Assessment of the relationship between quality of care provided to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and socio-economic variables was undertaken in Morogoro Municipality whereby a cross-sectional survey approach was adopted. Ninety PLWHA from two NGOs that are well known to support PLWHA in Morogoro Municipality were involved. Data were collected through face to face interviews. Descriptive and inferential methods of data analysis were used. Six variables were tested to determine their relationship with the quality of care in three components of care. Results showed that counseling and testing was significantly influenced by only the duration of living with the virus while medical care was affected by age and education level of respondents. The communication and behaviour change component was affected by respondents' age and marital status. It is therefore recommended that education be strengthened to PLWHA and even the care providers that high quality of care is essential to all PLWHA regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds so as to improve the quality of and prolong their lives.
The changes in climate variability have led to a rapid retreat of mountain glacier systems which are considered the lifeline of river basins and ecosystems. Scientific studies have shown that 67 % of glaciers are retreating at a startling rate in the Himalayas as a result of various factors including climate change. Glaciers and small ice caps in temperate environments are sensitive indicators of the change in climate. Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers are located at the head of the Alaknanda valley in Chamoli District. Retreat of the snouts and area vacated by recession of the glaciers were estimated for 51 years by way of superimposing the Survey of India Toposheets of 1962 on the map .Snouts of the Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers recorded continuous recession for the past five decades, with decline in recession of both cases. The retreat rate of Satopanth glacier is 2.88 m/year while Bagirathi Kharak retreat at a rate of 1.21 m/year which is much more less in comparison to Satopanth glacier. Retreat in the length of Satopanth and Bagirathi Kharak glacier was 2.28km and 0.66 km respectively from the period (1962-2013). The total area vacated by the Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers during 51years was (0.354 sq. km) and (0.14 sq. km) respectively. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis from the set of multitemporal satellite data, SOI Toposheets 1962, Satellite data of Landsat 1976, 1990, LISSIII 2000,2010 and CARTOSAT-1& LISS IV 2013 are used in the study.
A rapid preparation of nanomaterial of noble metal (Silver) via chemical reduction is presented. Silver nitrate (oxidizing), glucose (reducing) and corn starch was the capping agents. Corn starch stabilized Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized rapidly in aqueous system via the assistance of microwave irradiation had its Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) monitored by a UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and peaked at 400nm. Further characterization was by FT-IR and TEM/ SAED. Self-assembly of starch-capped silver nanoparticles gave a mirror-like glassy film surface on drying. According to the FT-IR spectroscopy, AgNPs revealed the shifting of N-H and O-H of starch still exists. TEM gave average particle size of 7nm. Result also showed that AgNPs can inhibit the growth of mold (A. niger). Method is reliable, ecofriendly, cheap and evident by the properties of the nanoparticles obtained.
This study estimated the level of technical efficiency of environmentally controlled (EC) shed broiler farmers in Punjab, Pakistan. Multistage random sampling technique was used for selection of 60 EC broiler producers. Data was collected from sampled producers during the months of January-February, 2014. The analysis of data was done applying stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was utilized for estimation. Results showed that the mean technical efficiency of sampled farmers was 0.999 ranging from 0.934 to 1.00. This implies that, on average, EC shed broiler producers were operating at full technical efficiency level. Based upon these findings it is suggested that government should motivate open shed broiler producers to switch over to EC shed broiler production and also motivate investors to invest in EC shed broiler farming. This will result in higher production of poultry meat and the problem of insufficiency of protein and other nutrients can be easily eradicated. This will also provide employment opportunities to the labor force of the country.
Drug abuse is one of the monster threatening family structures in Kenya. Consumption of alcohol is sometimes integrated into our culture through wide appeal and acceptance from an early age. The legality of alcohol makes it readily available, and there is now a recognition that relatively a high proportion of the population consumes quantities which are considered to be harmful to their health. Alcohol consumption has severe negative effects in the society including drop out from school, death of family members, perform poorly in academics, sexual risk and even suicide. Although governments are pre-occupied with increasing economic growth and consequently concentrating most of their resources in that direction, alcohol and drug abuse threaten to erode those gains. In low income areas in Kenya, for example, drug abuse is rampant a vice associated with peer influence, readily available drugs, among other factors. Therefore this study sought to establish the socio-economic effects of alcoholism in families the slum. The authors conclude that alcoholism has led to break-up of families and suffering of children due to lack of basic commodities of life. Alcohol dependence is also related health and psychological disorders. Therefore there is need for the government to formulate policies to curb alcoholism to promote a healthy and a prosperous nation. This paper recommends that counseling programs should be initiated to bring a change of attitude among alcoholics because guidance provided by social workers can greatly enhance the fight against alcoholism in the slum.
