging up of Social capital.
E-CRM (electronic customer relationship management) is a derivation from CRM techniques which influenced direct marketing technology and call centre to promote massively created products and services to small sub-segments of market. When CRM techniques are incorporated in e-commerce environment it becomes E-CRM which involves building a strong and sustainable customer relationship by using Internet. It is a strategy which is purely based on Internet and software development, it requires to create essential integrated software suite to deal with all kinds of customer related issues like customer services, sales and marketing field support. The essential parts of E-CRM are to focus on building new customer base, segmentation of high valued customers, enhancing the profitability of existing customer and maximize the value and life of profitable customers.
Data Mining is about analyzing the huge amount data and extracting of information from it for different purposes. From the last few years the field of Data Mining becomes prominent and makes huge growth. There are different standard models for data mining. All these models are defined in sequential steps. These steps help in implementing the data mining tasks. In this paper we will compare these models and give brief understanding about them.
Public information center store information resources to meet information needs of public. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the communities' dwellers in Kogi-West Senatorial District in Kogi State of Nigeria need standard public information center. Also to know their information needs and preferred information resources. Descriptive survey design was adopted. Instruments for data collection are questionnaire and personal interview. Simple percentage was used for data analysis; where 50% and above is considered agreed and accepted while 50% and below is considered not agreed and rejected. At of 700 respondents accidentally selected 683 (97.5%) want establishment of standard public information center while, 27 (3.8%) show no interest. Those that want the establishment their information needs cut across agriculture, business, health, politics, and education; and their preferred information resources are books & papers, television, radio, resource persons, and Internet. Recommendations were proffered to enable effective establishment of standard public information centers in the communities understudy.
This paper aimed at assessing factors affecting human resource succession planning in Tanzania public and private organizations. The study aimed at finding answers to the following four objectives ;assessment of extent of human resources succession planning activities in Tanzania's work organizations; examining of the challenges facing human resources succession planning in the Tanzania work organizations; assessment of the positive factors influencing human resources succession planning in Tanzania work organizations; and looking at strategies used for enhancing the application of human resource succession planning in Tanzania work organizations. The study employed a sample of 60 respondents upon whom questionnaire, key informants, focus group discussions (FGDs) as well as documentary reviews were administered. Random, clustered and stratified sampling techniques were used to build a viable sample from the target population. The data collected were analyzed through excel and SPSS tools. Study findings indicate that majority of the respondents did not have knowledge on the concept of human resource succession planning and how it works in their organizations. Few organizations surveyed conducted succession planning but how effective and regularly done in the organizations remained questionable. Conclusively, the study findings both showed and recommended that human resource succession planning played an important role for the organization development and therefore ,driven by top management commitment and consistent purposive continuous training programs ,attracting and recruiting potentially capable employees, Effective strategic leadership, management development and improving budget were among the strategies identified to be suitable for enhancing effective human resource succession planning in the surveyed organizations.
The Albertin Rift is an ecoregion which extends from the North of Albert Lake in Blue Mountains to the South extreme of Tanganyika Lake. This area attracts the attention of scientists. In fact it is characterized by an endemic, specific wealth and vey and very high vulnerable. We would like to contribute to the knowledge of taxa of the earth's biodiversity and aquatic one according to the logic: "World Conservation Monitoring Center", as regards to conservation. We have also listed from bats twenty three species and two under orders in four sites. The order of Megachiroptera is represented by only one family where as in the one of Microchiroptera, we have found six families and ten species'. The demoeologial parameters have shown that if is the Kahuzi Biega National Park and its vicinities with a superior abundance seem to have a great specific resource. Then, come the forest reserve of Bururi in Burundi and the mountain of Misotshi-Kabogo. At last we have the Community Reserve of Bushema. The indication of Shannon diversity confirms these facts. The similarity quotient of Sorensen proves to be higher between the Kahuzi Biega National Park and Bushema, afterwards between Misotshi-Kabogo and Bushema. It's feeble between Bururi-Kahuzi and Bururi-Bushema. All the species inventoried are important according to their role in the troffic chain. Some are predators, for example the Microchiroptera (insectivorous) and they are all preys of carnivorous like the birds, snack …
This study has been conducted in Albertin Rift, East Democratic Republic of Congo at Misotshi Kabogo (790m – 1950m of altitude) sites located within Mitumba mountain chaine at the west side of Tanganyika Lac and Kahuzi (2200m –3308m of altitude) a mountain of Kahuzi Biega National Park in the east of Kivu Lac at the. The goal consisted of fournishing the information related to status of these small mammals of the species of Soricidae family. The specimens had been collected with the help of 11 pitfalls that were escaped into soil and spaced at 5m from each other on the same transect and baited by meat or fish. The laboratory helped to identify and to analyse data and some were carried out to museum. Some species of Crocidura, Myosorex, Scutisorex, Suncus and Sylvisorex had been captured. Musisi swamp in Kahuzi region is known to be the richest in abundance. Crocidura olivieri is the only species found in the both sites. Only four species are located in Misotshi-Kabogo and eighteen specifically in Kahuzi. Three new species have been described; Myosorex jejei at Kahuzi localised in the tow habitats. To this is added some vulnerable, endemic, nearly endemic and poorly known or data deficient.
