Laboratoire des Sciences Biomédicales, Alimentaires et de Santé Environnementale (LaSBASE), Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Biologiques et Alimentaires (ESTBA), 1 BP 1515 Lomé 1, Université de Lomé, Togo
The present study is conducted in the villages bordering the Togodo-Sud National Park (PNTS), which is grouped into four cantons (Tométy-Kondji, Sedomé, Gboto and Esse-Godjin) in the Yoto 3 commune of Togo. The populations have difficult access to health care and drinking water. Extemporaneous preparations of water-based phytomedicines (PEP) can be a source of contamination due to chemical pollutants. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contamination of PEP and drinking water used in the PNTS area by metallic trace elements (MTE). Thus, fifteen (15) samples each of PEP and ECU were taken in two seasons (dry and rainy) and 09 parameters were analysed: total iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg).
The results show that the majority of the samples from the PEPs do not comply with the WHO and EU standards by almost 80%. Also, the highest concentrations of harmful elements were detected in the dry season. For Cd, the maximum concentration in PEP is 0.014 mg/l in the dry season against 0.002 mg/l in the rainy season. Also, Pb levels vary from 0.103 mg/l in the dry season to 0.113 mg/l in the rainy season. With regard to ECU, the maximum Cd concentration is 0.008 mg/l in the dry season. Pb levels reach 0.102 mg/l in the dry season and from 0 to 0.061 mg/l in the rainy season. Extreme concentrations were also observed with the other parameters.
The results show limitations in the use of the samples. In view of these results, microbiological and bacteriological analyses are important in order to raise awareness among the population.