The plate of phosphate is a geographical zone distributed between three basins slopes: The catchment area of Oum Rbia, the catchment area of Mallah Wadi and the basins slopes of Chaouia. These basins slopes are located in Morocco power station. They are thus exposed to disturbed oceanic flows coming from North and of Western North. The basins slopes of Chaouia and particularly those of the plate of Settat-Ben Ahmed are characterized by a little developed hydrographic network. It is hardly made up by the ends down streams of the wad is going down from the plate. These water ways, not having a discharge system towards the sea, they cross the plain of Berrechid on about ten kilometers before atrophying itself there. They are with temporary flow, their water arrive on the plain, they are then evaporated or percolate towards the tablecloth, therefore one speaks about a endoreic hydrography.
In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to accelerate the flavonoid synthesis in Baliospermum montanum (Wild.) Muell-Arg., Dryptes roxburghii (Wall.) Huresawa and Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl, members of Euphorbiaceae family. Internodal explants were used to induce callus. Maximum growth of callus was observed in Baliospermum montanum and Codiaeum variegatum at 2mg/L and 3mg/L of 2,4-D respectively whereas Dryptes roxburghii showed maximum growth of callus at 3mg/L of BAP. Suspension culture was obtained from well developed callus. Three elicitors were used to induce flavonoid synthesis namely phenylalanine, copper sulphate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among three, phenylalanine was found to be the best elicitor and maximum production of flavonoid was observed in Baliospermum montanum.
In this paper, we present a comparison between two methods of features extraction; the first one is the Krawtchouk invariant moment (KIM). The second one is the Zernike invariant moment (ZIM). These moments are used for printed Arabic characters recognition in different situations: translated, rotated or resized and noisy. In the pre-processing phase we use the thresholding technique. In the learning-classification phase we use the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) that is considered as a neural network based on a supervised learning. The simulation result that we have obtained demonstrates that the KIM is more robust than ZIM in this recognition.
This paper presents the results of study conducted on women in Edo state, Nigeria. It probes into the nature, determinant and prevalence of domestic violence against women in the area of Female Genital Mutilation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, case studies and survey. A sample size of three hundred and seventy-seven was selected for the survey. The result indicate that although prevalence of FGM is not very high in the state, however the practice is still commonly done and the women are not in position to decide in most cases on whether to have FGM done or not. To contain the prevalence of FGM the use of formal and informal channels of education to re-orientate the populace is strongly suggested. This will help to ensure attitudinal and cultural change towards FGM. In addition, there is need for policies that will genuinely protect women against FGM.
In these research paper theoretical and experimental studies of vibrational motion of raw cotton in inclined mesh surface is considered. For cleaning small trash of raw cotton, new installation that has inclined mesh surface is used. The mathematical model of the motion of flying detachment in the line of plates with elastic elements is made up. Differential equations of motion of cotton's flying detachment are composed using the Lagrange II-kind. These equations are solved numerically by the program MAPLE-9.5. Results are obtained that is characterizing the movement law of cotton on an inclined mesh surface. Experimental study shows that the small particles of trash move on vibrating surfaces with different trajectories. This ensures separation and loosening and serves cleaning cotton from various trashes. Proposed installations provide vibration that is important element in the process of sifting.
