The present study is conducted in the villages bordering the Togodo-Sud National Park (PNTS), which is grouped into four cantons (Tométy-Kondji, Sedomé, Gboto and Esse-Godjin) in the Yoto 3 commune of Togo. The populations have difficult access to health care and drinking water. Extemporaneous preparations of water-based phytomedicines (PEP) can be a source of contamination due to chemical pollutants. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contamination of PEP and drinking water used in the PNTS area by metallic trace elements (MTE). Thus, fifteen (15) samples each of PEP and ECU were taken in two seasons (dry and rainy) and 09 parameters were analysed: total iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg).
The results show that the majority of the samples from the PEPs do not comply with the WHO and EU standards by almost 80%. Also, the highest concentrations of harmful elements were detected in the dry season. For Cd, the maximum concentration in PEP is 0.014 mg/l in the dry season against 0.002 mg/l in the rainy season. Also, Pb levels vary from 0.103 mg/l in the dry season to 0.113 mg/l in the rainy season. With regard to ECU, the maximum Cd concentration is 0.008 mg/l in the dry season. Pb levels reach 0.102 mg/l in the dry season and from 0 to 0.061 mg/l in the rainy season. Extreme concentrations were also observed with the other parameters.
The results show limitations in the use of the samples. In view of these results, microbiological and bacteriological analyses are important in order to raise awareness among the population.
Like the majority sub-Saharan Africa cities, Aneho city in Togo is experiencing the problem of sustainable management of fecal sludge. The objective of this study is to contribute to better management of fecal sludge from Aneho city. To achieve this, an inventory of the management of fecal sludge in the city was carried out, followed by the quantification and characterization of the sludge produced according to the different types of existing sanitation systems. The results showed that the fecal sludge sector is experiencing shortcomings in its management. The sludge mainly discharged by mechanical means (62%) is transported to an official unmanaged disposal site or to farmers' fields without treatment. The amount of mud produced per year in the city is between 3,534 and 7,442 m3. The physico-chemical characterization results reveal that the sludge from dry pits was more loaded with pollutants than that from wet pits. The sludge with a neutral characteristic and a high salinity is rich in ammonium, phosphorus, nitrates with a COD/BOD5 ratio equal to 2.1. Heavy metals including Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Manganese have a relatively apparent concentration in the sludge. The microbiological characterization showed the significant presence of fecal and pathogenic germs in the sludge. From this study, knowing of the sludge quantity and characteristics produced at Aneho, will allow choosing an appropriate treatment based on other local criteria.