This paper explores post occupancy evaluation (POE) strategies with regard to performance of university buildings in Algeria. Essential methods of post-occupancy evaluations are reviewed. Implementation of broad principles of POE in the specific context of university facilities was applied. It endeavours to underline how post occupancy evaluation strategies can assist central government and local authorities in the higher education sector to respond to the challenge of developing a better built environment. Finally, key findings through a field work are presented. Last but not least, it aspires to hand over the capacity to provide consistent 'evidence based' information to be incorporated into design guidelines, and inform future higher education facility decisions makers. Arguably tough, the potential as well as the limitations of the scope will require further exploration in use.
Le propos que tentons de développer s'apparente à un véritable plaidoyer pour le recouvrement de la démarche programmatique en tant qu'étape impérative et incontournable dans le processus global de conceptualisation et de mise en œuvre des projets d'architecture.
The recurring theme of server virtualization being a bundled single virtual machine file – consisting of the operating system, applications and settings – easily stored, deployable or transportable within the bounds of its operating parameters, the Achilles heel of such a VM (virtual machine) file is the likelihood of its getting corrupt or irrecoverably lost. Such disastrous occurrences are not unheard of, and are regularly tackled using a system of data backups to extenuate loss or corruption of entire VM files. However, the backing up process of VM files itself can compound recurring costs at an unexpected rate in the form of frequent acquisition of storage hardware in which to store the VM files. In this paper first we shows, a detailed cost comparison that based on power and cooling has been drawn in a table format between physical server and VMware server [VMware esx], secondly we analyze the role that the Billboard Manager has to play in shuttling the VM files in a secure and encrypted manner so as to extract the maximum operating potential of server virtualization and virtualization storage system in a private cloud domain.
The present study is undertaken to examine the impact of interest rate, inflation rate and per capita income on household's saving in Pakistan for the period of 1981 to 2011. The study uses simple descriptive statistics to analyze the trend in household's saving. It also uses advance techniques of time series econometrics for modeling the household's saving function. It includes Granger causality test (Block erogeneity test), Johanson Co-integration, and general to specific methodology for modeling the appropriate Vector Error correction model. The applications of the techniques are based on the order of integration of time series data. It is, therefore, the reason that Augmented – Dickey Fuller test has been carried out for testing the order of integration of the time series variables, and thereby, selecting the estimation techniques for estimating parameters of the model. The careful inspection of the data reveals that all the variables are non-stationary at level, stationary at their first difference. Based on this characteristic of the data Johnson co-integration technique has been used for estimation, rather than simple OLS which is biased at the present case. The empirical results show that there exist equilibrium in long run relationship among per capita income, inflation, interest rate and household's saving. There is also significant error correction component which reveals that system reverts to its long run equilibrium in response to external shocks. These results are as per economic theory. On the basis of empirical evidence, it is suggested that inflation rate may be kept low so that real interest rate may be stimulated for accelerating rate of household's saving rate.
The November 2009 and February 2010 flood waters of the River- fatal, devastating and historical with return estimated to 49 years- are the result of heavy rainfall in the side basins, the nature of the soil and the taken materials together with the presence of numerous ponds in the major bank/ bed of the Kibe River, although inhabited.
Transportation engineers and urban planners often report uncertain estimates as precise numbers, and unwarranted trust in the accuracy of these precise numbers can lead to bad transportation and land use policies. This paper presents data on parking and trip generation rates to illustrate the misuse of precise numbers to report statistically insignificant estimates. Beyond the problem of statistical insignificance, parking and trip generation rates typically report the parking demand and vehicle trips observed at suburban sites with ample free parking and no public transit. When decision makers use these parking and trip generation rates for city planning, they create a city where everyone drives to their destinations and parks free when they get there.
Mathematical optimization models can used to tackle Water Resource (WR) management problems with a multiperiod feature. Such models handle thousands of constraints and variables depending on the level of adherence required to reach a significant representation of the system. Moreover these problems are typically characterized by a level of uncertainty about the value of hydrological exogenous inflows and demand patterns. A WR model is usually defined in a dynamic planning horizon in which management decisions have to be made either sequentially, by adopting a predefined scenario independently. In this paper we present a scenario analysis approach to perform water system planning and management under climatic and hydrological uncertainty. Different generation techniques can be used to set up and analyze a number of scenarios. Uncertainty is modeled by a scenario-tree in a multistage environment, which includes different possible configurations of inflows in a wide time horizon. The aim is to indetify trends and essential features on which to base a robust decision policy.
In this research we propose a security algorithm for handling the security issues in cloud environments. Cloud computing is a large pool of easily and accessible virtualized resources, such as hardware, development platforms and services. Since Cloud Computing stores the data and provides resources in the open environment, therefore security has become the main obstacle which is hampering the deployment of Cloud computing framework. To ensure the security of data in cloud environment, we proposed a method by implementing RSA algorithm. After implementing RSA Algorithm, we have also analyzed the performance of our algorithm based on three parameters namely Time Complexity, Space Complexity and Throughput.