This study was carried out to provide epidemiological information on the distribution and diversity of vector mosquito species in conventional larval breeding habitats in Minna Metropolis, Nigeria. Selected larval habitats were rice-fields, gutters, septic tanks, rain pools and streams, which were sampled weekly during the months of September through November of 2013. The results indicated the occurrence of seven vector mosquito species in the area namely, Culex pipiens pipiens (38.84%), Cx. salinarius (28.78%), Aedes aegypti (10.71%), Anopheles gambiae (7.29%), Cx. restuans (6.52%), Cx. nigripalpus (4.72%), and An. funestus (4.15%). Culex p. pipiens was the most widely distributed species, being absent only in the stream habitats, that was totally devoid of mosquitoes. Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. salinarius were encountered in three of habitat types (i.e., rice-fields, gutters and septic tanks), while Ae. Aegypti was encountered in the gutters and the rain pools. In addition to the rain pools, Cx. Restuans was also collected from gutters. The two anopheline species encountered had similar pattern of larval habitat distribution been found only in rice fields and rain pools. On the whole, the rice-fields and gutters were the most productive larval habitats, in terms of mosquito abundance (28.04% and 29.67% respectively) and diversity (diversity index=0.6940 and 0.4834 respectively). Overall mosquito species diversity for the area was 0.6985, largely contributed by Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The findings of this study suggest serious threat of mosquito-borne diseases to public health, in Minna Metropolis, promoted by anthropogenic alterations of the ecosystem.
The peculiar challenges associated with mosquito vector control in developing urban areas, occasioned by the complex heterogeneity in vector behaviour and population dynamics, informed this study to elucidate the influence of eco-type on Mosquito species occurrence and responses to presence of mineral salts in oviposition sites. Two distinct ecotypes namely, semi-mineral and Urban, were selected as ovitrap stations, in Minna, Nigeria. In addition to the control experiment, adequately replicated ovitraps enriched with individual and combinations of nitrates, sulphates and phosphates were setup in the two ecotype sites and monitored for mosquito oviposition activities. The results indicated significantly (P<0.05) lower number of species and aggregate Mosquito densities in the urban (Mean=17.14±4.52 larvae/ovitrap) than semi-rural ecotype (21.76±3.93 larvae/ovitrap). While, three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex p. pipiens and Cx. restuans, were common to both ecotypes, additional three species namely; Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Cx. Tarasalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus were encountered in the semi-rural ecotype, though in low densities. Significantly higher larval densities were recorded in ovitraps enriched with mineral salts (range= 19.75±4.57 to 24.25±4.62 larvae/ovitrap) than the control (14.50±4.86 larvae/ovitrap). While, Nitrate ovitraps yielded the highest number of larvae (23.50±7.39 larvae/ovitrap) among the individual mineral salt-enriched ovitraps, and closely rivalled those containing combination of all three salts. The individual mosquito species demonstrated significant preferences for certain lone/single or combined salts-ovitraps. These findings revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in cosmopolitan mosquito population behaviour; and calls for the incorporation of diverse species-and ecotype-sensitive tools in mosquito vector control programs in such human communities.
The aim of this study is identify the importance of marketing communications techniques in influencing consumer behavior, and to achieve the purpose of this Research paper, we dropped our study on mobile phone users in Algeria, trying the figure out the impact of these policies on consumer behavior, and to achieve the objectives of the study and testing of hypotheses, we selected sample of 627 persons, the study concluded that both of personal selling, sales promotion and public relations are the most influential on consumer behavior compared to the rest of the elements, and that there are strong impact of marketing communication policies on subscription decision in mobile phone telecommunication service.
The aim of this study was to clarify the difference between the areas of investment for both conventional and Islamic banks and their relationship to development, despite the short period in which they fought Islamic banks nascent but it provided an excellent example to receive the funds, and employment recruitment legitimate and legal, to ensure the rights of depositors and does not harm investors and users of these funds, as well as on the grounds of economic development, and social priorities of men and women, grants or prevention of the financing and investment of funds, which are needed to accommodate the expansionist policy of the money flowing to and employ optimum.
An experimental wind tunnel investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of Gurney flap on the aerodynamic characteristics of Clark y-14 airfoil wing at a Reynolds number of 2.1x105. The heights of plain flap change from (1.19% C) to (5.60% C).In addition the (5.60% C) was serrated to different heights and configurations. The Gurney flap improve performance of Clark y-14 airfoil wing compare with clean wing, the results show that the most beneficial Gurney flap is (1.19% C) which increase maximum lift to drag ratio to (5.31%) compared with clean wing. The serrated Gurney flap tend to be increase lift to drag ratio significantly, the rectangular serrated Gurney flap provides the best performance among the serrated Gurney flaps by improve lift to drag ratio to (42.8%).
We applied a meristic characters and stomach shapes description approach to resolve the taxonomic status among two genera and six species (Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758, Mugil bananensis (Pellegrin, 1927), Liza grandisquamis Valenciennes, 1836, Liza dumerili (Steindachner, 1870), Liza falcipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836) of the Mugilidae family living in the Ivorian Lagoons. Moreover the systematic relationship of M. bananensis among other mullet species was investigated in the present study for the first time. Hierarchical cluster analyses of meristic characters in the present study were very discriminative in terms of taxonomic classification of the mullets. According to meristic data in UPGMA tree, all six species were grouped in two main branching. In the first branch, L. falcipinnis and L. grandisquamis were clustered as closest taxa, and being the sister group to the Mugil curema. In the second branch, L. dumerili and M bananensis were clustered as a most differentiated species respectly from all other Liza and Mugil species. L. dumerili described in this study was near to those described in Lower Guinea that those described in Ivory Coast. Liza genus is probably non-monophyletic assemblage. The stomach of the Mugil genus species were characterized by two pyloric caeca contrary to the species of Liza genus that had more than two pyloric caeca. However, stomach shapes were different between these species except to M. curema and M. bananensis.
This study estimated technical efficiency of garlic farms in district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data for this study was collected from 110 farmers through multistage sampling technique. Cobb-Douglas frontier production function was estimated through maximum likelihood estimation technique. Stata software was used for estimation. Results indicated that the mean technical efficiency of garlic farms was 84.60 per cent ranging from 57.62 to 96.07 per cent. This implies that if the average farm in the sample was to achieve the technical efficiency level of its most efficient counterpart, then the average farm could increase garlic yield by 11.94 per cent. Similarly the most technically inefficient farm could increase garlic yield by 40.67 per cent. These results suggest that output can be improved by using available resources efficiently with the existing technology. The estimated gamma value was 0.80 implies that 80 percent variation in the production of garlic was due to inefficiency factors. Results further showed that seed rate, labor, tractor hours, FYM and irrigation have positive and statistically significant effect on the production of garlic. Experience of garlic growers plays an important role in garlic production so arrangement of training programs for farmers is a policy option for enhancement of garlic productivity. Motivation of farmers to use recommended quantity of seed for higher productivity of garlic is another recommendation.
A practical and simplified approach is applied to the implementation of an Autonomous Robotic Metal Detector (ARMED). The literature gives detailed information of the basic concepts and design strategies used to design the metal detector. The Robot is controlled by a microcontroller. Infra-red sensors detect the presence of objects and the microcontroller activates the required search algorithm to detect the metallic property of the metal sensed. The metal detector makes use of a Colpitts Oscillator design to detect metals.
In mobile Ad-Hoc networks, each node of the network must contribute in the process of communication and routing. However, this contribution can expose the network to several types of attackers. The security of mobile ad hoc networks is an open research topic and a major in terms of their vulnerability to various attacks, such as black hole, Sybil ... etc. In this article, we analyze the attack black hole (black hole) in ad hoc networks using as AODV routing protocol. In a black hole attack, a malicious node impersonates a legitimate node, manufactures forged responses with a number of high sequence and thus forces the victim node to select it as a relay. We are interested in a first time to study the impact of dishonest nodes on the network, and then we will simulate black hole attack using two simulator NS2 and OPNET.
Statement of the Problem: One of the existing problems in maintenance of balanced occlusion in complete denture prosthesis is the wear that is associated with artificial resin teeth. Wear of acrylic results in concomitant loss of vertical dimensions which later manifests in other problems like residual ridge resorption. Though there are at present certain brands which manufacture teeth with occlusal surfaces in metal, but they have not found much clinical acceptance by both dentists as well as patients. Purpose: To fabricate occlusal surfaces of resin artificial teeth in base metal alloys in order to preserve the integrity of balanced occlusion in the complete denture prosthesis. Materials and Methods: A completely edentulous patient, artificial prefabricated resin teeth, elastomeric impression material and pattern wax. Results: Artificial resin teeth can be modified on the occlusal surface and transformation of occlusal surfaces in base metal alloy results in long term maintenance of occlusal contacts and thus maintains the principles of preservation of residual alveolar ridges. Conclusion: Artificial resin teeth can be modified with this simple and novel technique of fabricating occlusal surfaces in base metal alloys.